Filtering by Subject: Sedimentology

Deciphering late Quaternary climatic histories from the Hermes Cave speleothem record, Corinth Rift, Greece

Christos Pennos, Sofia Pechlivanidou, Sevasti Eleni Modestou, et al.

Published: 2021-06-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geomorphology, Sedimentology, Speleology

The Greek peninsula is located at the crossroads of several major atmospheric circulation patterns and is consequently characterized by high variability in climatic conditions, making it an important location to examine past climate variability. Over the last decades, the focus of many studies in the region has been to unravel Holocene paleoclimatic oscillations and their impact on the [...]

Environmental variability at the margin of the South American Monsoon System recorded by a high-resolution sediment record from Lagoa Dourada (South Brazil)

Bernd Zolitschka, An-Sheng Lee, Daniela Piraquive Bermúdez, et al.

Published: 2021-06-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geomorphology, Sedimentology

High-resolution geochemical and sedimentological data have been obtained for a lacustrine sediment record from Lagoa Dourada (South Brazil). Four distinctly different depositional processes were determined: (1) Suspension fallout of fine-grained minerogenic particles transferred via fluvial activity dominates the Early Holocene and relates to open grassland in the catchment area; (2) Activation [...]

Channel, dune and sand sheet architectures of strait-adjacent deltas

Daan Beelen, Lesli Joy Wood, Mohamed Najib Zaghloul, et al.

Published: 2021-06-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Sea strait geographies amplify tidal currents, which can result in the formation of tidal strait deposits with a symmetrical facies arrangement. It can be problematic to distinguish such confined tidal strait deposits from strait systems that developed in less constricted settings. To push a more robust differentiation between the confined tidal strait model and a model for less constricted tidal [...]

Microstructure and fluid flow in the vicinity of basin bounding faults in rifts – the Dombjerg Fault, NE Greenland rift system

Eric Salomon, Atle Rotevatn, Thomas Berg Kristensen, et al.

Published: 2021-06-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Sedimentology, Tectonics and Structure

Faults commonly form loci for high fluid flux in sedimentary basins, where fluids, rocks and deformation processes frequently interact. Here, we elucidate the interaction of fluid flow, diagenesis and deformation near basin-bounding faults in sedimentary basins through a study in the vicinity (0-3.5 km) of the Dombjerg Fault in the NE Greenland rift system. Due to fault-controlled fluid [...]

OpenOBS: Open-source, low-cost optical backscatter sensors for water quality and sediment-transport research

Emily Eidam, Theodore Langhorst, Evan B Goldstein, et al.

Published: 2021-06-17
Subjects: Environmental Monitoring, Fluid Dynamics, Fresh Water Studies, Geomorphology, Oceanography, Sedimentology, Water Resource Management

Optical backscatter sensors (OBSs) are commonly used to measure the turbidity, or light obscuration, of water in fresh and marine environments and various industrial applications. These turbidity measurements are commonly calibrated to yield total suspended solids (TSS) or suspended sediment concentration (SSC) measurements for water quality, sediment transport, and diverse other research and [...]

Spatial and morphometric relationships of submarine landslides offshore west and southwest Iberia

Davide Gamboa, Rachid Omira, Pedro Terrinha

Published: 2021-06-09
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Submarine landslides are ubiquitous geohazards in marine environments occurring at multiple scales. Increasing efforts have been made to catalogue and categorise submarine landslides in comprehensive databases, aiming to better understand their preconditioning and trigger factors. Using the recently compiled, open-access MAGICLAND dataset, we investigate the distribution and morphometric trends [...]

Spatial characteristics and kinematics of precession-driven floodplain aggradation cycles in the lower Eocene Willwood Formation of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA

Youwei WANG, Timothy Baars, Joep Storms, et al.

Published: 2021-06-08
Subjects: Geology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Interaction of allogenic and autogenic forcing in building alluvial stratigraphy remains a complex subject that is critical for paleoenvironmental and paleoclimate reconstruction and subsurface rock property prediction. Astronomical forcing of alluvial stratigraphy is poorly documented so far as this driver strongly interacts with autogenic and other allogenic processes making it difficult to [...]

