Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Sedimentology

1600 year-long sedimentary record of tsunamis and hurricanes in the Lesser Antilles (Scrub Island, Anguilla)

Maude Biguenet, Pierre Sabatier, Eric Chaumillon, et al.

Published: 2020-10-23
Subjects: Geochemistry, Oceanography, Sedimentology

The Lesser Antilles are a densely populated and a very touristic region exposed to many short-term hazards such as hurricanes and tsunamis. However, the historical catalog of these events is too short to allow risk assessment and return period estimations, and it needs to be completed with long-term geological records. Two sediment cores were sampled in March 2018 in a small coastal lagoon on [...]

Inverse analysis to reconstruct hydraulic conditions of non-steady turbidity currents: Application to an ancient turbidite of the Kiyosumi Formation of the Awa Group, Boso Peninsula, central Japan

Kento Nakao, Hajime Naruse, Shuichi Tokuhashi

Published: 2020-10-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

This study proposes a new method of inverse analysis from ancient turbidites to the non-steady turbidity currents with consideration of multiple grain-size classes. The forward model employed in this study is based on the shallow water equation, and the initial condition of flows are assumed to be the lock-exchange type condition. To obtain a solution of the inverse problem, this study employed [...]

Bedload transport in rivers: size matters but so does shape!

Mathieu Cassel, Jérôme Lavé, Alain Recking, et al.

Published: 2020-08-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Bedload transport modelling in rivers, which defines the threshold for pebble movement, takes into account the size and density of pebbles, but does not formally consider particle shape. The lack of analyses evaluating the influences of shape and density on particle mobility presents a major deficiency. To address this issue and to compare the relative roles of the density and shape of particles, [...]

Bridging the gap between geophysics and geology with Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs)

Suihong Song, Tapan Mukerji, Jiagen Hou

Published: 2020-08-17
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Computer Sciences, Databases and Information Systems, Earth Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Natural Resource Economics, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Water Resource Management

Inverse mapping from geophysics to geology is a difficult problem due to the inherent uncertainty of geophysical data and the spatially heterogeneous patterns (structure) in geology. We describe GANSim, a type of generative adversarial networks (GANs) that discovers the mapping between remotely-sensed geophysical information and geology with realistic patterns, with a specially designed loss [...]

The formation and implications of giant blocks and fluid escape structures in submarine lateral spreads

Nan Wu, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, Howard Johnson, et al.

Published: 2020-07-30
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Medicine and Health Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Lateral spread (or ‘spreading’) and submarine creep are processes that occur near the headwalls of both terrestrial landslides and submarine mass-transport complexes (MTCs). Both submarine creep and spread deposits may contain giant (km-scale) coherent blocks, but their transport processes remain poorly constrained. Here we use 2D and 3D seismic reflection data to determine the geometry, scale, [...]

From XRF and hyperspectral analyses to an automatic way to detect flood events on sediment cores

Rapuc William, Kévin Jacq, Anne-Lise Develle, et al.

Published: 2020-07-30
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Long-term changes in flood activity have often been reconstructed to understand their relationships to climate changes. This requires to identify flood layers according to certain characteristics (e.g. texture, geochemical composition, grain-size) and then to count them using naked-eye observation. This method is, however, time-consuming, and intrinsically characterized by a low resolution that [...]

Comparison of U-Pb detrital zircon signatures across sediment routing system segments: insights from the late Pleistocene Mississippi River and Deep-sea fan

Cody Mason, Jourdan Speessen, Brian Romans, et al.

Published: 2020-07-23
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

The Pleistocene Mississippi sediment routing system has experienced significant drainage reorganizations in response to Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Geologically recent (<25 ka) and large (~90 km) river avulsions have occurred in the Mississippi’s lower alluvial valley, yet whether these punctuated autogenic phenomena influenced down system records of sedimentary provenance is unknown. We [...]

Sedimentary structures discriminations with hyperspectral imaging on sediment cores

Kévin Jacq, Rapuc William, Benoit Alexandre, et al.

