Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Sedimentology

Safety and Belonging in the Field: A Checklist for Educators

Sarah E Greene, Gwen S. Antell, Jake Atterby, et al.

Published: 2021-08-19
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Climate, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Education, Environmental Education, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Fresh Water Studies, Geochemistry, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Higher Education, Human Geography, Hydrology, Life Sciences, Meteorology, Mineral Physics, Natural Resource Economics, Natural Resources and Conservation, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Nature and Society Relations, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Other Geography, Other Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Planetary Sciences, Outdoor Education, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical and Environmental Geography, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Biogeochemistry, Planetary Geochemistry, Planetary Geology, Planetary Geomorphology, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Glaciology, Planetary Hydrology, Planetary Mineral Physics, Planetary Sciences, Planetary Sedimentology, Remote Sensing, Sedimentology, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Soil Science, Spatial Science, Speleology, Stratigraphy, Sustainability, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology, Water Resource Management

Ensuring taught fieldwork is a positive, generative, collective, and valuable experience for all participants requires considerations beyond course content. To guarantee safety and belonging, participants’ identities (backgrounds and protected characteristics) must be considered as a part of fieldwork planning and implementation. Furthermore, getting fieldwork right is an important step in [...]

PREDICTING BOTTOM CURRENT DEPOSITION AND EROSION ON THE OCEAN FLOOR

Daan Beelen, Lesli Joy Wood

Published: 2021-07-28
Subjects: Sedimentology

Three types of oceanographic data are integrated in this study to predict thermohaline geostrophic bottom current deposition and erosion on the ocean floor. These data types are, 1) high-resolution bathymetry, 2) numerical model data of bottom current shear stress and 3) model data of the distribution and amount of sediment on the ocean floor. Intervals of thermohaline geostrophic bottom current [...]

Fluvial sedimentation and its reservoir potential at foreland basin margins: A case study of the Puig-reig anticline (South-eastern Pyrenees)

Xiaolong Sun, Juan Alcalde, Enrique Gomez-Rivas, et al.

Published: 2021-07-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Fluvial fans represent one of the dominant sedimentary systems at the active margins of non-marine foreland basins. The Puig-reig anticline at the north-eastern margin of the Ebro Foreland Basin (SE Pyrenees, Spain) exposes continuous outcrops of late Eocene-early Oligocene fluvial deposits, from proximal to medial fluvial fan environments. The proximal deposits, located in the northern limb of [...]

Sandstone body character, river styles, and geomorphology of the lower Eocene Willwood Formation, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA

Youwei WANG, Timothy Baars, Hiranya Sahoo, et al.

Published: 2021-07-18
Subjects: Geology, Geomorphology, Sedimentology

The lower Eocene Willwood Formation of the intermontane Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA, is an alluvial red bed succession with a sand content of ca. 20%-25%. The formation has been studied intensively for paleontology, paleoclimate, and sedimentary reconstruction. However, alluvial sandstone bodies and their corresponding river styles remain little characterized and documented. Here, efforts are [...]

Stylolites and stylolite networks as primary controls on the geometry and distribution of carbonate diagenetic alterations

Enrique Gomez-Rivas, Juan Diego Martín-Martín, Paul D. Bons, et al.

Published: 2021-07-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

There is an ongoing debate on whether stylolites act as barriers or conduits for fluids, or even play no role in terms of fluid transport. This problem can be tackled by examining the spatial and temporal relationships between stylolites and other diagenetic products at multiple scales. Using the well-known Lower Cretaceous Benicàssim case study (Maestrat Basin, E Spain), we provide new field and [...]

Carbonate polymorphism controlled by microbial iron redox dynamics at a natural CO2 leakage site (Crystal Geyser, Utah)

Julie Cosmidis, Shane O'Reilly, Eric T. Ellison, et al.

Published: 2021-07-07
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geology, Sedimentology

Crystal Geyser (Utah, USA) is a CO2-rich low-temperature geyser that is studied as a natural analog for CO2 leakage from carbon capture and storage (CCS) sites. In order to better constrain the biogeochemical processes influencing CaCO3 precipitation at geological CO2 escape sites, we characterized fast-forming iron-rich calcium carbonate pisoids and travertines precipitating from the fluids [...]

A Model Workflow for GeoDeepDive: Locating Pliocene and Pleistocene Ice-Rafted Debris

Simon Goring, Jeremiah Marsicek, Shan Ye, et al.

Published: 2021-07-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Glaciology, Sedimentology

Machine learning technology promises a more efficient and scalable approach to locating and aggregating data and information from the burgeoning scientific literature. Realizing this promise requires provision of applications, data resources, and the documentation of analytic workflows. GeoDeepDive provides a digital library comprising over 13 million peer-reviewed documents and the computing [...]

