Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Soil Science

Plant Breeding Biomolecular Classification in Quantum Bayesianism (QBism) Physics-Informed Neural Network Architecture

Karriem A.J. Perry, Barbara S Keary

Published: 2022-08-31
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Climate, Other Statistics and Probability, Plant Sciences, Probability, Quantum Physics, Research Methods in Life Sciences, Soil Science, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, Sustainability, Systems Biology

In this brief communication, biomolecular plant breeding multi-classification inference is discussed when leveraging the advantages of Physics-informed Neural Network (PiNN) architecture. Albeit, the expected utility of Partial Differential Equation (PDE) inspired neural networks resides in its performance under limited data availability; a variety of neural network configurations result from PDE [...]

Field’s Spatial Variation Influenced Outcomes more so than N-fertiliser, FYM, Cover Crops or Their Legacy Effects Following Conversion to a No-till Arable System

Ana I.M. Natalio, Andrew Richards

Published: 2022-08-04
Subjects: Agricultural Science, Agriculture, Agronomy and Crop Sciences Life Sciences, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Soil Science, Sustainability

No-till in agricultural arable systems is a practice that offers benefits to soil health. Combined with methods such as the incorporation of crop residues and manures, no-till can influence the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) and organic matter (SOM), crop productivity and nutrient status. These turnovers are shaped by spatial and temporal factors and associated microbial mineralisation [...]

Glyphosate retention dynamics at organo-mineral interfaces: Formation of multiple hydrogen-bonds and inner-sphere configurations at pectin-goethite interfaces

Behrooz Azimzadeh, Carmen Enid Martínez

Published: 2022-07-23
Subjects: Agriculture, Analytical Chemistry, Biogeochemistry, Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Sciences, Organic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Soil Science

The retention of glyphosate is strongly governed by adsorption and desorption processes at environmental interfaces. In particular, glyphosate can react with organo-mineral associations (OMAs) in soils, sediments, and aquatic environments. Here, we use in-situ time-resolved attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy to provide a mechanistic understanding of [...]

Hybrid machine learning for digital soil mapping across a longitudinal gradient of contrasting topography, climate and vegetation

Rodrigo Miranda, Rodolfo Nobrega, Estevão Silva, et al.

Published: 2022-07-22
Subjects: Environmental Monitoring, Soil Science, Statistical Models

Environmental models often require soil maps to represent the spatial variability of soil properties. However, mapping soils using conventional in situ survey protocols is time-consuming and costly. As an alternative, Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) offers a fast-mapping approach that has the potential to estimate soil properties and their interrelationships over large areas. In this study, we address [...]

Barren ground depressions, natural H2 and orogenic gold deposits: spatial link and geochemical model

Benjamin Malvoisin, Fabrice Brunet

Published: 2022-07-11
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Soil Science

A review of the localities in continental rocks where H2-rich gases have been reported, showed that they are mainly located near gold deposits. Two types of geomorphological features known as markers of gas venting in sedimentary basins were also systematically observed near orogenic gold deposits on satellite images. They consist in both barren ground depressions and high densities of small (< [...]

Links between soil moisture and InSAR data on a temperate raised peatland subjected to a wildfire

Alexis Hrysiewicz, Eoghan P. Holohan, Shane Donohue, et al.

Published: 2022-06-17
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology, Hydrology, Soil Science

Interferometry of Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) can potentially contribute to the cost-effective regional or global monitoring of the degradation and restoration of peatlands. However, there are uncertainties about the links between InSAR results and peatland ecohydrological parameters, especially soil moisture. Here, we analyse the relationships between the temporal evolutions of InSAR [...]

Fluorescence microscopy versus Raman spectroscopy for direct identification of small (< 2 µm) microplastics in soils

Nick Krekelbergh, Jie Li, Junwei Hu, et al.

Published: 2022-04-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Soil Science

Research on microplastics (MP) in soils is much complicated due to the lack of dedicated (extraction) methodologies and the strong matrix interferences for MP detection, and there is almost no research on the dynamics of the smallest MP in soil. Here we compared the possible detection of the smallest MP fraction (1-2 µm) by µ-Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy in matrices of highly [...]

Stable Silicon Isotopes Uncover a Mineralogical Control on the Benthic Silicon Cycle in the Arctic Barents Sea

James Ward, Katharine Hendry, Sandra Arndt, et al.

Published: 2021-11-12
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Soil Science

Biogeochemical cycling of silicon (Si) in the Barents Sea is under considerable pressure from physical and chemical changes, including dramatic warming and sea ice retreat, together with a decline in dissolved silicic acid (DSi) concentrations of Atlantic inflow waters since 1990. Moreover, further expansion of the Atlantic realm (termed ‘Atlantification’) is expected to shift phytoplankton [...]

