Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Sedimentology

From XRF and hyperspectral analyses to an automatic way to detect flood events on sediment cores

Rapuc William, Kévin Jacq, Anne-Lise Develle, Pierre Sabatier, Fanget Bernard, Yves Perrette, Coquin Didier, Debret Maxime, Wilhelm Bruno, Fabien Arnaud

Published: 2020-07-29
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Long-term changes in flood activity have often been reconstructed to understand their relationships to climate changes. This requires to identify flood layers according to certain characteristics (e.g. texture, geochemical composition, grain-size) and then to count them using naked-eye observation. This method is, however, time-consuming, and intrinsically characterized by a low resolution that [...]

Comparison of U-Pb detrital zircon signatures across sediment routing system segments: insights from the late Pleistocene Mississippi River and Deep-sea fan

Cody Mason, Jourdan Speessen, Brian Romans, Daniel F. Stockli, Michael D Blum, Jack Heltzer, G. Paul Miles, Andrea Fildani

Published: 2020-07-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

The Pleistocene Mississippi sediment routing system has experienced significant drainage reorganizations in response to Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Geologically recent (<25 ka) and large (~90 km) river avulsions have occurred in the Mississippi’s lower alluvial valley, yet whether these punctuated autogenic phenomena influenced down system records of sedimentary provenance is unknown. We [...]

Sedimentary structures discriminations with hyperspectral imaging on sediment cores

Kévin Jacq, Rapuc William, Benoit Alexandre, Coquin Didier, Fanget Bernard, Yves Perrette, Pierre Sabatier, Wilhelm Bruno, Debret Maxime, Fabien Arnaud

Published: 2020-07-17
Subjects: Analytical Chemistry, Chemistry, Earth Sciences, Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Multivariate Analysis, Optics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics, Sedimentology, Statistical Models, Statistics and Probability

Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a non-destructive high-resolution sensor, which is currently under significant development to analyze geological areas with remote devices or natural samples in a laboratory. In both cases, the hyperspectral image provides several sedimentary structures that need to be separated to temporally and spatially describe the sample. Sediment sequences are composed of [...]

“Enriching Lives within Sedimentary Geology”: Actionable Recommendations for Making SEPM a Diverse, Equitable and Inclusive Society for All Sedimentary Geologists

Anjali M. Fernandes, Antoinette Abeyta, Robert Clyde Mahon, Rowan Martindale, Kristin D. Bergmann, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, Theodore M. Present, Darryl Reano, Travis Swanson, Kristina Butler

Published: 2020-07-15
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Education, Geology, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Innovative science benefits from diversity of thought and influence at all waypoints along the scientific journey, from early education to career-length contributions in research and mentorship. Scientific societies, like the Society for Sedimentary Geology (SEPM), steward their innovators and the direction of the science, thereby defining the societal impact and evolution of a discipline. They [...]

GANSim: Conditional Facies Simulation Using an Improved Progressive Growing of Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs)

Suihong Song, Tapan Mukerji, Jiagen Hou

Published: 2020-07-05
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Geology, Hydrology, Mathematics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Statistical Models, Statistics and Probability

Conditional facies modeling combines geological spatial patterns with different types of observed data, to build earth models for predictions of subsurface resources. Recently, researchers have used generative adversarial networks (GANs) for conditional facies modeling, where an unconditional GAN is first trained to learn the geological patterns using the original GANs loss function, then [...]

Fully Automated Carbonate Petrography Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

Ardiansyah Koeshidayatullah, Michele Morsilli, Daniel J. Lehrmann, Khalid Al-Ramadan, Jonathan L. Payne

Published: 2020-06-23
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Geology, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Carbonate rocks are important archives of past ocean conditions as well as hosts of economic resources such as hydrocarbons, water, and minerals. Geologists typically perform compositional analysis of grain, matrix, cement and pore types in order to interpret depositional environments, diagenetic modification, and reservoir quality of carbonate strata. Such information can be obtained primarily [...]

Geological Facies Modeling Based on Progressive Growing of Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs)

Suihong Song, Tapan Mukerji, Jiagen Hou

Published: 2020-06-22
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Geological facies modeling has long been studied to predict subsurface resources. In recent years, generative adversarial networks (GANs) have been used as a new method for geological facies modeling with surprisingly good results. However, in conventional GANs, all layers are trained concurrently, and the scales of the geological features are not considered. In this study, we propose to train [...]