Paleoenvironmental change recorded in submarine fans: the Eocene-Oligocene climate transition in the Alpine foreland basin

Euan Soutter, Ian Kane, Ander Martínez-Doñate, et al.

Published: 2021-06-29
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

The Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT) was a period of considerable environmental change, signifying the transition from Paleocene greenhouse to Oligocene icehouse conditions. Preservation of the sedimentary signal of such an environmental change is most likely in net-depositional environments, such as submarine fans, which are the terminal parts of sedimentary systems. Here, using [...]

Deciphering late Quaternary climatic histories from the Hermes Cave speleothem record, Corinth Rift, Greece

Christos Pennos, Sofia Pechlivanidou, Sevasti Eleni Modestou, et al.

Published: 2021-06-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geomorphology, Sedimentology, Speleology

The Greek peninsula is located at the crossroads of several major atmospheric circulation patterns and is consequently characterized by high variability in climatic conditions, making it an important location to examine past climate variability. Over the last decades, the focus of many studies in the region has been to unravel Holocene paleoclimatic oscillations and their impact on the [...]

Environmental variability at the margin of the South American Monsoon System recorded by a high-resolution sediment record from Lagoa Dourada (South Brazil)

Bernd Zolitschka, An-Sheng Lee, Daniela Piraquive Bermúdez, et al.

Published: 2021-06-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geomorphology, Sedimentology

High-resolution geochemical and sedimentological data have been obtained for a lacustrine sediment record from Lagoa Dourada (South Brazil). Four distinctly different depositional processes were determined: (1) Suspension fallout of fine-grained minerogenic particles transferred via fluvial activity dominates the Early Holocene and relates to open grassland in the catchment area; (2) Activation [...]

Channel, dune and sand sheet architectures of strait-adjacent deltas

Daan Beelen, Lesli Joy Wood, Mohamed Najib Zaghloul, et al.

Published: 2021-06-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Sea strait geographies amplify tidal currents, which can result in the formation of tidal strait deposits with a symmetrical facies arrangement. It can be problematic to distinguish such confined tidal strait deposits from strait systems that developed in less constricted settings. To push a more robust differentiation between the confined tidal strait model and a model for less constricted tidal [...]

Microstructure and fluid flow in rift border fault-bounded basins – insights from the Dombjerg Fault, NE Greenland

Eric Salomon, Atle Rotevatn, Thomas Berg Kristensen, et al.

Published: 2021-06-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Sedimentology, Tectonics and Structure

In this contribution, we elucidate the interaction of structural deformation, fluid flow, and diagenesis in hanging wall siliciclastic deposits along rift basin-bounding faults, exemplified at the Dombjerg Fault in NE Greenland. Due to fault-controlled fluid circulation, fault-proximal syn-rift clastic deposits experienced pronounced calcite cementation and became lithified, whereas uncemented [...]

OpenOBS: Open-source, low-cost optical backscatter sensors for water quality and sediment-transport research

Emily Eidam, Theodore Langhorst, Evan B Goldstein, et al.

Published: 2021-06-17
Subjects: Environmental Monitoring, Fluid Dynamics, Fresh Water Studies, Geomorphology, Oceanography, Sedimentology, Water Resource Management

Optical backscatter sensors (OBSs) are commonly used to measure the turbidity, or light obscuration, of water in fresh and marine environments and various industrial applications. These turbidity measurements are commonly calibrated to yield total suspended solids (TSS) or suspended sediment concentration (SSC) measurements for water quality, sediment transport, and diverse other research and [...]

Spatial and morphometric relationships of submarine landslides offshore west and southwest Iberia

Davide Gamboa, Rachid Omira, Pedro Terrinha

Published: 2021-06-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Submarine landslides are ubiquitous geohazards in marine environments occurring at multiple scales. Increasing efforts have been made to catalogue and categorise submarine landslides in comprehensive databases, aiming to better understand their preconditioning and trigger factors. Using the recently compiled, open-access MAGICLAND dataset, we investigate the distribution and morphometric trends [...]

Spatial characteristics and kinematics of precession-driven floodplain aggradation cycles in the lower Eocene Willwood Formation of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA

Youwei WANG, Timothy Baars, Joep Storms, et al.

Published: 2021-06-08
Subjects: Geology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Interaction of allogenic and autogenic forcing in building alluvial stratigraphy remains a complex subject that is critical for paleoenvironmental and paleoclimate reconstruction and subsurface rock property prediction. Astronomical forcing of alluvial stratigraphy is poorly documented so far as this driver strongly interacts with autogenic and other allogenic processes making it difficult to [...]

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