Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Sedimentology

Advective sorting of silt by currents: a laboratory study

Jeff Culp, Kyle Strom, Andrew Parent, et al.

Published: 2020-05-28
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Accumulations of fine sediments along continental shelf and deep-sea bathymetric contours, known as contourite drifts, form a sedimentary record that is dependent on oceanographic processes such as ocean-basin-scale circulation. A tool used to aid in interpretation of such deposits is the sortable silt hypothesis, which suggests that the mean size of the sortable silt (silt from 10-63 µm) within [...]

Fault-controlled base-of-scarp deposits

Domenico Chiarella, Walter Capella, Sergio G. Longhitano, et al.

Published: 2020-05-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

The term base-of-scarp is proposed for those submarine deposits controlled by a fault and physically disconnected from their more proximal counterpart located on the footwall, although genetically linked to it. These systems differ from conventional fault-controlled deltas, such as shoal- and Gilbert-type, because they are entirely subaqueous and lack equilibrium morphology — a steady-state in [...]

Holocene tephrochronology of Kerguelen Archipelago, Subantarctic Indian Ocean

Fabien Arnaud, Pierre Sabatier, Anouk Leloup, et al.

Published: 2020-05-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Volcanology

Up to now, no geochemical or geochronological data has been published about Holocene volcanic activity on the Kerguelen Archipelago. Here we present the first continuous Holocene chronology of volcanic eruptions on the archipelago. We compared sedimentological, geochronological and geochemical data from two lake sediment cores taken in two different depocenters of Lake Armor, located ca. 70 km [...]

Macroscopic flow disequilibrium over aeolian dune fields

Andrew Gunn, Phillip Schmutz, Matt Wanker, et al.

Published: 2020-05-09
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Aeolian dune fields are self-organized patterns formed by wind-blown sand. Dunes are topographic roughness elements that impose drag on the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), creating a natural coupling between form and flow. While the steady-state influence of drag on the ABL is well studied, non-equilibrium effects due to roughness transitions are less understood. Here we examine the large-scale [...]

Projections of global delta land loss from sea-level rise in the 21st century

Jaap H. Nienhuis

Published: 2020-05-07
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

River deltas will likely experience significant land loss because of relative sea-level rise (RSLR), but predictions have not been tested against observations. Here, we use global data of RSLR and river sediment supply to build a model of delta response to RSLR for 6,402 deltas, representing 86% of global delta land. We validate this model against delta land area change observations from [...]

Setting up the preservation of fluvial channel belts

Benjamin T. Cardenas, John M. Swartz, David Mohrig, et al.

Published: 2020-04-29
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Subsidence alone is often too slow to create the necessary relief needed to preserve continuous channel belts over 10s of km, as are often observed in outcrops on Earth and Mars, as well as subsurface seismic volumes. However, an alternative source of topographic relief exists along US Gulf of Mexico and SE Atlantic coastal plains, which are regions generally considered flat. Alluvial ridges, [...]

Lateral variability in strain along a mass-transport deposit (MTD) toewall: a case study from the Makassar Strait, offshore Indonesia

Harya Dwi Nugraha, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, Howard Johnson, et al.

Published: 2020-04-19
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Contractional features characterise the toe domain of mass-transport deposits (MTDs). Their frontal geometry is typically classified as frontally-confined or frontally-emergent. However, it remains unclear how frontal emplacement style and contractional strain within an MTD can vary along strike. We use bathymetry and 3D seismic reflection data to investigate lateral variability of frontal [...]

Turbidites, Topography and Tectonics: Evolution of submarine channel-lobe systems in the salt-influenced Kwanza Basin, offshore Angola

Danielle Howlett, Rob Gawthorpe, Zhiyuan Ge, et al.

Published: 2020-04-07
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Understanding the evolution of submarine channel-lobe systems on salt-influenced slopes is challenging as systems react to seemingly subtle changes in sea-floor topography. The impact of large blocking structures on individual deep-water systems is well documented, but understanding of the spatio-temporal evolution of regionally extensive channel-lobe systems in areas containing modest salt [...]

International disparities in open access practices of the Earth Sciences community

Olivier Pourret, David William Hedding, Dasapta Erwin Irawan, et al.

Published: 2020-03-31
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Hydrology, Library and Information Science, Mineral Physics, Other Earth Sciences, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Soil Science, Speleology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Short communication on international disparities in open access practices of the Earth Sciences community

Shallow-water mudstone architecture and depositional process variability: evidence for heterogeneity at kilometre-scale

Rhys Hamlyn, Kévin Boulesteix, Kevin G. Taylor, et al.

Published: 2020-03-31
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Mudstone studies that use a large spacing (>5km) between datapoints provide little insight into the architecture and depositional process variability at kilometre scale. This often leads to the assumption that mudstones are laterally homogenous at kilometre and sub-kilometre scales. To better understand the lateral variability of mudstones at kilometre scale, the Mancos Shale in the eastern [...]

Evolution of flow cells within a mass-transport complex: Insights from the Gorgon Slide, offshore NW Australia

Harya Dwi Nugraha, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, Howard Johnson, et al.

Published: 2020-03-26
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Mass flows evolve longitudinally during emplacement, but can also vary laterally by forming discrete flow cells with different rheological states separated by shear zones. Despite being documented in many field and subsurface studies, the initiation, translation, and cessation of the flow cells remain unclear. We use five, high-quality post-stack time-migrated (PSTM) 3D seismic reflection [...]

The Last Glacial Maximum Balearic Abyssal Plain Megabed revisited

Antonio Cattaneo

Published: 2020-03-19
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Megabeds are thick sedimentary layers extending over thousands square kilometres in deep sea basins and are thought to result from large slope failures triggered by major external events. Such deposits have been found in at least three areas of the Mediterranean Sea. Although their discovery dates back to the early 1980s, many questions remain, concerning their initiation, source area, extent, [...]

Integrated geotechnical, sedimentological and geophysical investigation of seafloor instabilities in the Gulf of Lions Western Mediterranean

Shray Badhani, Antonio Cattaneo, Stefano Collico, et al.

Published: 2020-03-04
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

The Gulf of Lions presents recurring mass-transport deposits (MTDs) within the Plio-Quaternary sediments suggesting a long history of mass-movements. The two large, surficial MTDs are located on the eastern and western levee of the Rhone canyon over an area exceeding 6000 km2 and volumes exceeding 100 km3. Both MTDs were emplaced 21 ka ago (peak of the Last Glacial Maximum), suggesting a common [...]

Base Level Changes based on Basin Filling Modelling: a Case Study from the Paleocene Lishui Sag, East China Sea Basin

Jingzhe Li, Piyang Liu, Jinliang Zhang, et al.

Published: 2020-02-04
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Estimation of base level changes in geological records is an important topic for petroleum geologists. Taking the Paleocene Upper Lingfeng Member of Lishui Sag as an example, this paper conducted a base level reconstruction based on Basin Filling Modelling (BFM). The reconstruction was processed on the ground of a previously interpreted seismic stratigraphic framework with several assumptions and [...]

Entangled external and internal controls on submarine fan evolution: an experimental perspective

ROSS FERGUSON, Ian A. Kane, Joris T. Eggenhuisen, et al.

Published: 2020-02-03
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Submarine fans are formed by sediment-laden flows shed from continental margins into ocean basins. Their morphology represents the interplay of external controls such as tectonics, climate, and sea-level with internal processes including channel migration and lobe compensation. However, the nature of this interaction is poorly understood. We used physical modelling to represent the evolution of a [...]

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