Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Soil Science

Safety and Belonging in the Field: A Checklist for Educators

Sarah E Greene, Gwen S. Antell, Jake Atterby, et al.

Published: 2021-08-19
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Climate, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Education, Environmental Education, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Fresh Water Studies, Geochemistry, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Higher Education, Human Geography, Hydrology, Life Sciences, Meteorology, Mineral Physics, Natural Resource Economics, Natural Resources and Conservation, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Nature and Society Relations, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Other Geography, Other Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Planetary Sciences, Outdoor Education, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical and Environmental Geography, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Biogeochemistry, Planetary Geochemistry, Planetary Geology, Planetary Geomorphology, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Glaciology, Planetary Hydrology, Planetary Mineral Physics, Planetary Sciences, Planetary Sedimentology, Remote Sensing, Sedimentology, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Soil Science, Spatial Science, Speleology, Stratigraphy, Sustainability, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology, Water Resource Management

Ensuring taught fieldwork is a positive, generative, collective, and valuable experience for all participants requires considerations beyond course content. To guarantee safety and belonging, participants’ identities (backgrounds and protected characteristics) must be considered as a part of fieldwork planning and implementation. Furthermore, getting fieldwork right is an important step in [...]

Multidimensional simulation of PFAS transport and leaching in the vadose zone: impact of surfactant-induced flow and soil heterogeneities

Jicai Zeng, Bo Guo

Published: 2021-06-30
Subjects: Environmental Health and Protection, Hydrology, Soil Science

PFAS are emergent contaminants of which fate and transport in the environment remain poorly understood. As surfactants, adsorption at air-water interfaces and solid surfaces in soils complicates the retention and leaching of PFAS in the vadose zone. Recent modeling studies accounting for the PFAS-specific nonlinear adsorption processes predicted that the majority of long-chain PFAS remain in the [...]

The gap between atmospheric nitrogen deposition experiments and reality

Daniel Patrick Bebber

Published: 2021-05-05
Subjects: Agricultural Science, Agriculture, Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Forest Biology, Other Environmental Sciences, Planetary Biogeochemistry, Soil Science, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Anthropogenic activities have dramatically altered the global nitrogen (N) cycle. Atmospheric N deposition, primarily from combustion of biomass and fossil fuels, has caused acidification of precipitation and freshwater and triggered intense research into ecosystem responses to this pollutant. Experimental simulations of N deposition have been the main scientific tool to understand ecosystem [...]

Paleoclimate Changes in the Pacific Northwest Over the Past 36,000 Years from Clumped Isotope Measurements and Isotope-Enabled Model Analysis

Ricardo Lopez-Maldonado, Jesse Bateman, Andre Ellis, et al.

Published: 2021-04-07
Subjects: Climate, Geochemistry, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Soil Science

Since the last glacial period, North America has experienced dramatic changes in regional climate, including the collapse of ice sheets and changes in effective precipitation. We use clumped isotopes and analysis of transient climate simulations to provide constraints on hydroclimate changes in the Pacific Northwest. The coldest soil temperatures (~10.5 ±1.°C to 14.9 ±1.2°C) occurred [...]

Correlative Microscopy: a tool for understanding soil weathering in modern analogues of early terrestrial biospheres

Ria Mitchell, Peter Davies, Paul Kenrick, et al.

Published: 2021-03-18
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Geology, Paleobiology, Plant Sciences, Research Methods in Life Sciences, Sedimentology, Soil Science

Correlative imaging provides a method of investigating complex systems by combining analytical (chemistry) and imaging (tomography) information across dimensions (2D-3D) and scales (centimetres-nanometres). We studied weathering processes in a modern cryptogamic ground cover (CGC) from Iceland, containing early colonizing, and evolutionary ancient, communities of mosses, lichens, fungi, and [...]

Numerical modeling of Earth's dynamic surface: a community approach

Gregory E Tucker, Eric Hutton, Mark Piper, et al.

Published: 2021-02-14
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Glaciology, Hydrology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Soil Science, Stratigraphy

Computational modelling occupies a unique niche in Earth environmental sciences. Models serve not just as scientific technology and infrastructure, but also as digital containers of the scientific community's understanding of the natural world. As this understanding improves, so too must the associated software. This dual nature---models as both infrastructure and hypotheses---means that [...]

Evidence confirms an anthropic origin of Amazonian Dark Earths

Umberto Lombardo, Manuel Arroyo-Kalin, Hans Huisman, et al.

