Filtering by Subject: Tectonics and Structure

Fault rock heterogeneity can produce fault weakness and reduce fault stability

John Bedford, Daniel Faulkner, Nadia Lapusta

Published: 2021-08-30
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

Geological heterogeneity is abundant in crustal fault zones; however, its role in controlling the mechanical behaviour of faults is poorly constrained. Here, we present laboratory friction experiments on laterally heterogeneous faults, with patches of strong, rate-weakening quartz gouge and weak, rate-strengthening clay gouge. The experiments show that the heterogeneity leads to a significant [...]

Safety and Belonging in the Field: A Checklist for Educators

Sarah E Greene, Gwen S. Antell, Jake Atterby, et al.

Published: 2021-08-19
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Climate, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Education, Environmental Education, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Fresh Water Studies, Geochemistry, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Higher Education, Human Geography, Hydrology, Life Sciences, Meteorology, Mineral Physics, Natural Resource Economics, Natural Resources and Conservation, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Nature and Society Relations, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Other Geography, Other Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Planetary Sciences, Outdoor Education, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical and Environmental Geography, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Biogeochemistry, Planetary Geochemistry, Planetary Geology, Planetary Geomorphology, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Glaciology, Planetary Hydrology, Planetary Mineral Physics, Planetary Sciences, Planetary Sedimentology, Remote Sensing, Sedimentology, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Soil Science, Spatial Science, Speleology, Stratigraphy, Sustainability, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology, Water Resource Management

Ensuring taught fieldwork is a positive, generative, collective, and valuable experience for all participants requires considerations beyond course content. To guarantee safety and belonging, participants’ identities (backgrounds and protected characteristics) must be considered as a part of fieldwork planning and implementation. Furthermore, getting fieldwork right is an important step in [...]

Dissolution precipitation creep as a process for the strain localisation in mafic rocks

Amicia L Lee, Holger Stünitz, Mathieu Soret, et al.

Published: 2021-08-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Tectonics and Structure

Unaltered mafic rocks consist of mechanically strong minerals (e.g. pyroxene, plagioclase and garnet) that can be deformed by crystal plastic mechanisms only at high temperatures (>800°C). Yet, many mafic rocks do show extensive deformation by non-brittle mechanisms when they have been subjected to lower temperature conditions. In such cases, the deformation typically is assisted by mineral [...]

Dynamic Compressive Strength and Fragmentation in Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks

Auriol S. P. Rae, Thomas Kenkmann, Vivek Padmanabha, et al.

Published: 2021-08-15
Subjects: Mechanics of Materials, Tectonics and Structure

Brittle deformation at high strain rates results in intense fragmentation and rock pulverisation. For rocks, the critical strain rate at which this behaviour occurs is ~10^2 s-1. The mechanical properties of rocks at these strain rates can also be very different from their quasi-static properties. Deformation of rocks at these strain rates is uncommon in nature but can occur during fault rupture, [...]

The role of surface processes in basin inversion and breakup unconformity

Luke Mondy, Patrice F Rey, Guillaume Duclaux

Published: 2021-08-03
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

At divergent plate boundaries, extensional tectonics lead to subsidence, continental rifting and the formation of continental margins. Yet, within this extensional context, transient compressional structures (stress inversion) and phases of uplift (depth inversion) are frequently recorded with no corresponding change in plate motion. Changes in gravitational potential energy during the rifting [...]

Salt welding during canopy advance and shortening in the Green Canyon Area, northern Gulf of Mexico

Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, Sian Lianne Evans, Turki Alshammasi

Published: 2021-07-30
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Other Earth Sciences, Tectonics and Structure

Welds form due to the tectonically-induced thinning and/or dissolution of salt, with their composition and completeness thought to at least partly reflect their structural position within the salt-tectonic system. Despite their importance as seals or migration pathways for accumulations of hydrocarbons and CO2, we have relatively few examples of drilled subsurface welds; such examples would allow [...]

Strengths and limitations of in situ U-Pb titanite petrochronology in polymetamorphic rocks: An example from western Maine, USA.

Jesse B Walters, Alicia M Cruz-Uribe, Won Joon Song, et al.

Published: 2021-07-29
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Titanite is a potentially powerful U-Pb petrochronometer that may record metamorphism, metasomatism, and deformation. Titanite may also incorporate significant inherited Pb, the correction for which may introduce inaccuracies and result in geologically ambiguous U-Pb dates. Here we present laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)-derived titanite U-Pb dates and trace [...]

