Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Social and Behavioral Sciences

Expert judgements on solar geoengineering research priorities and challenges

Peter James Irvine, Elizabeth Burns, Ken Caldeira, Frank N Keutsch, Dustin Tingley, David Keith

Published: 2021-04-29
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Solar geoengineering describes a set of proposals to deliberately alter the earth’s radiative balance to reduce climate risks. We elicit judgements on natural science research priorities for solar geoengineering through a survey and in-person discussion with 72 subject matter experts, including two thirds of all scientists with ≥10 publications on the topic. Experts prioritized Earth system [...]

United States fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions and the COVID-19 pandemic: the implications of near-real-time fuel consumption data

Kevin Robert Gurney, Bhaskar Mitra, Geoffrey Roest, pawlok dass, Yang Song, Taha Moiz

Published: 2021-04-20
Subjects: Social and Behavioral Sciences

The COVID-19 pandemic has altered energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally and continues to evolve in the U.S. as the politics of COVID-19 change. Here we report on a new near-real-time fuel consumption data-driven, week-resolved estimate of national U.S. fossil fuel carbon dioxide (FFCO2) emissions and its covariation with COVID-19 lockdown orders. We find that the weekly total [...]

Crisis at the Salton Sea: Research Gaps and Opportunities

Marilyn Fogel, Hoori Ajami, Emma Aronson, Roya Bahreini, Wilfred Elders, Darrel Jenerette, David Lo, Timothy Lyons, Michael McKibben, William Porter, Arun Raju, Kurt Schwabe, Caroline Hung, Jonathan Nye

Published: 2021-03-04
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Chemistry, Climate, Earth Sciences, Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Public Health, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Medicine and Health Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Public Health, Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Salton Sea, a hypersaline lake in southern California, USA, is in crisis. A combination of mismanagement and competition between federal, state and local agencies has resulted in stalled efforts to address dropping water levels and unstable lake biogeochemistry. This in turn has led to a growing public health crisis as exposed shoreline exposes potentially toxic dust to local and regional [...]

Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion: tackling gross under-representation and recognition among talents in Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry

Olivier Pourret, Pallavi Anand, Sandra Arndt, Pieter Bots, Anthony Dosseto, Zimin Li, Johanna Marin Carbonne, Jennifer Middleton, Bryne Ngwenya, Amy J. V. Riches

Published: 2021-02-25
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Diversity, at every step along the scientific path, drives innovative research. Scientific societies, like the Geochemical Society (GS) and the European Association of Geochemistry (EAG), have a significant influence on which innovators are celebrated. Such choices have the consequence of shaping the future of research, and so are responsible for the evolution of our discipline and its [...]

Creating and Promoting Gender Equity and Diversity in Professional Geological Societies

Rachelle Kernen, Clara Abu, Jonathan Allen, Sumiyyah Ahmed, K. Lee Avary, Lauren Birgenheier, Terra George, Kiara Gomez, Andrea Lopez, Chioma Onwumelu, Bethany Rysak, Nicole Hart-Wagoner

Published: 2021-02-10
Subjects: Education, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Diversity drives innovation. When professional organizations allow gender inequity to persist, they continually lose talented, valuable individuals who drive economic growth and profits. According to membership data collected by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), American Geophysical Union (AGU), and the Geological Society of America (GSA) there is evidence of continued [...]

Urban Running Activity Detected Using a Seismic Sensor duringCOVID-19 Pandemic

Yumin Zhao, Yunyue Elita Li, Enhedelihai Nilot, Gang Fang

Published: 2021-01-30
Subjects: Engineering, Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Human foot traffic in urban environments provides essential information for city planners to manage the urban resources and urban residents to plan their activities. Compared to camera or mobile-based solutions, seismic sensors detect human footstep signals with fewer privacy concerns. However, seismic sensors often record signals generated from multiple sources, particularly in an urban outdoor [...]

Climate change induced effects or maldevelopment: small islands and conflicting attribution of root causes

C. Gabriel David, Arne Hennig, Beate M. W. Ratter, Volker Roeber, ‎ Zahid, Torsten Schlurmann

Published: 2020-12-21
Subjects: Engineering, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Adapting to sea level rise, climate change, and associated effects is especially challenging in sensitive small-island environments where false adaptation can lead to adverse impacts on natural and societal dynamics. Framing and interest play a decisive role for the successful implementation of any adaptation measures. An interdisciplinary perspective on the interaction of natural dynamics, [...]

