Filtering by Subject: Tectonics and Structure

Paleomagnetism from multi-orogenic terranes is "not a simple game": Pyrenees' Paleozoic warning

Daniel Pastor-Galán, Oscar Groenhof, Emilio L. Pueyo, Esther Izquierdo-Llavall, Jaume Dinarès-Turell, Mark J. Dekkers

Published: 2021-06-21
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

Paleomagnetism is a versatile tool in the Earth sciences: it provides critical input to geological time scales and plate tectonic reconstructions. Despite its undeniable perks, paleomagnetism is not without complications. Remagnetizations overprinting the original magnetic signature of rocks are frequent, especially in orogens which tend to be the areas with better rock exposure. Unraveling the [...]

Bayesian population correlation: A probabilistic approach to inferring and comparing population distributions for detrital zircon ages

Alexander Robert Tye, Aaron Wolf, Nathan Niemi

Published: 2021-06-19
Subjects: Geochemistry, Probability, Statistical Methodology, Tectonics and Structure

Populations of detrital zircons are shaped by geologic factors such as sediment transport, erosion mechanisms, and the zircon fertility of source areas. Zircon U-Pb age datasets are influenced both by these geologic factors and by the statistical effects of sampling. Such statistical effects introduce significant uncertainty into the inference of parent population age distributions from detrital [...]

Microstructure and fluid flow in rift border fault-bounded basins – insights from the Dombjerg Fault, NE Greenland

Eric Salomon, Atle Rotevatn, Thomas Berg Kristensen, Sten-Andreas Grundvåg, Gijs Allard Henstra

Published: 2021-06-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Sedimentology, Tectonics and Structure

In this contribution, we elucidate the interaction of structural deformation, fluid flow, and diagenesis in hanging wall siliciclastic deposits along rift basin-bounding faults, exemplified at the Dombjerg Fault in NE Greenland. Due to fault-controlled fluid circulation, fault-proximal syn-rift clastic deposits experienced pronounced calcite cementation and became lithified, whereas uncemented [...]

3D seismic reflection data reveal syn-depositional halokinesis in the Zechstein Supergroup (Lopingian), Central North Sea, UK

Amir Joffe, Chris Jackson, Leonardo Muniz Pichel

Published: 2021-06-03
Subjects: Geology, Sedimentology, Tectonics and Structure

Salt tectonics is typically caused by the flow of mobile evaporites in response to post-depositional gravity gliding and/or differential loading by overburden sediments. This situation is considerably more complex near the margins of salt basins, where carbonate and clastic rocks may be deposited at the same time and interbedded with, more mobile, evaporite strata. In these cases, [...]

Tectonic Studies Group Equality Diversity and Inclusion report 2021

Zoe K Mildon, Dave McCarthy, Christopher McMahon, Ken McCaffrey

Published: 2021-05-28
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Tectonics and Structure

In 2021, the TSG Annual Meeting was held online due to the coronavirus pandemic. To build on our 2019 gender diversity report, we wanted to begin gathering diversity data proactively and anonymously. This will enable us to be more inclusive of marginalised genders, avoid mis-gendering participants and to collect a wider range of diversity data. We ran a survey of the presenters and session chairs [...]

Kinematic interaction between stratigraphically discrete salt layers; the structural evolution of the Corrib gas field, offshore NW Ireland

Conor O'Sullivan, Conrad Childs

Published: 2021-05-27
Subjects: Tectonics and Structure

The kinematic interaction of thin salt layers during basin evolution has received little attention to date, despite there being several basins which contain multiple thin salt layers across NW Europe. This study utilises high-quality 3D seismic reflection data coupled with borehole data to investigate the evolution of the structure containing the Corrib gas field which is composed of two distinct [...]

Inferring rheology and geometry of subsurface structures by adjoint-based inversion of principal stress directions

Georg S Reuber, Lukas Holbach, Anton A. Popov, Martin Hanke, Boris J. P. Kaus

Published: 2021-05-21
Subjects: Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

Imaging subsurface structures, such as salt domes, magma reservoirs, or subducting plates, is a major challenge in geophysics. Seismic imaging methods are, so far, the most precise methods to open a window into the Earth. However, the methods may not yield the exact depth or size of the imaged feature and may become distorted by phenomena such as seismic anisotropy, fluid flow, or compositional [...]

