Filtering by Subject: Plant Sciences

Correlative Microscopy: a tool for understanding soil weathering in modern analogues of early terrestrial biospheres

Ria Mitchell, Peter Davies, Paul Kenrick, Tobias Volkenandt, Cameron Pleydell-Pearce, Richard Johnston

Published: 2021-03-18
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Geology, Paleobiology, Plant Sciences, Research Methods in Life Sciences, Sedimentology, Soil Science

Correlative imaging provides a method of investigating complex systems by combining analytical (chemistry) and imaging (tomography) information across dimensions (2D-3D) and scales (centimetres-nanometres). We studied weathering processes in a modern cryptogamic ground cover (CGC) from Iceland, containing early colonizing, and evolutionary ancient, communities of mosses, lichens, fungi, and [...]

NIRvP: a robust structural proxy for sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis across scales

Benjamin Dechant, Youngryel Ryu, Grayson Badgley, Philipp Köhler, Uwe Rascher, Mirco Migliavacca, Yongguang Zhang, Giulia Tagliabue, Kaiyu Guan, Micol Rossini, Yves Goulas, Yelu Zeng, Christian Frankenberg, Joseph A. Berry

Published: 2020-12-31
Subjects: Agriculture, Biology, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Plant Sciences

Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) is a promising new tool for remotely estimating photosynthesis. However, the degree to which incoming sunlight and the structure of the canopy rather than leaf physiology contribute to SIF variations is still not well characterized. Here we demonstrate that the canopy structure-related near-infrared reflectance of vegetation multiplied by incoming [...]

Contributions of paleoecology to Easter Island’s prehistory: a thorough review

Valentí Rull

Published: 2020-07-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Plant Sciences, Sustainability

Easter Island (Rapa Nui) is well known for the enigmas surrounding its unique megalithic statues, the moai, and the prehistoric (i.e., pre-European contact) Rapanui society that built them. These enigmas include, among others, the time of the island’s settlement, the geographical origin of the first settlers, the technology associated with moai transportation and emplacement, the occurrence (or [...]

An open, scalable, and flexible framework for automated aerial measurement of field experiments

Christophe Schnaufer, Julian Pistorius, David Shaner LeBauer

Published: 2020-05-25
Subjects: Agricultural Science, Agriculture, Bioresource and Agricultural Engineering, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Engineering, Life Sciences, Plant Breeding and Genetics Life Sciences, Plant Sciences, Research Methods in Life Sciences, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Unoccupied areal vehicles (UAVs or drones) are increasingly used in field research. Drones capable of routinely and consistently capturing high quality imagery of experimental fields have become relatively inexpensive. However, converting these images into scientifically useable data has become a bottleneck. A number of tools exist to support this workflow, but there is no framework for making [...]

Probabilistic soil moisture dynamics of water- and energy-limited ecosystems

Estefanía Muñoz, Andrés Ochoa, Germán Poveda, Ignacio Rodríguez-Iturbe

Published: 2020-05-18
Subjects: Agriculture, Agronomy and Crop Sciences Life Sciences, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Forest Sciences, Hydrology, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Plant Sciences, Statistical Models, Statistics and Probability

This paper presents an extension of the stochastic ecohydrological model for soil moisture dynamics at a point of Rodriguez-Iturbe et al. (1999) and Laio et al. (2001). In the original model, evapotranspiration is a function of soil moisture and vegetation parameters, so that the model is suitable for water-limited environments. Our extension introduces a dependence on maximum evapotranspiration [...]

Lower air pollution during COVID-19 lock-down: improving models and methods estimating ozone impacts on crops (accepted 01.07.2020)

Frank Dentener, Lisa Emberson, stefano galmarini, Giovanni Capelli, Anisoara Irimescu, Denis Mihailescu, Rita Van Dingenen, Maurits van den Berg

Published: 2020-05-07
Subjects: Agriculture, Agronomy and Crop Sciences Life Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Plant Sciences

We suggest that the unprecedented and unintended decrease of emissions of air pollutants during the COVID-19 lockdown in 2020 could lead to declining seasonal ozone concentrations, and positive impacts on crop yields. An initial assessment of the potential effects of COVID-19 emission reductions was made using a set of six scenarios that variously assumed annual European and global emission [...]

Mapping invasive Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl. in semi-natural grasslands using object-based analysis of UAV-borne images

Jayan Sri Jeewantha Wijesingha, Thomas Astor, Damian Schulze-Brüninghoff, Michael Wachendorf

Published: 2020-02-29
Subjects: Biodiversity, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Plant Sciences

Knowledge on the spatio-temporal distribution of invasive plant species is vital to maintain biodiversity in grasslands which are threatened by the invasion of such plants and to evaluate the effect of control activities conducted. Manual digitising of aerial images with field verification is the standard method to create maps of the invasive Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl. (Lupine) in semi-natural [...]

