Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Sedimentology

Reconstructing the morphologies and hydrodynamics of ancient rivers from source to sink: Cretaceous Western Interior Basin, Utah, USA

Sinead Lyster, Alexander C Whittaker, Gary J Hampson, Elizabeth A Hajek, Peter A Allison, Bailey Lathrop

Published: 2020-11-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Quantitative reconstruction of palaeohydrology from fluvial stratigraphy provides sophisticated insights into the response, and relative impact, of tectonic and climatic drivers on ancient fluvial landscapes. Here, field measurements and a suite of quantitative approaches are used to develop a four-dimensional (space and time) reconstruction of palaeohydrology in Late Cretaceous palaeorivers of [...]

Architecture and sequence stratigraphy of the Upper Coralline Limestone formation, Malta – implications for Eastern Mediterranean restriction prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis

Or M. Bialik, Raymond Zammit, Aaron Micallef

Published: 2020-11-18
Subjects: Geology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

The Eastern and Western Mediterranean are separated by an elevated plateau that regulates water exchange between these two basins. The Maltese archipelago, situated atop this topographic high, offers a unique window into the evolution of this plateau in the lead up to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). The Upper Coralline Limestone formation was deposited between the late Tortonian and the [...]

On the use of rock physics models for studying the critical zone

Vashan Wright, Matt Hornbach

Published: 2020-11-12
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

How effective are rock physics models for relating seismic velocities to the physical properties of sediments, fluids, and cement within the critical zone, and what factors most substantially influence the models’ accuracies? We answer these questions by testing and analyzing the accuracies of seven rock physics models (Hertz-Mindlin, Walton, Jenkins, Digby, stiff sand, soft sand, and contact [...]

The effects of 180 years of aging on the physical and seismic properties of partially saturated sands

Vashan Wright, Matt Hornbach

Published: 2020-11-12
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Constraining how the physical properties and seismic responses of recently deposited sands change with time is important for understanding earthquake site response, subsurface fluid flow, and early stages lithification. Currently, however, there is no detailed (cm-scale) assessment of how sand physical properties and associated seismic velocities evolve over the first two centuries after [...]

Influence of ductile substrates and layer thickness on the spacing and topology of layer bound fault systems

Mark Ireland, Chris K Morley, Richard Davies

Published: 2020-11-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Sedimentology, Tectonics and Structure

Polygonal fault systems are extraordinary features of many fine grained sedimentary succession and have been described from a significant number of deepwater sedimentary basins over the last two decades. Their formation represents an important mechanism by which fine grained sediments compact often resulting in a variety of complex patterns for which several controlling factors have been [...]

1600 year-long sedimentary record of tsunamis and hurricanes in the Lesser Antilles (Scrub Island, Anguilla)

Maude BIGUENET, Pierre Sabatier, Eric Chaumillon, Catherine Chagué, Fabien Arnaud, Frans Jorissen, Thibault Coulombier, Emeline Geba, Louise Cordrie, Pierre Vacher, Anne-Lise Develle, Emilie Chalmin, Fayçal Soufi, Nathalie Feuillet

Published: 2020-10-22
Subjects: Geochemistry, Oceanography, Sedimentology

The Lesser Antilles are a densely populated and a very touristic region exposed to many short-term hazards such as hurricanes and tsunamis. However, the historical catalog of these events is too short to allow risk assessment and return period estimations, and it needs to be completed with long-term geological records. Two sediment cores were sampled in March 2018 in a small coastal lagoon on [...]

Inverse analysis to reconstruct hydraulic conditions of non-steady turbidity currents: Application to an ancient turbidite of the Kiyosumi Formation of the Awa Group, Boso Peninsula, central Japan

Kento Nakao, Hajime Naruse, Shuichi Tokuhashi

Published: 2020-10-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

This study proposes a new method of inverse analysis from ancient turbidites to the non-steady turbidity currents with consideration of multiple grain-size classes. The forward model employed in this study is based on the shallow water equation, and the initial condition of flows are assumed to be the lock-exchange type condition. To obtain a solution of the inverse problem, this study employed [...]

Bedload transport in rivers: size matters but so does shape!

Mathieu Cassel, Jérôme Lavé, Alain Recking, Jean-René Malavoi, Hervé Piégay

Published: 2020-08-16
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Bedload transport modelling in rivers, which defines the threshold for pebble movement, takes into account the size and density of pebbles, but does not formally consider particle shape. The lack of analyses evaluating the influences of shape and density on particle mobility presents a major deficiency. To address this issue and to compare the relative roles of the density and shape of particles, [...]

