Filtering by Subject: Stratigraphy

Reconstructing the morphologies and hydrodynamics of ancient rivers from source to sink: Cretaceous Western Interior Basin, Utah, USA

Sinead Lyster, Alexander C Whittaker, Gary J Hampson, Elizabeth A Hajek, Peter A Allison, Bailey Lathrop

Published: 2020-11-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Quantitative reconstruction of palaeohydrology from fluvial stratigraphy provides sophisticated insights into the response, and relative impact, of tectonic and climatic drivers on ancient fluvial landscapes. Here, field measurements and a suite of quantitative approaches are used to develop a four-dimensional (space and time) reconstruction of palaeohydrology in Late Cretaceous palaeorivers of [...]

Architecture and sequence stratigraphy of the Upper Coralline Limestone formation, Malta – implications for Eastern Mediterranean restriction prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis

Or M. Bialik, Raymond Zammit, Aaron Micallef

Published: 2020-11-18
Subjects: Geology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

The Eastern and Western Mediterranean are separated by an elevated plateau that regulates water exchange between these two basins. The Maltese archipelago, situated atop this topographic high, offers a unique window into the evolution of this plateau in the lead up to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). The Upper Coralline Limestone formation was deposited between the late Tortonian and the [...]

Comparison of U-Pb detrital zircon signatures across sediment routing system segments: insights from the late Pleistocene Mississippi River and Deep-sea fan

Cody Mason, Jourdan Speessen, Brian Romans, Daniel F. Stockli, Michael D Blum, Jack Heltzer, G. Paul Miles, Andrea Fildani

Published: 2020-07-23
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

The Pleistocene Mississippi sediment routing system has experienced significant drainage reorganizations in response to Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Geologically recent (<25 ka) and large (~90 km) river avulsions have occurred in the Mississippi’s lower alluvial valley, yet whether these punctuated autogenic phenomena influenced down system records of sedimentary provenance is unknown. We [...]

The Anthropozoic era revisited

Valentí Rull

Published: 2020-07-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Stratigraphy

This paper explains in some detail the poorly known proposal of Stoppani (1873) regarding the Anthropozoic era, whose beginning was defined by the first traces of human presence on Earth. This author set the stratigraphic bases for the definition of the “human era”, but the proposal had two main weaknesses: the dismissal of biological evolution and the lack of an absolute chronology. Further [...]

“Enriching Lives within Sedimentary Geology”: Actionable Recommendations for Making SEPM a Diverse, Equitable and Inclusive Society for All Sedimentary Geologists

Anjali M. Fernandes, Antoinette Abeyta, Robert Clyde Mahon, Rowan Martindale, Kristin D. Bergmann, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, Theodore M. Present, Darryl Reano, Travis Swanson, Kristina Butler

Published: 2020-07-15
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Education, Geology, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Innovative science benefits from diversity of thought and influence at all waypoints along the scientific journey, from early education to career-length contributions in research and mentorship. Scientific societies, like the Society for Sedimentary Geology (SEPM), steward their innovators and the direction of the science, thereby defining the societal impact and evolution of a discipline. They [...]

Geological Facies Modeling Based on Progressive Growing of Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs)

Suihong Song, Tapan Mukerji, Jiagen Hou

Published: 2020-06-22
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Geological facies modeling has long been studied to predict subsurface resources. In recent years, generative adversarial networks (GANs) have been used as a new method for geological facies modeling with surprisingly good results. However, in conventional GANs, all layers are trained concurrently, and the scales of the geological features are not considered. In this study, we propose to train [...]

Tectonic-Sedimentary Interplay of a Multi-Sourced, Structurally-Confined Turbidite System in a Foreland Basin Setting: The Pennsylvanian Lower Atoka Formation, Ouachita Mountains, USA

Pengfei Hou, Leslie Wood, Zane Richards Jobe

Published: 2020-06-19
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Submarine fans deposited in structurally complex settings record important information on basin evolution and tectonic-sedimentary relationships but are often poorly preserved in outcrops due to post-depositional deformation. This study integrates both new field data as well as data compiled from literature to demonstrate the spatial facies variability of the deep-water lower Atoka formation [...]