3D seismic reflection data reveal syn-depositional halokinesis in the Zechstein Supergroup (Lopingian), Central North Sea, UK

Amir Joffe, Chris Jackson, Leonardo Muniz Pichel

Published: 2021-06-04
Subjects: Geology, Sedimentology, Tectonics and Structure

Salt tectonics is typically caused by the flow of mobile evaporites in response to post-depositional gravity gliding and/or differential loading by overburden sediments. This situation is considerably more complex near the margins of salt basins, where carbonate and clastic rocks may be deposited at the same time and interbedded with, more mobile, evaporite strata. In these cases, [...]

Deep-water syn-rift stratigraphy as archives of Early-Mid Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental signals and controls on sediment delivery

Tim M Cullen, Richard E.Ll Collier, David Mark Hodgson, et al.

Published: 2021-05-27
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

The timing and character of coarse siliciclastic sediment delivered to deep-water environments in active rift basins is governed by the complicated interactions of tectonics, climate, eustasy, hinterland geology, and shelf process regime. The stratigraphic archives of deep-water syn-rift basin-fills provide records of palaeoenvironmental changes (e.g. climate and vegetation) in onshore [...]

The importance of threshold in alluvial river channel geometry and dynamics

Colin Phillips, Claire Masteller, Louise Slater, et al.

Published: 2021-05-27
Subjects: Fluid Dynamics, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Sedimentology, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, Water Resource Management

Many cities and settlements are organized around alluvial rivers, which are self-formed channels composed of gravel, sand and mud. Much of the time alluvial river channels are oversized, in that they could accommodate greater water flow; yet during extreme storms they are woefully undersized, and potentially catastrophic flooding can occur. Considering widely varying hydroclimates, sediment [...]

What sets aeolian dune height?

Andrew Gunn, Giampietro Casasanta, Luca Di Liberto, et al.

Published: 2021-05-24
Subjects: Climate, Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Earth's major sand seas are often populated with giant dunes, up to hundreds of meters in height and kilometers in wavelength. These massive sediment piles, visible from space on our planet and across the Solar System, indicate that conditions for sand transport have persisted for millenia. Unraveling how giant dunes form therefore has implications for understanding atmospheric flows and climatic [...]

A re-examination of the mechanism of whiting events: A new role for diatoms in Fayetteville Green Lake (New York, USA)

Chloe Stanton, Julie Cosmidis, Lee Kump

Published: 2021-05-09
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Geochemistry, Life Sciences, Sedimentology

Whiting events – the episodic precipitation of fine-grained suspended calcium cabonates in the water column – have been documented across a variety of marine and lacustrine environments. Whitings likely are a major source of carbonate muds, a constituent of limestones, and important archives for geochemical proxies of Earth history. While several biological and physical mechanisms have been [...]

Fracture distribution in a folded fluvial succession: the Puig-reig anticline (South-eastern Pyrenees)

Xiaolong Sun, Enrique Gomez-Rivas, Juan Alcalde, et al.

Published: 2021-05-08
Subjects: Geology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

Sedimentary rocks of foreland fold-and-thrust belts typically undergo intensive fracturing as fold grows. The resulting fracture networks can present significant variations depending on the distribution of sedimentary facies and the complex structural characteristics of fold-and-thrust belts. The Puig-reig anticline, located in the south-eastern Pyrenees, mainly exposes proximal fluvial deposits [...]

Syn- to post-rift alluvial basin fill: seismic stratigraphic analysis of Permian-Triassic deposition in the Horda Platform, Norway

Camilla Würtzen, Johnathon Lee Osmond, Jan Inge Faleide, et al.

Published: 2021-05-02
Subjects: Geology, Geomorphology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

Discrepancies in models of continental rift-basin dynamics and stratigraphic response calls on further investigation on the subject. Geometric- and lithological trends between stages of faulting is studied in the Permian- Triassic continental rift succession in the Horda Platform. The Horda Platform occupies the northeastern margin of the North Sea aulacogen where Late Permian-Early Triassic [...]

Go with the flow: the role of gateway and straits on plastic distribution

Domenico Chiarella, Francisco Javier Hernández-Molina

Published: 2021-04-21
Subjects: Geology, Sedimentology

Plastic pollution is widespread throughout the marine environments representing a risk for ecosystems and human health when plastic enters the food chain. Understanding factors and processes controlling plastic distribution and accumulation is crucial to identify plastic hotspots. Gateways and straits can play an important role on transferring plastic debris at superficial and sea bottom level [...]


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