Published: 2020-07-18
Subjects: Analytical Chemistry, Chemistry, Earth Sciences, Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Multivariate Analysis, Optics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics, Sedimentology, Statistical Models, Statistics and Probability

Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a non-destructive high-resolution sensor, which is currently under significant development to analyze geological areas with remote devices or natural samples in a laboratory. In both cases, the hyperspectral image provides several sedimentary structures that need to be separated to temporally and spatially describe the sample. Sediment sequences are composed of [...]

“Enriching Lives within Sedimentary Geology”: Actionable Recommendations for Making SEPM a Diverse, Equitable and Inclusive Society for All Sedimentary Geologists

Anjali M Fernandes, Antoinette Abeyta, Robert Clyde Mahon, et al.

Published: 2020-07-16
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Education, Geology, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Innovative science benefits from diversity of thought and influence at all waypoints along the scientific journey, from early education to career-length contributions in research and mentorship. Scientific societies, like the Society for Sedimentary Geology (SEPM), steward their innovators and the direction of the science, thereby defining the societal impact and evolution of a discipline. They [...]

GANSim: Conditional Facies Simulation Using an Improved Progressive Growing of Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs)

Suihong Song, Tapan Mukerji, Jiagen Hou

Published: 2020-07-06
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Geology, Hydrology, Mathematics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Statistical Models, Statistics and Probability

Conditional facies modeling combines geological spatial patterns with different types of observed data, to build earth models for predictions of subsurface resources. Recently, researchers have used generative adversarial networks (GANs) for conditional facies modeling, where an unconditional GAN is first trained to learn the geological patterns using the original GANs loss function, then [...]

Fully Automated Carbonate Petrography Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

Ardiansyah Koeshidayatullah, Michele Morsilli, Daniel J. Lehrmann, et al.

Published: 2020-06-23
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Geology, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Carbonate rocks are important archives of past ocean conditions as well as hosts of economic resources such as hydrocarbons, water, and minerals. Geologists typically perform compositional analysis of grain, matrix, cement and pore types in order to interpret depositional environments, diagenetic modification, and reservoir quality of carbonate strata. Such information can be obtained primarily [...]

Geological Facies Modeling Based on Progressive Growing of Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs)

Suihong Song, Tapan Mukerji, Jiagen Hou

Published: 2020-06-22
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Geological facies modeling has long been studied to predict subsurface resources. In recent years, generative adversarial networks (GANs) have been used as a new method for geological facies modeling with surprisingly good results. However, in conventional GANs, all layers are trained concurrently, and the scales of the geological features are not considered. In this study, we propose to train [...]

Tectonic-Sedimentary Interplay of a Multi-Sourced, Structurally-Confined Turbidite System in a Foreland Basin Setting: The Pennsylvanian Lower Atoka Formation, Ouachita Mountains, USA

Pengfei Hou, Leslie Wood, Zane Richards Jobe

Published: 2020-06-19
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Submarine fans deposited in structurally complex settings record important information on basin evolution and tectonic-sedimentary relationships but are often poorly preserved in outcrops due to post-depositional deformation. This study integrates both new field data as well as data compiled from literature to demonstrate the spatial facies variability of the deep-water lower Atoka formation [...]

Sediment redox dynamics in an oligotrophic deep-water lake in Tierra del Fuego: insights from Fe isotopes

Luis Ordóñez, Ina Neugebauer, Camille Thomas, et al.

Published: 2020-06-10
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Fresh Water Studies, Geochemistry, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Fe speciation and Fe isotopes have been widely used to reconstruct past basin dynamics and water redox conditions. However, sedimentation and early diagenesis of such proxies eventually alter any primary climate signal. In this work, we disentangled the processes occurring at the redox front below the sediment-water interface of a ventilated deep-water lake (Lago Fagnano, Argentina/Chile). A [...]

Architecture and controls of thick, intensely bioturbated, storm-influenced shallow-marine successions: an example from the Jurassic Neuquén Basin (Argentina)

Ernesto Schwarz, Miquel Poyatos-Moré, Salvador Boya, et al.

Published: 2020-06-06
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

Thick (>100 m-thick), highly bioturbated storm-influenced shallow-marine deposits are not frequent in the stratigraphic record, but they tend to be unusually common in aggradational to retrogradational successions. Individual storm-event beds have typically low preservation in these successions, yet depositional settings are characterized on the basis of storms processes. We present a [...]

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