Filtering by Subject: Tectonics and Structure

Mantle earthquakes in recently thinned Neoproterozoic lithosphere: Harrat Lunayyir, Saudi Arabia

Alexander Robert Blanchette, Simon L Klemperer, Walter D Mooney, Hani M Zahran

Published: 2020-11-20
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

We use earthquake geothermometry, measured heat flow, and structural constraints from P-wave receiver functions to model the thermal evolution of the lithosphere beneath Harrat Lunayyir. We suggest that the lithosphere thinned to its present 60-km thickness in a second stage of lithospheric thinning at 15–12 Ma following initial Red Sea extension at ~27 Ma. Harrat Lunayyir is an active volcanic [...]

Surface slip distributions and geometric complexity of intraplate reverse-faulting earthquakes

Haibin Yang, Mark Quigley, Tamarah King

Published: 2020-11-09
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Earthquake ground surface ruptures provide insights into faulting mechanics and inform seismic hazard analyses. Surface ruptures for eleven historical (1968 to 2018) moment magnitude (Mw) 4.7 to 6.6 reverse earthquakes in Australia are analyzed using statistical techniques and compared to magnetic, gravity, and stress trajectory datasets. Of the total combined (summative) length of all surface [...]

Thickness of the Saudi Arabian Crust

Alexander Robert Blanchette, Simon L Klemperer, Walter D Mooney, Hani M Zahran

Published: 2020-11-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

We analyzed P-wave receiver functions from seismic stations covering most of Saudi Arabia to map the thickness of the crust across the Arabian plate. We present an update of crustal-thickness estimates and fill in data gaps for the western shield and the rifted margin at the Red Sea, as well as the eastern Arabian platform. Our application of a conventional H-k stacking algorithm included [...]

Influence of ductile substrates and layer thickness on the spacing and topology of layer bound fault systems

Mark Ireland, Chris K Morley, Richard Davies

Published: 2020-11-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Sedimentology, Tectonics and Structure

Polygonal fault systems are extraordinary features of many fine grained sedimentary succession and have been described from a significant number of deepwater sedimentary basins over the last two decades. Their formation represents an important mechanism by which fine grained sediments compact often resulting in a variety of complex patterns for which several controlling factors have been [...]

Salt-magma interactions influence intrusion distribution and salt tectonics in the Santos Basin, offshore Brazil

Craig Magee, Leonardo Muniz Pichel, Amber Madden-Nadeau, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, Webster Mohriak

Published: 2020-10-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Many sedimentary basins host thick evaporite (salt) deposits. Some of these basins also host extensive igneous intrusion networks. It thus seems inevitable that, in some locations, magma will interact with salt. Yet how interaction between these materials may influence salt tectonics or magma emplacement, particularly at the basin-scale, remains poorly understood. We use 3D seismic reflection [...]

Mapping and classifying large deformation from digital imagery: application to analogue models of lithosphere deformation

Taco Broerse, Nemanja Krstekanic, Cor Kasbergen, Ernst Willingshofer

Published: 2020-10-24
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), an image cross-correlation technique, is widely used for obtaining velocity fields from series of images of deforming objects. Rather than instantaneous velocities, we are interested in reconstructing cumulative deformation, and use PIV-derived incremental displacements for this purpose. Our focus is on analogue models of tectonic processes, which can accumulate [...]

A single multi-scale and multi-sourced semi-automated lineament detection technique for detailed structural mapping with applications to geothermal energy exploration

Christopher Mark Yeomans, Hester Claridge, Alexander Hudson, Robin K Shail, Cees Willems, Matthew Eyre, Chris Harker

Published: 2020-10-22
Subjects: Geology, Geomorphology, Tectonics and Structure

A multitude of semi-automated algorithms, many incorporating multi-sourced datasets into a single analysis, now exist. However, these operate at a fixed pixel resolution resulting in multi-sourced methods being limited by the largest input pixel size. Multi-scale lineament detection circumvents this issue and allows increased levels of detail to be captured. In this study we present a [...]