Bridging the gap between geophysics and geology with Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs)

Suihong Song, Tapan Mukerji, Jiagen Hou

Published: 2020-08-16
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Computer Sciences, Databases and Information Systems, Earth Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Natural Resource Economics, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Water Resource Management

Inverse mapping from geophysics to geology is a difficult problem due to the inherent uncertainty of geophysical data and the spatially heterogeneous patterns (structure) in geology. We describe GANSim, a type of generative adversarial networks (GANs) that discovers the mapping between remotely-sensed geophysical information and geology with realistic patterns, with a specially designed loss [...]

The formation and implications of giant blocks and fluid escape structures in submarine lateral spreads

Nan Wu, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, Howard Johnson, David M Hodgson, Michael Clare, Harya Dwi Nugraha, Wei Li

Published: 2020-07-30
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Medicine and Health Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Lateral spread (or ‘spreading’) and submarine creep are processes that occur near the headwalls of both terrestrial landslides and submarine mass-transport complexes (MTCs). Both submarine creep and spread deposits may contain giant (km-scale) coherent blocks, but their transport processes remain poorly constrained. Here we use 2D and 3D seismic reflection data to determine the geometry, scale, [...]

From XRF and hyperspectral analyses to an automatic way to detect flood events on sediment cores

Rapuc William, Kévin Jacq, Anne-Lise Develle, Pierre Sabatier, Fanget Bernard, Yves Perrette, Coquin Didier, Debret Maxime, Wilhelm Bruno, Fabien Arnaud

Published: 2020-07-29
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Long-term changes in flood activity have often been reconstructed to understand their relationships to climate changes. This requires to identify flood layers according to certain characteristics (e.g. texture, geochemical composition, grain-size) and then to count them using naked-eye observation. This method is, however, time-consuming, and intrinsically characterized by a low resolution that [...]

Comparison of U-Pb detrital zircon signatures across sediment routing system segments: insights from the late Pleistocene Mississippi River and Deep-sea fan

Cody Mason, Jourdan Speessen, Brian Romans, Daniel F. Stockli, Michael D Blum, Jack Heltzer, G. Paul Miles, Andrea Fildani

Published: 2020-07-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

The Pleistocene Mississippi sediment routing system has experienced significant drainage reorganizations in response to Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Geologically recent (<25 ka) and large (~90 km) river avulsions have occurred in the Mississippi’s lower alluvial valley, yet whether these punctuated autogenic phenomena influenced down system records of sedimentary provenance is unknown. We [...]

Sedimentary structures discriminations with hyperspectral imaging on sediment cores

Kévin Jacq, Rapuc William, Benoit Alexandre, Coquin Didier, Fanget Bernard, Yves Perrette, Pierre Sabatier, Wilhelm Bruno, Debret Maxime, Fabien Arnaud

Published: 2020-07-17
Subjects: Analytical Chemistry, Chemistry, Earth Sciences, Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Multivariate Analysis, Optics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics, Sedimentology, Statistical Models, Statistics and Probability

Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a non-destructive high-resolution sensor, which is currently under significant development to analyze geological areas with remote devices or natural samples in a laboratory. In both cases, the hyperspectral image provides several sedimentary structures that need to be separated to temporally and spatially describe the sample. Sediment sequences are composed of [...]

“Enriching Lives within Sedimentary Geology”: Actionable Recommendations for Making SEPM a Diverse, Equitable and Inclusive Society for All Sedimentary Geologists

Anjali M. Fernandes, Antoinette Abeyta, Robert Clyde Mahon, Rowan Martindale, Kristin D. Bergmann, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, Theodore M. Present, Darryl Reano, Travis Swanson, Kristina Butler

Published: 2020-07-15
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Education, Geology, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Innovative science benefits from diversity of thought and influence at all waypoints along the scientific journey, from early education to career-length contributions in research and mentorship. Scientific societies, like the Society for Sedimentary Geology (SEPM), steward their innovators and the direction of the science, thereby defining the societal impact and evolution of a discipline. They [...]

GANSim: Conditional Facies Simulation Using an Improved Progressive Growing of Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs)

Suihong Song, Tapan Mukerji, Jiagen Hou

Published: 2020-07-05
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Geology, Hydrology, Mathematics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Statistical Models, Statistics and Probability

Conditional facies modeling combines geological spatial patterns with different types of observed data, to build earth models for predictions of subsurface resources. Recently, researchers have used generative adversarial networks (GANs) for conditional facies modeling, where an unconditional GAN is first trained to learn the geological patterns using the original GANs loss function, then [...]

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