Canopy structure explains the relationship between photosynthesis and sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence in crops

Benjamin Dechant, Youngryel Ryu, Grayson Badgley, Yelu Zeng, Joseph A. Berry, Yongguang Zhang, Yves Goulas, Zhaohui Li, Qian Zhang, Minseok Kang

Published: 2019-10-01
Subjects: Agricultural Science, Life Sciences, Physiology, Plant Sciences

Remote sensing of far-red sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) has emerged as an important tool for studying gross primary productivity (GPP) at the global scale. However, the relationship between SIF and GPP at the canopy scale lacks a clear mechanistic explanation. This is largely due to the poorly characterized role of the relative contributions from canopy structure and leaf physiology [...]

Realistic and simplified models of plant and leaf area indices for a seasonally dry tropical forest

Rodrigo de Queiroga Miranda, Rodolfo Luiz Bezerra Nóbrega, Magna Soelma Beserra de Moura, Raghavan Srinivasan, Josiclêda Domiciano Galvíncio

Published: 2019-08-07
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Desert Ecology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Forest Management, Forest Sciences, Life Sciences, Plant Sciences, Research Methods in Life Sciences

Leaf Area Index (LAI) models that consider all phenological stages have not been developed for the Caatinga, the largest seasonally dry tropical forest in South America. LAI models that are currently used show moderate to high covariance when compared to in situ data, but they often lack accuracy in the whole spectra of possible values and do not consider the impact that the stems and branches [...]

A practical approach for estimating the escape ratio of near-infrared solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence

Yelu Zeng, Grayson Badgley, Benjamin Dechant, Youngryel Ryu, Min Chen, Joseph A. Berry

Published: 2019-07-24
Subjects: Life Sciences, Physiology, Plant Sciences

Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) has emerged as a leading approach for remote sensing of gross primary productivity (GPP). While SIF has an intrinsic, underlying relationship with canopy light capture and light use efficiency, these physiological relationships are obscured by the fact that satellites observe a small and variable fraction of total emitted canopy SIF. Upon emission, [...]

The Baltic TRANSCOAST approach – investigating shallow coasts as terrestrial-marine interface of water and matter fluxes

Manon Janssen, Michael E Böttcher, Martin Brede, Hans Burchardt, Stefan Forster, Ulf Karsten, Peter Leinweber, Bernd Lennartz, Gregor Rehder, Hendrik Schubert

Published: 2019-07-17
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Biology, Earth Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Life Sciences, Marine Biology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Plant Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Plant Sciences, Soil Science

In Baltic TRANSCOAST we study the physical, biogeochemical, and biological processes at the land-ocean interface. The coastal zone is heavily impacted by various human activities as well as by geomorphological and climatic processes – on both the land and the sea side. Land-sea interactions at low lying coastal areas that are often dominated by peatlands, and are a common feature along the Baltic [...]

To be or not to be: Prospects for rice self-sufficiency in China

Nanyan Deng, Patricio Grassini, Haishun Yang, Jianliang Huang, Kenneth Cassman, Shaobing Peng

Published: 2018-08-29
Subjects: Agronomy and Crop Sciences Life Sciences, Life Sciences, Plant Sciences

China produces 28% of global rice supply and is currently self-sufficient despite a massive rural to urban demographic transition that drives intense competition for land and water resources. At issue is whether to remain self-sufficient, which depends on the potential to raise yields on existing rice land. Here we report the first high-resolution spatial analysis of rice production potential in [...]

Terrestrial Gross Primary Production: Using NIRv to Scale from Site to Globe

Grayson Badgley, Leander D. L. Anderegg, Joseph A. Berry, Christopher B. Field

Published: 2018-07-24
Subjects: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences, Physiology, Plant Sciences

Terrestrial photosynthesis is the largest and one of the most uncertain fluxes in the global carbon cycle. We find that NIRv, a remotely sensed measure of canopy structure, accurately predicts photosynthesis at FLUXNET validation sites at monthly to annual timescales (R2 = 0.68), without the need for difficult to acquire information about environmental factors that constrain photosynthesis at [...]

Leaf trait acclimation amplifies simulated climate warming in response to elevated carbon dioxide

Marlies Kovenock, Abigail L.S. Swann

Published: 2018-01-11
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physiology, Plant Sciences

Vegetation modifies Earth’s climate by controlling the fluxes of energy, carbon, and water. Of critical importance is a better understanding of how vegetation responses to climate change will feedback on climate. Observations show that plant traits respond to elevated carbon dioxide concentrations. These plant trait acclimations can alter leaf area and thus productivity and surface energy fluxes. [...]

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