Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Social and Behavioral Sciences

Notes from the Oil Patch: Planning for a Worker-Focused Transition in the Oil and Gas Industry

Arvind Ravikumar, Timothy M Latimer

Published: 2022-06-17
Subjects: Engineering, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Systems Engineering

The energy transition portends major disruption to livelihoods of oil and gas workers and communities dependent on the fossil fuel industry. Managing this transition smoothly will require coordinated policy planning, community and place-based incentives, and structural reforms and support structures that carefully map the skills of the worker to opportunities in the clean energy economy.

Gender Equity in Oceanography

Sonya Legg, Caixia Wang, Ellen Kappel, et al.

Published: 2022-05-20
Subjects: Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Gender equity, providing for full participation of people of all genders in the oceanographic workforce, is an important goal for the continued success of the oceanographic enterprise. Here we describe historical obstructions to gender equity, assess recent progress and the current status of gender equity in oceanography by examining quantitative measures of participation, achievement, and [...]

Centering Equity in the Nation's Weather, Water and Climate Services

Aradhna Tripati, Marshall Shepherd, Vernon Morris, et al.

Published: 2022-05-20
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Water, weather, and climate affect everyone. However, their impacts on various communities can be very different based on who has access to essential services and environmental knowledge. At the same time, structural discrimination, including racism and other forms of privileging and exclusion, affects people's lives and health, with ripples across all sectors of society. In the United States, [...]

Global biomass fires and infant mortality

Hemant Kumar Pullabhotla, Mustafa Zahid, Sam Heft-Neal, et al.

Published: 2022-04-16
Subjects: Environmental Health and Protection, Physical and Environmental Geography, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Global outdoor biomass burning is a major contributor to air pollution, especially in low and middle-income countries. Recent years have witnessed substantial changes in the extent of biomass burning, including large declines in Africa. However, direct evidence on the contribution of biomass burning to global health outcomes remains limited. Here we use georeferenced data on more than 2 million [...]

Place-level urban-rural indices for the United States from 1930 to 2018

Johannes H. Uhl, Lori M. Hunter, Stefan Leyk, et al.

Published: 2022-02-28
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Human Geography, Longitudinal Data Analysis and Time Series, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Spatial Science

Rural-urban classifications are essential for analyzing geographic, demographic, environmental, and social processes across the rural-urban continuum. Most existing classifications are, however, only available at relatively aggregated spatial scales, such as at the county scale in the United States. The absence of rurality or urbanness measures at high spatial resolution poses significant [...]

Estimating a social cost of carbon for global energy consumption

Ashwin Rode

Published: 2022-02-09
Subjects: Oil, Gas, and Energy, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Estimates of global economic damage caused by carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions can inform climate policy. The social cost of carbon (SCC) quantifies these damages by characterizing how additional CO2 emissions today impact future economic outcomes through altering the climate. Previous estimates suggest that large, warming-driven increases in energy expenditures could dominate the SCC, but they [...]

A framework for scalably quantifying field-level agricultural carbon outcomes

Kaiyu Guan, Zhenong Jin, Evan H. DeLucia, et al.

Published: 2022-01-01
Subjects: Environmental Studies, Physical and Environmental Geography, Remote Sensing, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Unusual Suspects: “Allies in the Park, Are Closer Than They Appear”

candace gossen

Published: 2021-12-06
Subjects: Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

One season, 1039 hours, as a Park Ranger at Mesa Verde National Park. Interps we are called, observing, telling stories, being stewards of the past, present and future of wildness. Wildness in the animal world is reserved to only 4% of the planets millions of animals, Wildness is why people come to the National Parks, they are the last stronghold of beauty that bears presence in each of our [...]

Optimizing nature-based solutions by combining social equity, hydro-environmental performance, and economic costs through a novel Gini coefficient

Cyndi V. Castro

Published: 2021-11-15
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Civil Engineering, Computational Engineering, Engineering, Environmental Studies, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Nature and Society Relations, Operations Research, Systems Engineering and Industrial Engineering, Physical and Environmental Geography, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Systems Engineering

A robust multi-functional framework for widespread planning of nature-based solutions (NBS) must incorporate components of social equity and hydro-environmental performance in a cost-effective manner. NBS systems address stormwater mitigation by increasing on-site infiltration and evaporation through enhanced greenspace while also improving various components of societal well-being, such as [...]

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Global Cities Under SSP/RCP Scenarios, 1990 to 2100

Kevin Robert Gurney, Siir Kilkis, Karen Seto, et al.

Published: 2021-10-28
Subjects: Social and Behavioral Sciences

Projections of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are critical to better understanding and anticipating future climate change under different socio-economic conditions and mitigation strategies. The climate projections and scenarios assessed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, following the Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP)-Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) framework, have [...]

Forest data to insights and experiences using gamification

Mikko Vastaranta, Michael A. Wulder, Juho Hamari, et al.

Published: 2021-10-22
Subjects: Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Nature and Society Relations, Remote Sensing, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Volcanologists - Who are we and where are we going?

Janine Lynsey Kavanagh, Catherine J Annen, Steffi Burchardt, et al.

Published: 2021-10-14
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geography, Human Geography, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volcanology

Equity, diversity and inclusivity (EDI) are principles all scientific groups and organisations should strive to achieve as they secure working conditions, policies and practices that not only promote high-quality scientific output but also well-being in their communities. In this article, we reflect on the progress of EDI in volcanology by presenting data related to memberships of international [...]

The Evolution of National Spatial Data Infrastructure in Pakistan - Implementation Challenges and the Way Forward

Asmat Ali

Published: 2021-10-09
Subjects: Social and Behavioral Sciences

Geospatial data are produced by several organizations located at various places, and that is clearly a distributed environment. Many technical and institutional issues need to be resolved to share data in such an environment and to eventually enable regional development. For this matter, many countries implement Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) for the last 40 years. Since 2010, also Pakistan [...]

The Effect of Formation Processes on The Frequency of Palaeolithic Cave Sites in Semi-Arid Zones: Insights From Kazakhstan

Aristeidis Varis, Christopher Miller, Patrick Cuthbertson, et al.

Published: 2021-10-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Speleology, Stratigraphy

Central Asian caves with Palaeolithic deposits are few but they provide a rich record of human fossils and cultural assemblages that has been used to model Late Pleistocene hominin dispersals. However, previous research has not yet systematically evaluated the formation processes that influence the frequency of Palaeolithic cave sites in the region. To address this deficiency, we combined field [...]

Safety and Belonging in the Field: A Checklist for Educators

Sarah E Greene, Gwen S. Antell, Jake Atterby, et al.

Published: 2021-08-19
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Climate, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Education, Environmental Education, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Fresh Water Studies, Geochemistry, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Higher Education, Human Geography, Hydrology, Life Sciences, Meteorology, Mineral Physics, Natural Resource Economics, Natural Resources and Conservation, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Nature and Society Relations, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Other Geography, Other Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Planetary Sciences, Outdoor Education, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical and Environmental Geography, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Biogeochemistry, Planetary Geochemistry, Planetary Geology, Planetary Geomorphology, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Glaciology, Planetary Hydrology, Planetary Mineral Physics, Planetary Sciences, Planetary Sedimentology, Remote Sensing, Sedimentology, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Soil Science, Spatial Science, Speleology, Stratigraphy, Sustainability, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology, Water Resource Management

Ensuring taught fieldwork is a positive, generative, collective, and valuable experience for all participants requires considerations beyond course content. To guarantee safety and belonging, participants’ identities (backgrounds and protected characteristics) must be considered as a part of fieldwork planning and implementation. Furthermore, getting fieldwork right is an important step in [...]

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