Filtering by Subject: Tectonics and Structure


Emanuele Scaramuzzo, Franz A. Livio, Pablo Granado, Raffaele Bitonte, Andrea Di Capua

Published: 2021-04-20
Subjects: Tectonics and Structure

Recently, the influence of lithospheric extension on later orogeny has gained increasing interest. We make use of own geological mapping, interpretations of seismic reflection profiles and deep geophysical data to build an area-balanced cross-section across a key area of the Western Southern Alps and to model a series of structural restorations from the end of Mesozoic rifting to present-day. The [...]

The 2019-2020 Indios, Puerto Rico earthquake sequence: seismicity and faulting

Blaž Vičič, Seyyedmaalek Momeni, Alessandra Borghi, Anthony Lomax, Abdelkrim Aoudia

Published: 2021-04-20
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

The 2019-2020 Indios, Puerto Rico earthquake sequence ruptured on multiple faults with several moderate magnitude earthquakes. Here we investigate the seismotectonics of this fault system using high precision hypocenter relocation and inversion of the near-field strong motions of five largest events in the sequence (5.6≤Mw≤6.4) for kinematic rupture models. The Mw6.4 mainshock occurred on an NE [...]

The Mid-Lithospheric Discontinuity caused by channel flow in the cratonic lithosphere

Haibin Yang, Irina Artemieva, Hans Thybo

Published: 2021-04-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Stable cratons with a thick (> 200 km) and cold lithosphere form rheologically strong plates that move atop a ductile asthenospheric mantle. Various types of seismic observations show the presence of a potentially rheologically weak zone at depths of ca. 80 – 150 km termed the Mid-Lithosphere Discontinuity (MLD). While various mechanisms may explain the MLD, the dynamic processes leading to the [...]

Stress and Strain during Shock Metamorphism

Auriol S. P. Rae, Michael H. Poelchau, Thomas Kenkmann

Published: 2021-04-15
Subjects: Geology, Planetary Geology, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

Shock metamorphism is the process by which rocks, and the minerals within them, transform during the passage of a shock wave. Shock effects, such as shatter cones, are critical for the identification of impact structures and have commonly been used to infer mechanical and structural information on the cratering process. To make these inferences, the mechanics of shock wave behavior must be [...]

Structure of the deep lithosphere between Pamir and Tarim

Wasja Bloch, Bernd Schurr, Xiaohui Yuan, Lothar Ratschbacher, Sanaa Reuter, Sofia‑Katerina Kufner, Qiang Xu, Junmeng Zhao

Published: 2021-04-14
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

The Pamir orogen protrudes $\sim$300-km between the Tajik and Tarim lithosphere of central Asia. It is debated, whether its salient location and shape is controlled by indentation of a promontory of Indian mantle lithosphere or by rollback of thinned Tarim--Tajik-basin lithosphere. We present a new local-seismicity and focal-mechanism catalog and a P-wave velocity model [...]

Rectangular drainage pattern evolution controlled by pipe cave collapse along clastic dikes, the Dead Sea Basin, Israel

Liran Goren, Matanya Hamawi, Amit Mushkin, Tsafrir Levi

Published: 2021-04-09
Subjects: Geomorphology, Tectonics and Structure

Coulomb Threshold Rate-and-State Model for Fault Reactivation: Application to induced seismicity at Groningen

Elias Rafn Heimisson, Jonathan D Smith, Jean-Philippe Avouac, Stephen Bourne

Published: 2021-04-06
Subjects: Environmental Monitoring, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

A number of recent modeling studies of induced seismicity have used the rate-and-state friction model of Dieterich (1994) to account for the fact that earthquake nucleation is not instantaneous. Notably, the model assumes a population of seismic sources accelerating towards instability with a distribution of intial slip speeds such that they would produce earthquakes steadily in absence of any [...]

Dilatancy and compaction of a rate-and-state fault in a poroelastic medium: Linearized stability analysis

Elias Rafn Heimisson, John Rudnicki, Nadia Lapusta

Published: 2021-04-06
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

Faults in the crust at seismogenic depths are embedded in a fluid-saturated, elastic, porous material. Slip on such faults may induce transient pore pressure changes through dilatancy or compaction of the gouge or host rock. However, the poroelastic nature of the crust and the full coupling of inelastic gouge processes and the host rock have been largely neglected in previous analyses. Here, we [...]

