Filtering by Subject: Tectonics and Structure

Influence of ductile substrates and layer thickness on the spacing and topology of layer bound fault systems

Mark Ireland, Chris K Morley, Richard Davies

Published: 2020-11-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Sedimentology, Tectonics and Structure

Polygonal fault systems are extraordinary features of many fine grained sedimentary succession and have been described from a significant number of deepwater sedimentary basins over the last two decades. Their formation represents an important mechanism by which fine grained sediments compact often resulting in a variety of complex patterns for which several controlling factors have been [...]

Salt-magma interactions influence intrusion distribution and salt tectonics in the Santos Basin, offshore Brazil

Craig Magee, Leonardo Muniz Pichel, Amber Madden-Nadeau, Christopher A-L Jackson, Webster Mohriak

Published: 2020-10-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Many sedimentary basins host thick evaporite (salt) deposits. Some of these basins also host extensive igneous intrusion networks. It thus seems inevitable that, in some locations, magma will interact with salt. Yet how interaction between these materials may influence salt tectonics or magma emplacement, particularly at the basin-scale, remains poorly understood. We use 3D seismic reflection [...]

Mapping and classifying large deformation from digital imagery: application to analogue models of lithosphere deformation

Taco Broerse, Nemanja Krstekanic, Cor Kasbergen, Ernst Willingshofer

Published: 2020-10-25
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), an image cross-correlation technique, is widely used for obtaining velocity fields from series of images of deforming objects. Rather than instantaneous velocities, we are interested in reconstructing cumulative deformation, and use PIV-derived incremental displacements for this purpose. Our focus is on analogue models of tectonic processes, which can accumulate [...]

A single multi-scale and multi-sourced semi-automated lineament detection technique for detailed structural mapping with applications to geothermal energy exploration

Christopher Mark Yeomans, Hester Claridge, Alexander Hudson, Robin K Shail, Cees Willems, Matthew Eyre, Chris Harker

Published: 2020-10-23
Subjects: Geology, Geomorphology, Tectonics and Structure

A multitude of semi-automated algorithms, many incorporating multi-sourced datasets into a single analysis, now exist. However, these operate at a fixed pixel resolution resulting in multi-sourced methods being limited by the largest input pixel size. Multi-scale lineament detection circumvents this issue and allows increased levels of detail to be captured. In this study we present a [...]

Multi-layered salt-prone stratigraphy and its influence on rift-basin development; The Slyne and Erris basins, offshore NW Ireland

Conor O'Sullivan, Conrad Childs, Muhammad M. Saqab, John Walsh, Patrick Shannon

Published: 2020-10-21
Subjects: Tectonics and Structure

While salt-influenced rift basins have been identified across the European Atlantic margin, the Irish Atlantic margin remains the exception despite salt being proven in several boreholes. Using an extensive seismic database coupled with data from exploration wells and shallow boreholes, this study maps the distribution and composition of salt layers and investigates their role in the structural [...]

Fernandes and Roberts (2020) - preprint

Victoria Milanez Fernandes, Gareth Roberts

Published: 2020-08-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Paleobiology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences, Tectonics and Structure

There are many geoscience problems for which constraining histories of uplift or subsidence of Earth’s surface is of direct or indirect importance, for example reconstructing tectonics, mantle convection, geomorphology, sedimentary and chemical flux, biodiversity, glacio-eustasy and climate change. The least equivocal constraints on timing and amplitude of vertical motions on geological [...]

Taking the pulse of salt-detached gravity gliding in the eastern Mediterranean

Sian Evans, Christopher A-L Jackson, Davide Oppo

Published: 2020-08-06
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

We investigate early-stage salt-detached gliding using a 3D seismic dataset from the Levant Margin in the Eastern Mediterranean, where gravitational instability due to margin uplift has caused north-westward translation of the Messinian salt sheet and its Plio-Pleistocene clastic overburden. Large, NE-trending, base-salt anticlines have allowed the basinward translation to be recorded by the [...]

Leaky salt: pipe trails record the history of cross-evaporite fluid escape in the northern Levant Basin, Eastern Mediterranean

Davide Oppo, Sian Evans, DaVID Iacopini, SM Mainul Kabir, Vittorio Maselli, Christopher A-L Jackson

Published: 2020-08-06
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Despite salt being regarded as an extremely efficient, low-permeability hydraulic seal, an increasing number of cross-evaporite fluid escape features have been documented in salt-bearing sedimentary basins. Because of this, it is clear that our understanding of how thick salt deposits impact fluid flow in sedimentary basins is incomplete. We here examine the causes and evolution of [...]