Tectonostratigraphy of the northern Okavango Delta and Rift Zone, Botswana

Vashan Wright, Juan Pablo Canales, Nicole de'Enremont, Kitso Matende, Lucky Moffat, Liviu Giosan, Kebabonye Laletsang, Read Mapeo, Mark Behn, Sarah Ivory

Published: 2021-05-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

The Okavango Rift Zone (ORZ) and Okavango Delta in Northwest Botswana are Earth’s youngest continental rift system and largest inland delta. The delta and its underlying sediments record the effects of incipient rifting on the geomorphology and stratigraphy within the (incipient) southwestern arm of the East African Rift System in Botswana. Three open questions that we use river-borne [...]

Exhuming the Canadian Shield: preliminary interpretations from low-temperature thermochronology and significance for the sedimentary succession of the Hudson Bay Basin

Kalin T. McDannell, Nicolas Pinet, Dale R. Issler

Published: 2021-05-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

The geological history of the Canadian Shield is difficult to constrain because the sedimentary record is missing in those areas where Precambrian basement is exposed at the surface. This study presents preliminary results and interpretations of new apatite fission-track (AFT) analyses to elucidate the low-temperature (< 120 °C) history across Canada. The AFT modelling of samples from Southampton [...]

Coupling between shallow and deep fault populations governs along-strike variations in fault reactivation and structural inheritance, the Laminaria High, NW Shelf of Australia

Thomas Brian Phillips, Ken McCaffrey, Luke Magarinos

Published: 2021-05-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

When extension events are greatly separated in time, older faults may be buried and stratigraphically separated from newly developing faults at shallower depths. During rifting, the buried structures may reactivate and propagate upwards to be expressed within the shallow system. The degree of linkage between structural levels determines the influence that the deeper structures can exert over the [...]

Structural Inheritance Controls Strain Distribution During Early Continental Rifting, Rukwa Rift

Folarin Kolawole, Thomas B. Phillips, Estella A. Atekwana, Christopher A-L Jackson

Published: 2021-05-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Little is known about rift kinematics and strain distribution during the earliest phase of extension due to the deep burial of the pre-rift and earliest rift structures beneath younger, rift-related deposits. Yet, this exact phase of basin development ultimately sets the stage for the location of continental plate divergence and breakup. Here, we investigate the structure and strain distribution [...]

The influence of crustal strength on rift geometry and development – Insights from 3D numerical modelling

Thomas Brian Phillips, John Naliboff, Ken McCaffrey, Sophie Pan, Jeroen van Hunen

Published: 2021-05-07
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

The lateral distribution of strength within the crust is highly variable. When subject to extension, lithologically and rheologically distinct areas of crust manifest strain differently, influencing the structural style, geometry and evolution of the associated rift system. Here, we use 3D thermo-mechanical models of continental extension to explore how pre-rift upper crustal strength variations [...]

Fracture distribution in a folded fluvial succession: the Puig-reig anticline (South-eastern Pyrenees)

Xiaolong Sun, Enrique Gomez-Rivas, Juan Alcalde, Juan Diego Martín-Martín, Cunfei Ma, Daniel Muñoz-López, David Cruset, Irene Cantarero, Albert Griera, Anna Travé

Published: 2021-05-07
Subjects: Geology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

Sedimentary rocks of foreland fold-and-thrust belts typically undergo intensive fracturing as fold grows. The resulting fracture networks can present significant variations depending on the distribution of sedimentary facies and the complex structural characteristics of fold-and-thrust belts. The Puig-reig anticline, located in the south-eastern Pyrenees, mainly exposes proximal fluvial deposits [...]

Syn- to post-rift alluvial basin fill: seismic stratigraphic analysis of Permian-Triassic deposition in the Horda Platform, Norway

Camilla Würtzen, Johnathon Lee Osmond, Jan Inge Faleide, Johan Petter Nystuen, Ingrid Margareta Anell, Ivar Midtkandal

Published: 2021-05-02
Subjects: Geology, Geomorphology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

Discrepancies in models of continental rift-basin dynamics and stratigraphic response calls on further investigation on the subject. Geometric- and lithological trends between stages of faulting is studied in the Permian- Triassic continental rift succession in the Horda Platform. The Horda Platform occupies the northeastern margin of the North Sea aulacogen where Late Permian-Early Triassic [...]

Bridging spatiotemporal scales of fault growth during continental extension

Sophie Pan, John Naliboff, Rebecca E. Bell, Chris Jackson

Published: 2021-04-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Continental extension is accommodated by the development of kilometre-scale normal faults, which grow by accumulating metre-scale earthquake slip over millions of years. Reconstructing the entire lifespan of a fault remains challenging due to a lack of observational data with spatiotemporal scales that span the relatively short-term earthquake cycle, and the longer-term paleoseismic record. Using [...]


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