Resolving Northern Alaska Earthquake Sequences Using the Transportable Array and Probabilistic Location Methods

Steven John Gibbons, Natalia Ruppert, Ezgi Karasözen, Kasey Aderhold, Ian Dickson

Published: 2021-03-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Between 2014 and 2017, almost 200 new seismic stations were installed in Alaska and northwestern Canada as part of the EarthScope USArray Transportable Array. These stations currently provide an unprecedented capability for the detection and location of seismic events in regions with otherwise relatively sparse station coverage. Two interesting earthquake sequences in 2018 and 2019 in the [...]

Low variability, snowmelt runoff inhibits coupling of climate, tectonics, and topography in the Greater Caucasus

Adam Matthew Forte, Joel Leonard, Matthew Rossi, Kelin Whipple, Arjun Heimsath, Lasha Sukhishvili, Tea Godoladze, Fakhraddin Kadirov

Published: 2021-03-23
Subjects: Geomorphology, Tectonics and Structure

Hypothesized feedbacks between climate and tectonics are mediated by the relationship between topography and long-term erosion rates. While many studies show monotonic relationships between channel steepness and erosion rates, the degree of nonlinearity in this relationship is geographically variable. There is a critical need to mechanistically explain controls on this relationship in natural [...]

Mechanical Stratigraphy Controls Normal Fault Growth and Dimensions, Outer Kwanza Basin, Offshore Angola

David Redpath, Christopher A-L Jackson, Rebecca E. Bell

Published: 2021-03-19
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Fault growth and dimensions are controlled by mechanical stratigraphy on seismic scales. Here we present a detailed analysis of largely blind faults and their kinematics Offshore, Angola; where, salt bodies and mass-transport complexes (MTC) act as mechanically restricting elements to an array of extensional faults. Our study presents mechanically restricted faults whose data fall within the [...]

Polygenetic mélange in the retrowedge foredeep of an active arc-continent collision, Coastal Range of eastern Taiwan (accepted manuscript)

Larry Syu-Heng Lai, Rebecca J. Dorsey, Chorng-Shern Horng, Wen-Rong Chi, Kai-Shuan Shea, Jiun-Yee Yen

Published: 2021-03-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

The Plio-Pleistocene Lichi Mélange in the Coastal Range of eastern Taiwan offers an excellent opportunity to study processes of mélange development at the continent-ocean interface of an active arc-continent collision. This paper presents new results of detailed geologic mapping, lithofacies analysis, magneto-biostratigraphy, paleocurrent, and paleoslope analyses in the southern Coastal Range to [...]

The Sidi Ifni transect across the rifted margin of Morocco (Central Atlantic): Vertical movements constrained by low-temperature thermochronology

Remi J.G. Charton, Giovanni Bertotti, Angel Arantegui, Luc Bulot

Published: 2021-03-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Paleontology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

The occurrence of km-scale exhumations during syn- and post-rift stages has been documented along Atlantic continental margins, which are also characterised by basins undergoing substantial subsidence. The relationship between the exhuming and subsiding domains is poorly understood. In this study, we reconstruct the evolution of a 50 km long transect across the Moroccan rifted margin from the [...]

An analytical solution for the exhumation of an orogenic wedge and a comparison with thermochronology data

Elco Luijendijk, Leo Benard, Sarah Louis, Christoph von Hagke, Jonas Kley

Published: 2021-03-05
Subjects: Geology, Tectonics and Structure

Thermochronology data is key for quantifying the exhumation history and dynamics of mountain belts. Here we present a new analytical solution for the steady-state exhumation of an orogenic wedge that undergoes transport along a basal detachment, uniform internal deformation, basal and frontal accretion. The solution predicts an increase in exhumation towards the interior of the wedge, with the [...]

Evidence for crustal removal, tectonic erosion and flare-ups from the Japanese evolving forearc sediment provenance

Daniel Pastor-Galán, Christopher Spencer, Tan Furukawa, Tatsuki Tsujimori

Published: 2021-02-24
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Tectonics and Structure

Forearc basins preserve the geologic record relating strictly to arc magmatism. The provenance of forearc sediment can be used to differentiate periods of crustal growth, accretion, and destruction, enhanced magmatism, advancing and retreating subduction slabs, delamination, etc. All these tectonic events systems predict differing degrees of sedimentary reworking of the older forearc units. [...]


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