Filtering by Subject: Tectonics and Structure

Tectonic controls on geomorphology and spatial distribution of monogenetic volcanoes in the Central Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes (Argentina)

Fernanda Silva Santos, Carlos Augusto Sommer, Mauricio Barcelos Haag, et al.

Published: 2021-12-16
Subjects: Geology, Geomorphology, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Monogenetic volcanoes are among the most common volcanic landforms on Earth. The morphology and distribution of small volcanoes can provide important information about eruption dynamics and tectonics. The Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes (CSVZ) comprises one of the most active magmatic regions on Earth. Characterized by the presence of polygenetic volcanoes and calderas in a complex tectonic [...]

Flow regimes during fluid-filled crack propagation in elastic media: Applications to volcanology and magma flow within dykes

Janine Lynsey Kavanagh, Thomas J Jones, David JC Dennis

Published: 2021-12-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Physics, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Scaled analogue experiments were conducted to explore the effect of magma flow regimes, characterised by the Reynolds number (Re), on the transit of magma through the lithosphere via fractures. An elastic, transparent gelatine solid (the crust analogue) was injected by a fluid (magma analogue) to create a thin, vertical, and penny-shaped crack that is analogous to a magma-filled crack (dyke). A [...]

Thermochemical structure and evolution of cratonic lithosphere in central and southern Africa

Juan Carlos Afonso, Walid Ben Mansour, Suzanne Y O’Reilly, et al.

Published: 2021-12-10
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geophysics and Seismology, Mineral Physics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

The thermochemical structure of the subcontinental mantle holds information on its origin and evolution that can inform energy and mineral exploration strategies, natural hazard mitigation and evolutionary models of the Earth. However, imaging the fine-scale thermochemical structure of continental lithosphere remains a major challenge. Here we combine multiple land and satellite datasets via [...]

Improving Urban Seismic Risk Estimates for Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, Incorporating Recent Geological Knowledge of Hazards

Ruth Amey, John Elliott, C. Scott Watson, et al.

Published: 2021-12-07
Subjects: Geology, Geomorphology, Tectonics and Structure

Many cities are built on or near active faults, which pose seismic hazard and risk to the urban population. This risk is exacerbated by city expansion, which may obscure signs of active faulting. Here we estimate the risk to Bishkek city, Kyrgyzstan, due to realistic earthquake scenarios based on historic earthquakes in the region and improved knowledge of the active faulting. We use previous [...]

Sensitivity of horizontal surface deformation to mantle dynamics from 3D instantaneous dynamics modeling of the eastern Mediterranean region

Anne C Glerum, Wim Spakman, Douwe J.J. van Hinsbergen, et al.

Published: 2021-11-29
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

Geodetically estimated surface motions contain contributions to crustal deformation from coupled geodynamic processes active at all spatial scales and constitute key data for lithosphere dynamics research. Data interpretation methods should therefore account for the full range of possible processes, otherwise risking misinterpretation of data signal and incorrect estimation of lithosphere [...]

Rare allanite in granulitised eclogites constrains timing of eclogite to granulite facies transition in the Bhutan Himalaya

Eleni Wood, Clare Warren, Nick M. W. Roberts, et al.

Published: 2021-11-15
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

During continental collision, crustal rocks are buried, deformed, transformed and exhumed. The rates, timescales and tectonic implications of these processes are determined by linking geochemical, geochronological and microstructural data from metamorphic rock-forming and accessory minerals. Exposures of lower orogenic crust provide important insights into orogenic evolution, but are rare in [...]

Reproducibility in subsurface geoscience

Michael J. Steventon, Chris Jackson, Mark Ireland, et al.

Published: 2021-10-26
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Environmental Education, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Hydrology, Mineral Physics, Natural Resource Economics, Natural Resources and Conservation, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Sedimentology, Soil Science, Speleology, Stratigraphy, Sustainability, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology, Water Resource Management

Reproducibility, the extent to which consistent results are obtained when an experiment or study is repeated, sits at the foundation of science. The aim of this process is to produce robust findings and knowledge, with reproducibility being the screening tool to benchmark how well we are implementing the scientific method. However, the re-examination of results from many disciplines has caused [...]

A Mixed, Unified Forward/Inverse Framework for Earthquake Problems: Fault Implementation and Coseismic Slip Estimate

Simone Puel, Eldar Khattatov, Umberto Villa, et al.

