Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Sedimentology

Observational estimates of dynamic topography through space and time

Mark Hoggard, Jacqueline Austermann, Cody Randel, et al.

Published: 2021-01-25
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Paleobiology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Earth's mantle undergoes convection on million-year timescales as heat is transferred from depth to the surface. Whilst this flow has long been linked to the large-scale horizontal forces that drive plate tectonics and supercontinent cycles, geologists are increasingly recognising the signature of convection through transient vertical motions in the rock record, known as "dynamic topography". A [...]

Temporal monitoring of vast sand mining in NW Turkey: Implications on environmental/social impacts

Hilal OKUR, Mehmet Korhan Erturaç

Published: 2021-01-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Geomorphology, Natural Resources and Conservation, Sedimentology

Loose sand has a wide variety (over 200) of industrial usage where most of the sand is used in infrastructure. Due to its low cost / high benefit nature and international high demand, worldwide examples of excessive sand mining caused complete destruction of habitats and forcing natives change living practices or even to migrate. Sand mining is one of the most controversial and rapidly growing [...]

Tectono-stratigraphic development of a salt-influenced rift margin: Halten Terrace, offshore Mid-Norway

Gavin Elliott, Christopher A-L Jackson, Robert Leslie Gawthorpe, et al.

Published: 2020-12-22
Subjects: Geology, Other Earth Sciences, Sedimentology, Tectonics and Structure

Pre-rift salt controls structural style variability within rifts by decoupling sub- and supra-salt faults. However, the way in which this variability controls sediment erosion and dispersal, and facies distributions within the coeval syn-rift stratigraphic succession, remains poorly known. We here use 3D seismic reflection and borehole data to study the tectono-stratigraphic development of the [...]

Evolution of a sand-rich submarine channel-lobe system and impact of mass-transport and transitional flow deposits on reservoir heterogeneity: Magnus Field, northern North Sea

Michael John Steventon, Christopher A-L Jackson, Howard D. Johnson, et al.

Published: 2020-12-19
Subjects: Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

The geometry, distribution, and rock properties (i.e. porosity and permeability) of turbidite reservoirs, and the processes associated with turbidity current deposition, are relatively well known. However, less attention has been given to the equivalent properties resulting from laminar sediment gravity-flow deposition, with most research limited to cogenetic turbidite-debrites (i.e. transitional [...]

Chevrons: origin and relevance for the reconstruction of past wind regimes

Lucas Erouan Vimpere, Pascal Kindler, Sébastien Castelltort

Published: 2020-12-15
Subjects: Climate, Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Meteorology, Other Life Sciences, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Since its first use in the late 80’s, the term chevron has been employed in numerous studies to describe large U- and V-shaped ridges found in or near shorelines worldwide. Most studies have so far focused on Bahamian chevrons that are exclusively of Late Pleistocene age, and on the supposed Holocene chevrons found in S-Madagascar and Australia. In the Bahamas, these deposits have been [...]

Coordination numbers in natural beach sand

Vashan Wright, Amy Ferrick, Michael Manga

Published: 2020-12-03
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology, Geotechnical Engineering, Sedimentology

Coordination number controls elastic moduli, seismic velocity, and force transmission in sands and is thus a critical factor controlling the resistance of sands to deformation. Previous studies quantified relationships between coordination number, porosity, grain size, sphericity, and effective stress in pluviated or modeled sands. Here, we determine if these relationships hold in [...]

Reconstructing the morphologies and hydrodynamics of ancient rivers from source to sink: Cretaceous Western Interior Basin, Utah, USA

Sinead Lyster, Alexander C Whittaker, Gary J Hampson, et al.

Published: 2020-11-26
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Quantitative reconstruction of palaeohydrology from fluvial stratigraphy provides sophisticated insights into the response, and relative impact, of tectonic and climatic drivers on ancient fluvial landscapes. Here, field measurements and a suite of quantitative approaches are used to develop a four-dimensional (space and time) reconstruction of palaeohydrology in Late Cretaceous palaeorivers of [...]