Published: 2021-01-22
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Soil Science

First described over 120 years ago in Brazil, Amazonian Dark Earths (ADEs) are expanses of dark soil that are exceptionally fertile and contain large quantities of archaeological artefacts. The elevated fertility of the dark and often deep A horizon of ADEs is widely regarded as an outcome of pre-Columbian human influence1. Controversially, in their recent paper Silva et al.2argue that the higher [...]

Soil erosion modelling: A global review and statistical analysis

Pasquale Borrelli, Christine Alewell, Pablo Alvarez, et al.

Published: 2020-12-22
Subjects: Soil Science

To gain a better understanding of the global application of soil erosion prediction models, we comprehensively reviewed relevant peer-reviewed research literature on soil-erosion modelling 1994-2017. Our aim was to identify (i) processes and models most frequently addressed in the literature, (ii) regions within which models are primarily applied, (iii) what regions remain unaddressed and why, [...]

A Vision for the Future Low-Temperature Geochemical Data-scape

Susan L. Brantley, Tao Wen, Deb Agarwal, et al.

Published: 2020-11-21
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Computer Sciences, Databases and Information Systems, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Other Computer Sciences, Other Earth Sciences, Soil Science

Data sharing benefits the researcher, the scientific community, and most importantly, the public by enabling more impactful analysis of data and greater transparency in scientific research. However, like many other scientists, the low-temperature geochemistry (LTG) community has generally not developed protocols and standards for publishing, citing, and versioning datasets. This paper is the [...]

Description of the continuous nature of organic matter in models of soil carbon dynamics

Julien Sainte-Marie, Matthieu Barrandon, Laurent Sainte-André, et al.

Published: 2020-05-29
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Earth Sciences, Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Geochemistry, Life Sciences, Microbiology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Soil Science

The understanding of soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics has considerably advanced in recent years. It was previously assumed that most SOM consisted of recalcitrant compounds, whereas the emerging view considers SOM as a range of polymers continuously processed into smaller molecules by decomposer enzymes. Mainstreaming these new insights in current models is challenging because of their [...]

Downscaling digital soil maps using electromagnetic induction and aerial imagery

Anders Bjørn Møller, Triven Koganti, Amélie Beucher, et al.

Published: 2020-04-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Soil Science

Coarse-resolution soil maps at regional to national extents are often inappropriate for mapping intra-field variability. At the same time, sensor data, such as electromagnetic induction measurements and aerial imagery, can be highly useful for mapping soil properties that correlate with electrical conductivity or soil color. However, maps based on these data nearly always require calibration with [...]

International disparities in open access practices of the Earth Sciences community

Olivier Pourret, David William Hedding, Dasapta Erwin Irawan, et al.

Published: 2020-03-31
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Hydrology, Library and Information Science, Mineral Physics, Other Earth Sciences, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Soil Science, Speleology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Short communication on international disparities in open access practices of the Earth Sciences community

High Attenuation Recycled Materials as landfill liners (the HARM project) – A new concept for improved landfill liner design

Mercedes Regadío, Alex Cargill, Jonathan A. Black, et al.

Published: 2020-01-28
Subjects: Bioresource and Agricultural Engineering, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Education, Engineering, Engineering Science and Materials, Environmental Public Health, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geotechnical Engineering, Hydrology, Medicine and Health Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Public Health, Soil Science

A new approach in landfill liner design which combines hydraulic containment of leachate with contaminant attenuation to improve the performance of these environmental control systems at landfills is described. The idea is to re-use readily available industrial waste residues (construction and biomass waste) as additives for natural clay liners, wherein the additives have specific properties [...]

Equifinality, Sloppiness, and emergent model structures of mechanistic soil biogeochemical models

Gianna Marschmann, Holger Pagel, Philipp Kuegler, et al.

Published: 2019-11-05
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Soil Science

Biogeochemical models increasingly consider the microbial control of car- bon cycling in soil. The major current challenge is to validate mechanistic descriptions of microbial processes and predicted system responses against experimental observations. We analyzed soil biochemical models of different complexity regarding parameter identifiability using information geometry, i.e. a model is [...]

The Baltic TRANSCOAST approach – investigating shallow coasts as terrestrial-marine interface of water and matter fluxes

Manon Janssen, Michael E Böttcher, Martin Brede, et al.

Published: 2019-07-16
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Biology, Earth Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Life Sciences, Marine Biology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Plant Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Plant Sciences, Soil Science

In Baltic TRANSCOAST we study the physical, biogeochemical, and biological processes at the land-ocean interface. The coastal zone is heavily impacted by various human activities as well as by geomorphological and climatic processes – on both the land and the sea side. Land-sea interactions at low lying coastal areas that are often dominated by peatlands, and are a common feature along the Baltic [...]

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