Beyond prediction: methods for interpreting complex models of soil variation

Alexandre M.J.-C. Wadoux, Christoph Molnar

Published: 2021-10-27
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Soil Science, Statistical Models

Understanding the spatial variation of soil properties is central to many sub-disciplines of soil science. Commonly in soil mapping studies, a soil map is constructed through prediction by a statistical or non-statistical model calibrated with measured values of the soil property and environmental covariates of which maps are available. In recent years, the field has gradually shifted attention [...]

Large-scale deployment of grass in crop rotations as a multifunctional climate mitigation strategy

Oskar Englund, Blas Mola-Yudego, Pål Börjesson, et al.

Published: 2021-10-26
Subjects: Agriculture, Bioresource and Agricultural Engineering, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Other Environmental Sciences, Soil Science

The agriculture sector can contribute to climate change mitigation by reducing its own greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, sequestering carbon in vegetation and soils, and providing biomass to substitute for fossil fuels and other GHG intensive products. The sector also needs to address water, soil, and biodiversity impacts caused by historic and current practices. Emerging EU policies create [...]

Reproducibility in subsurface geoscience

Michael J. Steventon, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, Mark Ireland, et al.

Published: 2021-10-26
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Environmental Education, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Hydrology, Mineral Physics, Natural Resource Economics, Natural Resources and Conservation, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Sedimentology, Soil Science, Speleology, Stratigraphy, Sustainability, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology, Water Resource Management

Reproducibility, the extent to which consistent results are obtained when an experiment or study is repeated, sits at the foundation of science. The aim of this process is to produce robust findings and knowledge, with reproducibility being the screening tool to benchmark how well we are implementing the scientific method. However, the re-examination of results from many disciplines has caused [...]

Consistent Controls on Trace Metal Micronutrient Speciation in Wetland Soils and Stream Sediments

Jinshu Yan, Neha Sharma, Elaine D. Flynn, et al.

Published: 2021-10-15
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Geochemistry, Soil Science

Trace metal are essential for microbially-mediated biogeochemical processes occurring in anoxic wetland soils and stream bed sediments, but low availability of these elements may inhibit anaerobic element cycling and transformations. Solid-phase speciation is likely a critical control on trace metal availability but has seen limited study in anoxic systems having concentrations similar to [...]

Safety and Belonging in the Field: A Checklist for Educators

Sarah E Greene, Gwen S. Antell, Jake Atterby, et al.

Published: 2021-08-19
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Climate, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Education, Environmental Education, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Fresh Water Studies, Geochemistry, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Higher Education, Human Geography, Hydrology, Life Sciences, Meteorology, Mineral Physics, Natural Resource Economics, Natural Resources and Conservation, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Nature and Society Relations, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Other Geography, Other Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Planetary Sciences, Outdoor Education, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical and Environmental Geography, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Biogeochemistry, Planetary Geochemistry, Planetary Geology, Planetary Geomorphology, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Glaciology, Planetary Hydrology, Planetary Mineral Physics, Planetary Sciences, Planetary Sedimentology, Remote Sensing, Sedimentology, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Soil Science, Spatial Science, Speleology, Stratigraphy, Sustainability, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology, Water Resource Management

Ensuring taught fieldwork is a positive, generative, collective, and valuable experience for all participants requires considerations beyond course content. To guarantee safety and belonging, participants’ identities (backgrounds and protected characteristics) must be considered as a part of fieldwork planning and implementation. Furthermore, getting fieldwork right is an important step in [...]

Multidimensional simulation of PFAS transport and leaching in the vadose zone: impact of surfactant-induced flow and soil heterogeneities

Jicai Zeng, Bo Guo

Published: 2021-06-30
Subjects: Environmental Health and Protection, Hydrology, Soil Science

PFAS are emergent contaminants of which fate and transport in the environment remain poorly understood. As surfactants, adsorption at air-water interfaces and solid surfaces in soils complicates the retention and leaching of PFAS in the vadose zone. Recent modeling studies accounting for the PFAS-specific nonlinear adsorption processes predicted that the majority of long-chain PFAS remain in the [...]

The gap between atmospheric nitrogen deposition experiments and reality

Daniel Patrick Bebber

Published: 2021-05-05
Subjects: Agricultural Science, Agriculture, Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Forest Biology, Other Environmental Sciences, Planetary Biogeochemistry, Soil Science, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Anthropogenic activities have dramatically altered the global nitrogen (N) cycle. Atmospheric N deposition, primarily from combustion of biomass and fossil fuels, has caused acidification of precipitation and freshwater and triggered intense research into ecosystem responses to this pollutant. Experimental simulations of N deposition have been the main scientific tool to understand ecosystem [...]

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