Architecture and controls of thick, intensely bioturbated, storm-influenced shallow-marine successions: an example from the Jurassic Neuquén Basin (Argentina)

Ernesto Schwarz, Miquel Poyatos-Moré, Salvador Boya, Luz Elena Gomis-Cartesio, Ivar Midtkandal

Published: 2020-06-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

Thick (>100 m-thick), highly bioturbated storm-influenced shallow-marine deposits are not frequent in the stratigraphic record, but they tend to be unusually common in aggradational to retrogradational successions. Individual storm-event beds have typically low preservation in these successions, yet depositional settings are characterized on the basis of storms processes. We present a [...]

Holocene tephrochronology of Kerguelen Archipelago, Subantarctic Indian Ocean

Fabien Arnaud, Pierre Sabatier, Anouk Leloup, Aymerick Servettaz, Bertrand Moine, Anne-Lise Develle, Stéphane Guédron, Vincent Perrot, Cécile Pignol, Jérôme Poulenard

Published: 2020-05-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Volcanology

Up to now, no geochemical or geochronological data has been published about Holocene volcanic activity on the Kerguelen Archipelago. Here we present the first continuous Holocene chronology of volcanic eruptions on the archipelago. We compared sedimentological, geochronological and geochemical data from two lake sediment cores taken in two different depocenters of Lake Armor, located ca. 70 km [...]

The enigma of the Albian Gap: spatial variability and the competition between salt expulsion and extension

Leonardo Muniz Pichel, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson

Published: 2020-04-14
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

The Albian Gap is a uniquely large (up to 65 km wide and >450 km long), enigmatic salt-related structure in the Santos Basin, offshore Brazil. It is located near the basin margin and trends NE (i.e. sub-parallel to the Brazilian coastline). The gap is characterized by a near-complete absence of Albian strata above depleted Aptian salt. Its most remarkable feature is an equivalently large, [...]

International disparities in open access practices of the Earth Sciences community

Olivier Pourret, David William Hedding, Dasapta Erwin Irawan, Haiyan Liu, Jonathan Tennant

Published: 2020-03-31
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Hydrology, Library and Information Science, Mineral Physics, Other Earth Sciences, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Soil Science, Speleology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Short communication on international disparities in open access practices of the Earth Sciences community

Shallow-water mudstone architecture and depositional process variability: evidence for heterogeneity at kilometre-scale

Rhys Hamlyn, Kévin Boulesteix, Kevin G. Taylor, Stephen Flint, Rhodri M. Jerrett

Published: 2020-03-31
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Mudstone studies that use a large spacing (>5km) between datapoints provide little insight into the architecture and depositional process variability at kilometre scale. This often leads to the assumption that mudstones are laterally homogenous at kilometre and sub-kilometre scales. To better understand the lateral variability of mudstones at kilometre scale, the Mancos Shale in the eastern [...]

New composite bio- and isotope stratigraphies spanning the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum at tropical ODP Site 865 in the Pacific Ocean

Kirsty Edgar, Steven Bohaty, Helen Coxall, Paul Bown, Sietske Batenburg, Caroline Lear, Paul Pearson

Published: 2020-02-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Stratigraphy

The Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) at ca. 40 Ma is one of the largest of the transient Eocene global warming events. However, it is relatively poorly known from tropical settings as few sites span the entirety of the MECO event and/or host calcareous microfossils, which are the dominant proxy carrier. Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Pacific Ocean Site 865 in the low-latitude North Pacific [...]

Entangled external and internal controls on submarine fan evolution: an experimental perspective

Ross Ferguson, Ian A. Kane, Joris Eggenhuisen, Florian Pohl, Mike Tilston, Yvonne Spychala, Rufus Brunt

Published: 2020-02-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Submarine fans are formed by sediment-laden flows shed from continental margins into ocean basins. Their morphology represents the interplay of external controls such as tectonics, climate, and sea-level with internal processes including channel migration and lobe compensation. However, the nature of this interaction is poorly understood. We used physical modelling to represent the evolution of a [...]

Discriminating stacked distributary channel from palaeovalley fill sand bodies in foreland basin settings

Brian S. Burnham, Rhodri M. Jerrett, David Hodgetts, Stephen Flint

Published: 2020-01-10
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Stratigraphy

Stacked fluvial distributary channel deposits and palaeovalley fills can form major, multi-storey sand bodies with similar thicknesses, and with lateral extents often greater than a single exposure. Consequently, they can be difficult to tell apart from one another using outcrop data. This study addresses this problem by quantitatively analysing the architecture of five stacked fluvial [...]


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