Tectonic-Sedimentary Interplay of a Multi-Sourced, Structurally-Confined Turbidite System in a Foreland Basin Setting: The Pennsylvanian Lower Atoka Formation, Ouachita Mountains, USA

Pengfei Hou, Leslie Wood, Zane Richards Jobe

Published: 2020-06-19
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Submarine fans deposited in structurally complex settings record important information on basin evolution and tectonic-sedimentary relationships but are often poorly preserved in outcrops due to post-depositional deformation. This study integrates both new field data as well as data compiled from literature to demonstrate the spatial facies variability of the deep-water lower Atoka formation [...]

Sediment redox dynamics in an oligotrophic deep-water lake in Tierra del Fuego: insights from Fe isotopes

Luis Ordóñez, Ina Neugebauer, Camille Thomas, Massimo Chiaradia, Nicolas Waldmann, Daniel Ariztegui

Published: 2020-06-10
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Fresh Water Studies, Geochemistry, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Fe speciation and Fe isotopes have been widely used to reconstruct past basin dynamics and water redox conditions. However, sedimentation and early diagenesis of such proxies eventually alter any primary climate signal. In this work, we disentangled the processes occurring at the redox front below the sediment-water interface of a ventilated deep-water lake (Lago Fagnano, Argentina/Chile). A [...]

Architecture and controls of thick, intensely bioturbated, storm-influenced shallow-marine successions: an example from the Jurassic Neuquén Basin (Argentina)

Ernesto Schwarz, Miquel Poyatos-Moré, Salvador Boya, Luz Elena Gomis-Cartesio, Ivar Midtkandal

Published: 2020-06-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

Thick (>100 m-thick), highly bioturbated storm-influenced shallow-marine deposits are not frequent in the stratigraphic record, but they tend to be unusually common in aggradational to retrogradational successions. Individual storm-event beds have typically low preservation in these successions, yet depositional settings are characterized on the basis of storms processes. We present a [...]

Sorting of fine-grained sediment by currents: Testing the sortable silt hypothesis with laboratory experiments

Jeff Culp, Kyle Strom, Andrew Parent, Brian Romans

Published: 2020-05-28
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Accumulations of fine sediments along continental shelf and deep-sea bathymetric contours, known as contourite drifts, form a sedimentary record that is dependent on oceanographic processes such as ocean-basin-scale circulation. A tool used to aid in interpretation of such deposits is the sortable silt (SS) hypothesis. The hypothesis suggests that the mean size of the SS (silt in the 10-63 µm [...]

Fault-controlled base-of-scarp deposits

Domenico Chiarella, Walter Capella, Sergio G. Longhitano, Francesco Muto

Published: 2020-05-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

The term base-of-scarp is proposed for those submarine deposits controlled by a fault and physically disconnected from their more proximal counterpart located on the footwall, although genetically linked to it. These systems differ from conventional fault-controlled deltas, such as shoal- and Gilbert-type, because they are entirely subaqueous and lack equilibrium morphology — a steady-state in [...]

Holocene tephrochronology of Kerguelen Archipelago, Subantarctic Indian Ocean

Fabien Arnaud, Pierre Sabatier, Anouk Leloup, Aymerick Servettaz, Bertrand Moine, Anne-Lise Develle, Stéphane Guédron, Vincent Perrot, Cécile Pignol, Jérôme Poulenard

Published: 2020-05-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Volcanology

Up to now, no geochemical or geochronological data has been published about Holocene volcanic activity on the Kerguelen Archipelago. Here we present the first continuous Holocene chronology of volcanic eruptions on the archipelago. We compared sedimentological, geochronological and geochemical data from two lake sediment cores taken in two different depocenters of Lake Armor, located ca. 70 km [...]

Macroscopic flow disequilibrium over aeolian dune fields

Andrew Gunn, Phillip Schmutz, Matt Wanker, Doug Edmonds, Ryan Ewing, Douglas Jerolmack

Published: 2020-05-08
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Aeolian dune fields are self-organized patterns formed by wind-blown sand. Dunes are topographic roughness elements that impose drag on the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), creating a natural coupling between form and flow. While the steady-state influence of drag on the ABL is well studied, non-equilibrium effects due to roughness transitions are less understood. Here we examine the large-scale [...]

Global morphodynamic response of deltas to sea-level rise in the 21st century

Jaap H Nienhuis

Published: 2020-05-06
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

River deltas will likely experience significant land loss because of relative sea-level rise (RSLR), but predictions have remained elusive. Here, we use global data of RSLR and river sediment supply to build a validated model of delta response to RSLR for all ~10,000 deltas globally. Applying this model to predict future delta change, we find that all IPCC RCP sea-level scenarios lead to a net [...]

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