Basement-Controlled Deformation of Sedimentary Sequences, Anadarko Shelf, Oklahoma

Folarin Kolawole, Molly Simpson Turko, Brett Carpenter

Published: 2020-07-30
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Structures rooted in the crystalline basement frequently control the deformation of the host bedrock and the overlying sedimentary sequences. Here, we elucidate the structure of the c. 2‐km deep Precambrian granitic basement in the Anadarko Shelf, Oklahoma, and how the propagation of basement faults deformed the sedimentary cover. Although the basin is foreland in origin, the gently dipping shelf [...]

Whats down there? The structures, materials and environment of deep-seated tremor and slip

Whitney Maria Behr, Roland Bürgmann

Published: 2020-07-16
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Episodic tremor and slow slip (ETS) events occur downdip of the seismogenic zone of numerous subduction megathrusts and plate boundary strike-slip faults. These events represent a fascinating and perplexing mode of fault failure that has greatly broadened our view of earthquake dynamics. In this contribution, we review constraints on the ETS deformation process from both geophysical observations [...]

Structural Evolution of Salt-Influenced Fold-and-Thrust Belts: Principles in Salt Basins Containing Isolated Minibasins

Oliver B Duffy, Timothy Dooley, Michael R Hudec, Naiara Fernandez, Christopher A-L Jackson, Juan I. Soto

Published: 2020-07-16
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Shortening styles in salt-influenced fold-and-thrust belts can vary markedly, with the volume and distribution of salt prior to shortening being a key control. Here we use a suite of physical models to examine styles of thin-skinned shortening in settings where the precursor structure comprised minibasins surrounded by salt (‘isolated-minibasin’ provinces). Our models show that the high volume of [...]

What Controls Salt‐Detached Contraction in the Translational Domain of the Outer Kwanza Basin, Offshore Angola?

Aurio Erdi, Christopher A-L Jackson

Published: 2020-07-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Engineering, Geology, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

It is now well‐established that base‐salt relief drives complex deformation patterns in the mid‐slope domain of salt‐bearing passive margins, in a location classically thought to be dominated by simple horizontal translation. However, due to a lack of detailed studies drawing on high‐quality, 3D seismic reflection data, our understanding of how base‐salt relief controls four‐dimensional patterns [...]

Application of the tilt derivative transform to bathymetric data for structural lineament mapping

Christopher Mark Yeomans, Matthew Head, Jordan James Lindsay

Published: 2020-07-08
Subjects: Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

High-resolution bathymetry surveys provide an opportunity to analyse local geological structure where onshore areas afford limited exposure. Semi-automated lineament detection methods are necessary for areas of large coverage where a manual analysis would be subjective and time-consuming. However, semi-automated approaches are dependent on effective feature extraction methods to identify genuine [...]

Dislocation interactions in olivine control postseismic creep of the upper mantle

David Wallis, Lars Hansen, Angus J. Wilkinson, Ricardo A. Lebensohn

Published: 2020-06-30
Subjects: Condensed Matter Physics, Earth Sciences, Geology, Mineral Physics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics, Tectonics and Structure

Changes in stress applied to mantle rocks, such as those imposed by earthquakes, induce a period of evolution in viscosity and microstructure. This transient creep is often modelled based on stress transfer among slip systems due to grain interactions. However, recent experiments have demonstrated that the intragranular accumulation of stresses among dislocations is the dominant cause of strain [...]

Seismological Expression of the Iron Spin Crossover in Ferropericlase in the Earth’s Lower Mantle

Grace E. Shephard, Christine Houser, John Hernlund, Juan J. Valencia-Cardona, Reidar Trønnes, Renata Wentzkovitch

Published: 2020-06-30
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geophysics and Seismology, Mineral Physics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics, Quantum Physics, Tectonics and Structure

The two most abundant minerals on Earth which together make up over 90% of the Earth’s lower mantle are (Mg,Fe)O-ferropericlase (Fp) and (Mg,Fe)SiO3-bridgmanite (Bm). Iron in Fp undergoes a high-spin to low-spin (HS-LS) crossover that influences density, viscosity, elasticity, thermal conductivity, and elemental partitioning, however, the predicted effects of this transition are not apparent in [...]


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