Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Sedimentology

Global morphodynamic response of deltas to sea-level rise in the 21st century

Jaap H Nienhuis

Published: 2020-05-06
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

River deltas will likely experience significant land loss because of relative sea-level rise (RSLR), but predictions have remained elusive. Here, we use global data of RSLR and river sediment supply to build a validated model of delta response to RSLR for all ~10,000 deltas globally. Applying this model to predict future delta change, we find that all IPCC RCP sea-level scenarios lead to a net [...]

Setting up the preservation of fluvial channel belts

Benjamin T. Cardenas, John M. Swartz, David Mohrig, Eric W. Prokocki

Published: 2020-04-29
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Subsidence alone is often too slow to create the necessary relief needed to preserve continuous channel belts over 10s of km, as are often observed in outcrops on Earth and Mars, as well as subsurface seismic volumes. However, an alternative source of topographic relief exists along US Gulf of Mexico and SE Atlantic coastal plains, which are regions generally considered flat. Alluvial ridges, [...]

Lateral variability in strain along a mass-transport deposit (MTD) toewall: a case study from the Makassar Strait, offshore Indonesia

Harya Dwi Nugraha, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, Howard Johnson, David Mark Hodgson

Published: 2020-04-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Contractional features characterise the toe domain of mass-transport deposits (MTDs). Their frontal geometry is typically classified as frontally-confined or frontally-emergent. However, it remains unclear how frontal emplacement style and contractional strain within an MTD can vary along strike. We use bathymetry and 3D seismic reflection data to investigate lateral variability of frontal [...]

Turbidites, Topography and Tectonics: Evolution of submarine channel-lobe systems in the salt-influenced Kwanza Basin, offshore Angola

Danielle Howlett, Rob Gawthorpe, Zhiyuan Ge, Atle Rotevatn, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson

Published: 2020-04-07
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Understanding the evolution of submarine channel-lobe systems on salt-influenced slopes is challenging as systems react to seemingly subtle changes in sea-floor topography. The impact of large blocking structures on individual deep-water systems is well documented, but understanding of the spatio-temporal evolution of regionally extensive channel-lobe systems in areas containing modest salt [...]

International disparities in open access practices of the Earth Sciences community

Olivier Pourret, David William Hedding, Dasapta Erwin Irawan, Haiyan Liu, Jonathan Tennant

Published: 2020-03-31
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Hydrology, Library and Information Science, Mineral Physics, Other Earth Sciences, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Soil Science, Speleology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Short communication on international disparities in open access practices of the Earth Sciences community

Shallow-water mudstone architecture and depositional process variability: evidence for heterogeneity at kilometre-scale

Rhys Hamlyn, Kévin Boulesteix, Kevin G. Taylor, Stephen Flint, Rhodri M. Jerrett

Published: 2020-03-31
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Mudstone studies that use a large spacing (>5km) between datapoints provide little insight into the architecture and depositional process variability at kilometre scale. This often leads to the assumption that mudstones are laterally homogenous at kilometre and sub-kilometre scales. To better understand the lateral variability of mudstones at kilometre scale, the Mancos Shale in the eastern [...]

Evolution of flow cells within a mass-transport complex: Insights from the Gorgon Slide, offshore NW Australia

Harya Dwi Nugraha, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, Howard Johnson, David Mark Hodgson

Published: 2020-03-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Mass flows evolve longitudinally during emplacement, but can also vary laterally by forming discrete flow cells with different rheological states separated by shear zones. Despite being documented in many field and subsurface studies, the initiation, translation, and cessation of the flow cells remain unclear. We use five, high-quality post-stack time-migrated (PSTM) 3D seismic reflection [...]

The Last Glacial Maximum Balearic Abyssal Plain Megabed revisited

Antonio Cattaneo

Published: 2020-03-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Megabeds are thick sedimentary layers extending over thousands square kilometres in deep sea basins and are thought to result from large slope failures triggered by major external events. Such deposits have been found in at least three areas of the Mediterranean Sea. Although their discovery dates back to the early 1980s, many questions remain, concerning their initiation, source area, extent, [...]