Architecture and sequence stratigraphy of the Upper Coralline Limestone formation, Malta – implications for Eastern Mediterranean restriction prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis

Or M. Bialik, Raymond Zammit, Aaron Micallef

Published: 2020-11-18
Subjects: Geology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

The Eastern and Western Mediterranean are separated by an elevated plateau that regulates water exchange between these two basins. The Maltese archipelago, situated atop this topographic high, offers a unique window into the evolution of this plateau in the lead up to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). The Upper Coralline Limestone formation was deposited between the late Tortonian and the [...]

On the use of rock physics models for studying the critical zone

Vashan Wright, Matt Hornbach

Published: 2020-11-13
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

How effective are rock physics models for relating seismic velocities to the physical properties of sediments, fluids, and cement within the critical zone, and what factors most substantially influence the models’ accuracies? We answer these questions by testing and analyzing the accuracies of seven rock physics models (Hertz-Mindlin, Walton, Jenkins, Digby, stiff sand, soft sand, and contact [...]

The effects of 180 years of aging on the physical and seismic properties of partially saturated sands

Vashan Wright, Matt Hornbach

Published: 2020-11-13
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Constraining how the physical properties and seismic responses of recently deposited sands change with time is important for understanding earthquake site response, subsurface fluid flow, and early stages lithification. Currently, however, there is no detailed (cm-scale) assessment of how sand physical properties and associated seismic velocities evolve over the first two centuries after [...]

Influence of ductile substrates and layer thickness on the spacing and topology of layer bound fault systems

Mark Ireland, Chris K Morley, Richard Davies

Published: 2020-11-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Sedimentology, Tectonics and Structure

Polygonal fault systems are extraordinary features of many fine grained sedimentary succession and have been described from a significant number of deepwater sedimentary basins over the last two decades. Their formation represents an important mechanism by which fine grained sediments compact often resulting in a variety of complex patterns for which several controlling factors have been [...]

1600 year-long sedimentary record of tsunamis and hurricanes in the Lesser Antilles (Scrub Island, Anguilla)

Maude BIGUENET, Pierre Sabatier, Eric Chaumillon, et al.

Published: 2020-10-23
Subjects: Geochemistry, Oceanography, Sedimentology

The Lesser Antilles are a densely populated and a very touristic region exposed to many short-term hazards such as hurricanes and tsunamis. However, the historical catalog of these events is too short to allow risk assessment and return period estimations, and it needs to be completed with long-term geological records. Two sediment cores were sampled in March 2018 in a small coastal lagoon on [...]

Inverse analysis to reconstruct hydraulic conditions of non-steady turbidity currents: Application to an ancient turbidite of the Kiyosumi Formation of the Awa Group, Boso Peninsula, central Japan

Kento Nakao, Hajime Naruse, Shuichi Tokuhashi

Published: 2020-10-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

This study proposes a new method of inverse analysis from ancient turbidites to the non-steady turbidity currents with consideration of multiple grain-size classes. The forward model employed in this study is based on the shallow water equation, and the initial condition of flows are assumed to be the lock-exchange type condition. To obtain a solution of the inverse problem, this study employed [...]

Bedload transport in rivers: size matters but so does shape!

Mathieu Cassel, Jérôme Lavé, Alain Recking, et al.

Published: 2020-08-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Bedload transport modelling in rivers, which defines the threshold for pebble movement, takes into account the size and density of pebbles, but does not formally consider particle shape. The lack of analyses evaluating the influences of shape and density on particle mobility presents a major deficiency. To address this issue and to compare the relative roles of the density and shape of particles, [...]

Bridging the gap between geophysics and geology with Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs)

Suihong Song, Tapan Mukerji, Jiagen Hou

Published: 2020-08-17
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Computer Sciences, Databases and Information Systems, Earth Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Natural Resource Economics, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Water Resource Management

Inverse mapping from geophysics to geology is a difficult problem due to the inherent uncertainty of geophysical data and the spatially heterogeneous patterns (structure) in geology. We describe GANSim, a type of generative adversarial networks (GANs) that discovers the mapping between remotely-sensed geophysical information and geology with realistic patterns, with a specially designed loss [...]

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