Filtering by Subject: Sedimentology

Integrating suspended sediment flux in large alluvial river channels: Application of a synoptic Rouse-based model to the Irrawaddy and Salween rivers

J. Jotautas Baronas, Emily I. Stevenson, Christopher R. Hackney, et al.

Published: 2020-02-03
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

A large portion of freshwater and sediment is exported to the ocean by a small number of major rivers. Many of these mega-rivers are subject to substantial anthropogenic pressures, which are having a major impact on water and sediment delivery to deltaic ecosystems. Due to hydrodynamic sorting, sediment grain size and composition varies strongly with depth and across the channel in large rivers, [...]

Suspended-sediment induced stratification inferred from concentration and velocity profile measurements in the lower Yellow River, China

Andrew J. Moodie, Jeffrey Nittrouer, Hongbo Ma, et al.

Published: 2020-01-28
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Despite a multitude of models predicting sediment transport dynamics in an open-channel flow, the interaction between fluid and sediment, so to produce self-organized vertical density stratification, has not been robustly investigated and as such is poorly understood. This two-phase phenomenon develops in channels that possess low channel-bed slope and high sediment concentration. As the Yellow [...]

Hydro-morphodynamics 2D modelling using a discontinuous Galerkin discretisation

Mariana C A Clare, James Percival, Athanasios Angeloudis, et al.

Published: 2020-01-10
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Numerical Analysis and Computation, Partial Differential Equations, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

The development of morphodynamic models to simulate sediment transport accurately is a challenging process that is becoming ever more important because of our increasing exploitation of the coastal zone, as well as sea-level rise and the potential increase in strength and frequency of storms due to a changing climate. Morphodynamic models are highly complex given the non-linear and coupled nature [...]

Paleotsunami record of the past 4300 years in the complex coastal lake system of Lake Cucao, Chiloé Island, south central Chile

Philipp Kempf, Jasper Moernaut, Maarten Van Daele, et al.

Published: 2020-01-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

In CE 1960, Lake Cucao on Chiloé Island in south central Chile was inundated by the tsunami of the Great Chilean Earthquake (Mw 9.5). The area of what is now the lake basin has been submerged since the end of the rapid postglacial sea-level rise and has recorded tsunami inundations in its sediment record since then. This study reconstructs the tsunami history of Lake Cucao. Reflection-seismic [...]

U-Th dating of lake sediments: Lessons from the 700 kyr sediment record of Lake Junín, Peru

Christine Y Chen, David McGee, Arielle Woods, et al.

Published: 2019-12-09
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

*----- NOTE: This is a peer reviewed preprint of a paper accepted in Quaternary Science Reviews as of June 8, 2020 -----* Deep sediment cores from long-lived lake basins are fundamental records of paleoenvironmental history, but the power of these reconstructions has often been limited by poor age control. Uranium-thorium (U-Th) dating has the potential to fill a gap in current geochronological [...]

Abrupt Arctic Warming Repeatedly Led to Prolonged Drought and Glacial Retreat in the Tropical Andes During the Last Glacial Cycle

Arielle Woods, Don Rodbell, Mark Abbott, et al.

Published: 2019-12-04
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

A sediment core spanning the last ~50 ka from Lake Junín (Peru) in the tropical Andes reveals abrupt climatic events on a centennial-millennial time scale. These events, which involved the near-complete disappearance of glaciers below 4700 masl in the eastern Andean cordillera and major reductions in the level of Peru’s second largest lake, occurred during the abrupt warmings recorded in [...]

Stratigraphic reservoir compartmentalization: causes, recognition, and implications for the geological storage of carbon dioxide

Liam Herringshaw, Jon Gluyas, Simon Mathias

Published: 2019-11-23
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

The impact of carbon capture and storage (CCS) in mitigating anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases is potentially great, but its success is strongly dependent on identifying suitable geological storage sites. One of the key uncertainties in this regard is the degree of compartmentalization of the target storage horizon. Many studies have examined reservoir compartmentalization in oil and [...]