Integrating ecosystem markets to co-ordinate landscape-scale public benefits from nature

Mark S Reed, Tom Curtis, Arjan Gosal, Guy Ziv, Sarah Pyndt Andersen, Ana Attlee, Matthew Hay, David Hill, Helen Kendall, Julia Martin-Ortega, Simone Martino, Stephen Prior, Chris Rodgers, Asger Strange Olesen, Hannah Rudman, Franziska Tanneberger, Kerry Waylen

Published: 2020-12-21
Subjects: Social and Behavioral Sciences

Ecosystem markets are proliferating around the world in response to increasing demand for climate change mitigation and provision of other public goods. However, this may lead to perverse outcomes, for example where public funding crowds out private investment or different schemes create trade-offs between the ecosystem services they each target. The integration of ecosystem markets could address [...]

Given that the Paris Agreement is unlikely to prevent dangerous climate overshoot, an alternative risk management strategy is urgently needed

Graeme MacDonald Taylor, Sue Vink

Published: 2020-12-18
Subjects: Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Because the 2015 Paris Agreement will not prevent dangerous climate change, there is an urgent need to develop an alternative mitigation strategy. Even if most countries greatly increase their commitments and technological breakthroughs accelerate the transition to emission-free technologies, the 2°C target will still be overshot due to systemic inertia from existing greenhouse gases, warming [...]

Climate change research and action must look beyond 2100

Christopher Lyon, Erin E Saupe, Christopher J Smith, Daniel J Hill, Andrew P Beckerman, Lindsay C Stringer, Robert Marchant, James McKay, Ariane Burke, Paul O'Higgins, Alexander M Dunhill, Bethany J Allen, Julien Riel-Salvatore, Tracy Aze

Published: 2020-12-17
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Geography, Human Geography, Nature and Society Relations, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical and Environmental Geography, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Anthropogenic activity is changing Earth’s climate and ecosystems in ways that are potentially dangerous and disruptive to humans. Greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere continue to rise, ensuring these changes will be felt for centuries beyond 2100, the current benchmark for prediction. Estimating the effects of past, current, and potential future emissions to only 2100 is therefore [...]

Evidence-based conservation in a changing world: lessons from waterbird individual-based models

Sally Brown, Richard A Stillman

Published: 2020-12-16
Subjects: Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Drivers of environmental change are causing novel combinations of pressures on ecological systems. Prediction in ecology often uses understanding of past conditions to make predictions to the future, but such an approach can breakdown when future conditions have not previously been encountered. Individual-based models (IBMs) consider ecological systems as arising from the adaptive behaviour and [...]

Saving the world from your couch: The heterogeneous medium-run benefits of COVID-19 lockdowns on air pollution

Jean Philippe Bonardi, Quentin Gallea, Dimitrija Kalanoski, Rafael Lalive, Raahil Madhok, Frederik Noack, Dominic Rohner, Tommaso Sonno

Published: 2020-12-12
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences

In Spring 2020, COVID-19 led to an unprecedented halt in public and economic life across the globe. In an otherwise tragic time, this provides a unique natural experiment to investigate the environmental impact of such a (temporary) ``de-globalization". Here, we estimate the medium-run impact of a battery of COVID-19 related lockdown measures on air quality across 162 countries, going beyond the [...]

ENSO Drives Child Undernutrition in the Global Tropics

Jesse K Anttila-Hughes, Amir Sultan Jina, Gordon C McCord

Published: 2020-11-13
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Climate, Environmental Public Health, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Other Environmental Sciences, Public Health, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Sustainability

The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a principal component of global climate variability known to influence a host of social and economic outcomes, but its systematic effects on human health remain poorly understood. We estimate ENSO’s association with child nutrition at global scale by combining variation in ENSO intensity from 1986-2018 with children’s height and weight from 186 surveys [...]

The Fingerprint of Anthropogenic Warming on Global Agriculture

Frances Moore

Published: 2020-10-30
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Environmental Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Statistical Methodology

A large literature on “detection and attribution” has now demonstrated the influence of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions on a range of physical climate variables. Social and economic outcomes are known to be sensitive to climate change, but directly connecting observed changes to anthropogenic forcing is challenging. Here I demonstrate that changes in global productivity of maize, wheat, [...]

Mapping Research Topics at Multiple Levels of Detail

Sara Lafia, Werner Kuhn, Kelly Caylor

Published: 2020-07-13
Subjects: Geography, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Spatial Science

Institutional reviews typically rely on scientometrics, like the h-index and impact factors of their participants, to assess research productivity. Productivity is not the only review criterion however, and scientometrics can be difficult to generate and compare in multidisciplinary settings. “Distant reading” methods from the Digital Humanities can complement the current quantitative evaluation [...]

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