Integrated geotechnical, sedimentological and geophysical investigation of seafloor instabilities in the Gulf of Lions Western Mediterranean

Shray Badhani, Antonio Cattaneo, Stefano Collico, Roger Urgeles, Bernard Dennielou, Estelle Leroux, Florent Colin, Sebastien Garziglia, Marina Rabineau, Laurence Droz

Published: 2020-03-03
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

The Gulf of Lions presents recurring mass-transport deposits (MTDs) within the Plio-Quaternary sediments suggesting a long history of mass-movements. The two large, surficial MTDs are located on the eastern and western levee of the Rhone canyon over an area exceeding 6000 km2 and volumes exceeding 100 km3. Both MTDs were emplaced 21 ka ago (peak of the Last Glacial Maximum), suggesting a common [...]

Base Level Changes based on Basin Filling Modelling: a Case Study from the Paleocene Lishui Sag, East China Sea Basin

Jingzhe Li, Piyang Liu, Jinliang Zhang, Shuyu Sun, Zhifeng Sun, Dongxing Du, Ming Zhang

Published: 2020-02-04
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Estimation of base level changes in geological records is an important topic for petroleum geologists. Taking the Paleocene Upper Lingfeng Member of Lishui Sag as an example, this paper conducted a base level reconstruction based on Basin Filling Modelling (BFM). The reconstruction was processed on the ground of a previously interpreted seismic stratigraphic framework with several assumptions and [...]

Entangled external and internal controls on submarine fan evolution: an experimental perspective

Ross Ferguson, Ian A. Kane, Joris Eggenhuisen, Florian Pohl, Mike Tilston, Yvonne Spychala, Rufus Brunt

Published: 2020-02-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Submarine fans are formed by sediment-laden flows shed from continental margins into ocean basins. Their morphology represents the interplay of external controls such as tectonics, climate, and sea-level with internal processes including channel migration and lobe compensation. However, the nature of this interaction is poorly understood. We used physical modelling to represent the evolution of a [...]

Integrating suspended sediment flux in large alluvial river channels: Application of a synoptic Rouse-based model to the Irrawaddy and Salween rivers

J. Jotautas Baronas, Emily I. Stevenson, Christopher R. Hackney, Stephen Darby, Michael J. Bickle, Robert G. Hilton, Christina S. Larkin, Daniel R. Parsons, Aung Myo Khaing, Edward T. Tipper

Published: 2020-02-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

A large portion of freshwater and sediment is exported to the ocean by a small number of major rivers. Many of these mega-rivers are subject to substantial anthropogenic pressures, which are having a major impact on water and sediment delivery to deltaic ecosystems. Due to hydrodynamic sorting, sediment grain size and composition varies strongly with depth and across the channel in large rivers, [...]

Suspended-sediment induced stratification inferred from concentration and velocity profile measurements in the lower Yellow River, China

Andrew J. Moodie, Jeffrey Nittrouer, Hongbo Ma, Brandee Carlson, Yuanjian Wang, Michael P. Lamb, Gary Parker

Published: 2020-01-27
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Despite a multitude of models predicting sediment transport dynamics in an open-channel flow, the interaction between fluid and sediment, so to produce self-organized vertical density stratification, has not been robustly investigated and as such is poorly understood. This two-phase phenomenon develops in channels that possess low channel-bed slope and high sediment concentration. As the Yellow [...]

Hydro-morphodynamics 2D modelling using a discontinuous Galerkin discretisation

Mariana C A Clare, James Percival, Athanasios Angeloudis, Colin Cotter, Matthew Piggott

Published: 2020-01-09
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Numerical Analysis and Computation, Partial Differential Equations, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

The development of morphodynamic models to simulate sediment transport accurately is a challenging process that is becoming ever more important because of our increasing exploitation of the coastal zone, as well as sea-level rise and the potential increase in strength and frequency of storms due to a changing climate. Morphodynamic models are highly complex given the non-linear and coupled nature [...]

Paleotsunami record of the past 4300 years in the complex coastal lake system of Lake Cucao, Chiloé Island, south central Chile

Philipp Kempf, Jasper Moernaut, Maarten Van Daele, Mario Pino, Roberto Urrutia, Marc De Batist

Published: 2020-01-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

In CE 1960, Lake Cucao on Chiloé Island in south central Chile was inundated by the tsunami of the Great Chilean Earthquake (Mw 9.5). The area of what is now the lake basin has been submerged since the end of the rapid postglacial sea-level rise and has recorded tsunami inundations in its sediment record since then. This study reconstructs the tsunami history of Lake Cucao. Reflection-seismic [...]

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