Does fluvial channel belt clustering predict net sand to gross rock volume? Architectural metrics and point pattern analysis of a digital outcrop model

Alexander Koch, Cari Johnson, Lisa Stright

Published: 2019-10-31
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Spatial point-pattern analyses (PPAs) are used to quantify clustering, randomness, and uniformity of the distribution of channel belts in fluvial strata. Point patterns may reflect end-member fluvial architecture, e.g., uniform compensational stacking and avulsion-generated clustering, which may change laterally, especially at greater scales. To investigate spatial and temporal changes in fluvial [...]

Holocene relative sea-level changes and glacial isostatic adjustment of the U.S. Atlantic coast

Simon Engelhart, W. Richard Peltier, Benjamin Horton

Published: 2019-10-01
Subjects: Climate, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geomorphology, Glaciology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

The first quality-controlled Holocene sea-level database for the U.S. Atlantic coast has been constructed from 686 sea-level indicators. The database documents a decreasing rate of relative sea-level (RSL) rise through time with no evidence of sea level being above present in the middle to late Holocene. The highest rates of RSL rise are found in the mid-Atlantic region. We employ the database to [...]

Repeated degradation and progradation of a submarine slope over geological timescales

Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, Andrew McAndrew, David Hodgson, et al.

Published: 2019-10-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

Submarine slopes prograde via accretion of sediment to clinoform foresets, and degrade in response to channel or canyon incision, or mass-wasting processes. The timescales over which progradation and degradation occur, and the large-scale stratigraphic record of these processes, remain unclear due poor age constraints in subsurface-based studies, and areally limited exposures of exhumed systems. [...]

The influence of local low-density basement anomalies on the distribution of fluvio-deltaic sediment in rift basins: the early Carboniferous Fell Sandstone Formation, northern England

Louis Howell, Andrew James Mitten, Stuart Egan, et al.

Published: 2019-09-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Tectonics and Structure

Local low-density basement anomalies are an important part of a rift basin’s inherited structural framework that can influence basin stratigraphy. Large granitic intrusions can cause local alterations in the basement’s density and often spatially correlate with fault-bounded highs (blocks) or convex-shaped regional flexural highs due to their isostatic responses. We investigate the influence of [...]

Miniature paleo-speleothems from the earliest Ediacaran (635 Ma) Doushantuo cap dolostone in South China and their implications for terrestrial ecosystems

Tian Gan, Guanghong Zhou, Taiyi Luo, et al.

Published: 2019-09-15
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Speleology, Stratigraphy

Speleothems can offer insights into terrestrial life because their formation is critically dependent on soil-microbial ecosystems. Here we report the wide distribution of miniature paleo-speleothems from the ~635 Ma Doushantuo cap dolostone in South China in order to understand the recovery of terrestrial life after the terminal Cryogenian Marinoan snowball Earth glaciation. The cap dolostone was [...]

Comparing Aggradation, Superelevation, and Avulsion Frequency of Submarine and Fluvial Channels

Zane Richards Jobe, Nick Howes, Kyle M. Straub, et al.

Published: 2019-08-31
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

IN REVIEW IN "FRONTIERS IN EARTH SCIENCE" (30 Aug 2019). Constraining the avulsion dynamics of rivers and submarine channels is essential for predicting the distribution and architecture of sediment, organic matter and pollutants in alluvial, deltaic, and submarine settings. Submarine channels are well known to be more aggradational than rivers, and aggradation of the channel, levee, and [...]

Early Paleocene Paleoceanography and Export Productivity in the Chicxulub Crater

Christopher Michael Lowery, Heather Jones, Timothy J. Bralower, et al.

Published: 2019-08-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

The Chicxulub impact caused a crash in export productivity in much of the world’s oceans which contributed to the extinction of 75% of marine species. In the immediate aftermath of the extinction, local export productivity was highly variable, with some sites, including the Chicxulub crater, recording elevated export production. The long-term transition back to more stable export productivity [...]

Grain-Size and Discharge Controls on Submarine-Fan Depositional Patterns From Forward Stratigraphic Models

Nicolas Hawie, Jacob Covault, Zoltan Sylvester

Published: 2019-08-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Submarine fans are important components of continental margins; they contain a stratigraphic record of environmental changes and host large accumulations of oil and gas. The grain size and volume of sediment supply to fans is thought to control the heterogeneity of deep-water deposits; predicting spatial variability of sandy and muddy deposits is an important applied challenge in the [...]


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