Contrasting geomorphic and stratigraphic responses to normal fault development during single and multi-phase rifting

Sofia Pechlivanidou, Anneleen Geurts, Guillaume Duclaux, et al.

Published: 2021-07-27
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Understanding the impact of tectonics on surface processes and the resultant stratigraphic evolution in multi-phase rifts is challenging, as patterns of erosion and deposition related to older phases of extension are overprinted by the subsequent extensional phases. In this study, we use a one-way coupled numerical modelling approach between a tectonic and a surface processes model to investigate [...]

Creating a Diamond Open Access community journal for Seismology and Earthquake Science

Martijn van den Ende, Lucile Bruhat, Gareth Funning, et al.

Published: 2021-07-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

On 24 November 2020, the Springer Nature publishing group announced the introduction of Open Access (OA) articles in Nature and its sibling journals. The corresponding OA publication fee (charged directly to the authors) was set to €9,500/$11,390/£8,290, an amount that may be well out of reach for many researchers. This is especially a problem for researchers in developing countries, early-career [...]

Stylolites and stylolite networks as primary controls on the geometry and distribution of carbonate diagenetic alterations

Enrique Gomez-Rivas, Juan Diego Martín-Martín, Paul D. Bons, et al.

Published: 2021-07-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

There is an ongoing debate on whether stylolites act as barriers or conduits for fluids, or even play no role in terms of fluid transport. This problem can be tackled by examining the spatial and temporal relationships between stylolites and other diagenetic products at multiple scales. Using the well-known Lower Cretaceous Benicàssim case study (Maestrat Basin, E Spain), we provide new field and [...]

A reappraisal of active tectonics along the Fethiye-Burdur trend, southwestern Turkey

Edwin Nissen, Mussaver Didem Cambaz, Élyse Gaudreau, et al.

Published: 2021-07-07
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

We investigate active tectonics in southwestern Turkey along the trend between Fethiye, near the eastern end of the Hellenic subduction zone, and Burdur, on the Anatolian plateau. Previously, regional GPS velocity data have been used to propose either (1) a NE-trending zone of strike-slip faulting coined the Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone, or (2) a mix of uniaxial and radial extension accommodated by [...]

Deglaciation-enhanced mantle CO2 fluxes at Yellowstone imply positive climate feedback

Fiona Clerc, Mark Behn, Brent Minchew

Published: 2021-06-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

The generation of mantle melts in response to decompression by glacial unloading has been linked to enhanced volcanic activity and volatile release in Iceland and in global eruptive records. However, it is unclear whether this process is also important in magmatically-active systems that do not show evidence of enhanced eruption rates. For example, the deglaciation of the Yellowstone ice cap did [...]

Rift kinematics preserved in deep-time erosional landscape below the northern North Sea

Thilo Wrona, Alexander C Whittaker, Rebecca E. Bell, et al.

Published: 2021-06-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Our understanding of continental rifting is, in large parts, derived from the stratigraphic record. This record is, however, incomplete as it does not often capture the geomorphic and erosional signal of rifting. New 3D seismic reflection data reveals a Late Permian-Early Triassic landscape incised into the pre-rift basement of the northern North Sea. This landscape, which covers at least 542 [...]

An autonomous petrological database for geodynamic simulations of magmatic systems

Lisa Rummel, Tobias S. Baumann, Boris J.P. Kaus

Published: 2021-06-24
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Self-consistent modelling of magmatic systems is challenging as the melt continuously changes its chemical composition upon crystallization, which may affect the mechanical behaviour of the system. Melt extraction and subsequent crystallization create new rocks while depleting the source region. As the chemistry of the source rocks changes locally due to melt extraction, new calculations of the [...]

Insights into the compositional evolution of crustal magmatic systems from coupled petrological-geodynamical models

Lisa Rummel, Boris J.P. Kaus, Tobias S. Baumann, et al.

Published: 2021-06-24
Subjects: Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

The evolution of crustal magmatic systems is incompletely understood, as most studies are limited either by their temporal or spatial resolution. Exposed plutonic rocks represent the final stage of a long-term evolution punctuated by several magmatic events with different chemistry and generated under different mechanical conditions. Although the final state can be easily described, the nature of [...]


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