Multi-layered salt-prone stratigraphy and its influence on rift-basin development; The Slyne and Erris basins, offshore NW Ireland

Conor O'Sullivan, Conrad Childs, Muhammad M. Saqab, John Walsh, Patrick Shannon

Published: 2020-10-21
Subjects: Tectonics and Structure

While salt-influenced rift basins have been identified across the European Atlantic margin, the Irish Atlantic margin remains the exception despite salt being proven in several boreholes. Using an extensive seismic database coupled with data from exploration wells and shallow boreholes, this study maps the distribution and composition of salt layers and investigates their role in the structural [...]

Fernandes and Roberts (2020) - preprint

Victoria Milanez Fernandes, Gareth Roberts

Published: 2020-08-16
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Paleobiology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences, Tectonics and Structure

There are many geoscience problems for which constraining histories of uplift or subsidence of Earth’s surface is of direct or indirect importance, for example reconstructing tectonics, mantle convection, geomorphology, sedimentary and chemical flux, biodiversity, glacio-eustasy and climate change. The least equivocal constraints on timing and amplitude of vertical motions on geological [...]

Taking the pulse of salt-detached gravity gliding in the eastern Mediterranean

Sian Evans, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, Davide Oppo

Published: 2020-08-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

We investigate early-stage salt-detached gliding using a 3D seismic dataset from the Levant Margin in the Eastern Mediterranean, where gravitational instability due to margin uplift has caused north-westward translation of the Messinian salt sheet and its Plio-Pleistocene clastic overburden. Large, NE-trending, base-salt anticlines have allowed the basinward translation to be recorded by the [...]

Leaky salt: pipe trails record the history of cross-evaporite fluid escape in the northern Levant Basin, Eastern Mediterranean

Davide Oppo, Sian Evans, David Iacopini, SM Mainul Kabir, Vittorio Maselli, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson

Published: 2020-08-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Despite salt being regarded as an extremely efficient, low-permeability hydraulic seal, an increasing number of cross-evaporite fluid escape features have been documented in salt-bearing sedimentary basins. Because of this, it is clear that our understanding of how thick salt deposits impact fluid flow in sedimentary basins is incomplete. We here examine the causes and evolution of [...]

Basement-Controlled Deformation of Sedimentary Sequences, Anadarko Shelf, Oklahoma

Folarin Kolawole, Molly Simpson Turko, Brett Carpenter

Published: 2020-07-30
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Structures rooted in the crystalline basement frequently control the deformation of the host bedrock and the overlying sedimentary sequences. Here, we elucidate the structure of the c. 2‐km deep Precambrian granitic basement in the Anadarko Shelf, Oklahoma, and how the propagation of basement faults deformed the sedimentary cover. Although the basin is foreland in origin, the gently dipping shelf [...]

Whats down there? The structures, materials and environment of deep-seated tremor and slip

Whitney Maria Behr, Roland Bürgmann

Published: 2020-07-16
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Episodic tremor and slow slip (ETS) events occur downdip of the seismogenic zone of numerous subduction megathrusts and plate boundary strike-slip faults. These events represent a fascinating and perplexing mode of fault failure that has greatly broadened our view of earthquake dynamics. In this contribution, we review constraints on the ETS deformation process from both geophysical observations [...]

Structural Evolution of Salt-Influenced Fold-and-Thrust Belts: Principles in Salt Basins Containing Isolated Minibasins

Oliver B Duffy, Timothy Dooley, Michael R Hudec, Naiara Fernandez, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, Juan I. Soto

Published: 2020-07-16
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Shortening styles in salt-influenced fold-and-thrust belts can vary markedly, with the volume and distribution of salt prior to shortening being a key control. Here we use a suite of physical models to examine styles of thin-skinned shortening in settings where the precursor structure comprised minibasins surrounded by salt (‘isolated-minibasin’ provinces). Our models show that the high volume of [...]

What Controls Contraction in the Translation Domain of the Outer Kwanza Basin, Offshore Angola?

Aurio Erdi, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson

Published: 2020-07-12
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Engineering, Geology, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

It is now well-established that base-salt relief drives complex deformation in the mid-slope domain of salt-bearing passive margins, in a location classically thought to be dominated purely by horizontal translation. However, due to a lack of detailed studies drawing on high-quality, 3D seismic reflection data, our understanding of how base-salt relief controls four-dimensional patterns of [...]


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