Published: 2021-10-06
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

We introduce a new finite-element (FE) based computational framework to solve forward and inverse elastic deformation problems for earthquake faulting via the adjoint method. Based on two advanced computational libraries, FEniCS and hIPPYlib for the forward and inverse problems, respectively, this framework is flexible, transparent, and easily extensible. We represent a fault discontinuity [...]

Fluid-driven Cyclic Reorganisation in Shallow Basaltic Fault Zones

Bob Bamberg, Richard Walker, Marc Reichow, et al.

Published: 2021-10-06
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Tectonics and Structure

Faults represent a critical heterogeneity in basaltic sequences, yet their architectural and hydromechanical evolution is poorly constrained. We present a detailed multi-scale characterisation of passively exhumed fault zones from the layered basalts of the Faroe Islands, which reveals cyclic stages of fault evolution. Outcrop-scale structures and fault rock distribution within the fault zones [...]

The Effects of Layer Thickness on Brittle Boudinage in 3D

Bob Bamberg, Christoph von Hagke, Simon Virgo, et al.

Published: 2021-10-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

We analyse the effects of thickness on brittle boudinage in a metre-scale sample of marble containing a layer of amphibolite recording two phases of ductile pinch-and-swell followed by five generations of brittle boudinage. The amphibolite geometry was reconstructed in 3D, employing a method we call ‘outcrop-scale tomography’. Our data suggests that strain localisation depends on the ration of [...]

Early Pliocene Marine Transgression into the Lower Colorado River Valley, Southwestern USA, by Re-Flooding of a Former Tidal Strait

Rebecca Dorsey, Juan Carlos Braga Alarcón, Kevin Gardner, et al.

Published: 2021-09-29
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

Marine straits and seaways are known to host a wide range of sedimentary processes and products, but the role of marine connections in the development of large river systems remains little studied. This study explores a hypothesis that shallow marine waters flooded the lower Colorado River valley at ~ 5 Ma along a fault-controlled former tidal straight, soon after the river was first integrated [...]

Structural controls on earthquake rupture revealed by the 2020 Mw 6.0 Jiashi earthquake (Kepingtag belt, SW Tian Shan, China)

Siyu Wang, Edwin Nissen, Timothy J Craig, et al.

Published: 2021-09-24
Subjects: Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

The Kepingtag (Kalpin) fold-and-thrust belt of the southern Chinese Tian Shan is characterized by active shortening and intense seismic activity. Geological cross-sections and seismic reflection profiles suggest thin-skinned, northward-dipping thrust sheets detached in an Upper Cambrian décollement. The January 19 2020 Mw 6.0 Jiashi earthquake provides an opportunity to investigate how coseismic [...]

Analogue modelling of the interplay between gravity gliding and spreading across complex rift topography in the Santos Basin

Leonardo Muniz Pichel, Oriol Ferrer, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, et al.

Published: 2021-09-17
Subjects: Geology, Tectonics and Structure

The Santos Basin presents a complex and controversial evolution and distribution of salt tectonics domains. The controversies revolve mainly around the kinematically- linked Albian Gap and São Paulo Plateau. The Albian Gap is a ~450 km long and 60 km wide feature characterized by a post-Albian counter-regional rollover overlying depleted Aptian salt and in which the Albian is absent. The São [...]

Thrusts control the thermal maturity of accreted sediments

Utsav Mannu, David Fernández-Blanco, Ayumu Miyakawa, et al.

Published: 2021-09-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Thermal maturity assessments of hydrocarbon-generation potential and thermal history rarely consider how structures developing during subduction influence the trajectories of accreted sediments. Our thermomechanical models of subduction support that thrusts evolving under variable sedimentation rates and décollement strengths fundamentally influence the trajectory, temperature, and thermal [...]

High interstadial sea levels over the past 420ka from Huon terraces (Papua New Guinea)

Gino de Gelder, Laurent Husson, Anne-Morwenn Pastier, et al.

Published: 2021-09-06
Subjects: Climate, Geology, Geomorphology, Oceanography, Tectonics and Structure

The history of sea level across the Quaternary is essential for assessing past and future climate and geodynamics. Global sea-level reconstructions are typically derived from oxygen isotope curves, but require calibration with geological constraints that are particularly scarce prior to the last glacial cycle (>130 ka). The exceptionally well-preserved coral reef terrace sequence in the Huon [...]


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