Filtering by Subject: Volcanology

Ascent rates of 3D fractures driven by a finite batch of buoyant fluid

Timothy Davis, Eleonora Rivalta, Delphine Smittarello, et al.

Published: 2022-06-20
Subjects: Fluid Dynamics, Geology, Glaciology, Mechanics of Materials, Volcanology

Propagation of fluid-filled fractures by fluid buoyancy is important in a variety of settings, from magmatic dykes and veins to water-filled crevasses in glaciers. Industrial hydro-fracturing utilises fluid-driven fractures to increase the permeability of rock formations; the effect of buoyancy on fracture pathways in this context is typically neglected. Analytical approximations for the buoyant [...]

Advances in seismic imaging of magma and crystal mush

Michele Paulatto, Emilie Hooft, Kajetan Chrapkiewicz, et al.

Published: 2022-06-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Volcanology

Seismic imaging methods have been used to constrain the subsurface structure at nearly one hundred arc, hotspot and continental rift volcanoes worldwide. The resulting detailed three-dimensional constraints on physical properties have provided invaluable insight into the storage, differentiation and dynamics of magma. These constraints have significantly contributed to our modern understanding of [...]

The CREp 36Cl exposure age calculator: development version “dev”

Irene Schimmelpfennig, Pierre-Henri BLARD, Jim Tesson, et al.

Published: 2022-05-04
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Glaciology, Sedimentology, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Chlorine-36 (36Cl) is currently the only in situ cosmogenic nuclide applicable in carbonates, Ca- and K-rich feldspars and aphyric silicate rocks. Because the production reactions of 36Cl are more numerous and complex than those of other cosmogenic nuclides (e.g. 10Be, 3He), comprehensive and user-friendly calculators are essential for routine application of 36Cl to Earth surface research [...]

Magnetic fabrics reveal three-dimensional flow processes within elongate magma fingers near the Shonkin Sag laccolith (MT, USA)

Jonas Köpping, Alexander R. Cruden, Craig Magee, et al.

Published: 2022-04-29
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Unravelling magma flow in ancient sheet intrusions is critical to understanding how magma pathways develop and feed volcanic eruptions. Analyzing the shape preferred orientation of minerals in intrusive rocks can provide information on magma flow, because crystals may align parallel to the primary flow direction. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is an established method to quantify [...]

Late Glacial and Holocene Palaeolake History of the Última Esperanza Region of Southern Patagonia

Stephen J Roberts, Robert D McCulloch, Joseph F Emmings, et al.

Published: 2022-03-29
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Glaciology, Hydrology, Paleobiology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Volcanology

We undertook multiproxy analyses on two sediment cores from Lago Pato, a small lake basin at 51°S topographically separated from Lago del Toro in Torres del Paine (TdP), to provide insights into glacier dynamics and lake level change in the TdP and Última Esperanza region over the last ~30,000 cal a BP (30 ka). Lago Pato is situated in a region overridden by the Southern Patagonian Icefield [...]

Magma chamber detected beneath an arc volcano with high-resolution velocity images

Kajetan Chrapkiewicz, Michele Paulatto, Benjamin Heath, et al.

Published: 2022-03-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Volcanology

Arc volcanoes are underlain by complex systems of molten-rock reservoirs ranging from melt-poor mush zones to melt-rich magma chambers. Petrological and satellite data indicate that eruptible magma chambers form in the topmost few kilometres of the crust. However, very few chambers have ever been definitively located, suggesting that most are too short-lived or too small to be imaged, which has [...]

PyMelt: An extensible Python engine for mantle melting calculations

Simon Matthews, Kevin Wong, Matthew Lloyd Morgan Gleeson

Published: 2022-02-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Volcanology

Modelling the melting of Earth’s mantle is crucial for understanding the distribution of volcanic activity on Earth and for testing models of mantle convection and mantle lithological heterogeneity. PyMelt is a new open-source Python library for calculating the melting behaviour of multi-lithology mantle and can be used to predict a number of geophysical and petrological observations, including [...]

S-wave modeling of the Showa-Shinzan lava dome in Usu Volcano, Northern Japan, from seismic observations

Akiko Takeo, Kiwamu Nishida, Hiroshi Aoyama, et al.

Published: 2022-02-09
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

To obtain an internal S-wave velocity structure, we conducted a passive seismic campaign with 21 1-Hz seismometers on and around the Showa-Shinzan lava dome, which emerged during the 1943–1945 eruption of Usu Volcano, Japan. Before the campaign, we calibrated seismometers and found slight phase-response differences between seismometers of less than 1–2 degrees. After the campaign, we extracted [...]

Indian Plate paleogeography, subduction, and horizontal underthrusting below Tibet: paradoxes, controvercies, and opportunities

Douwe J.J. van Hinsbergen

Published: 2022-02-06
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

The India-Asia collision zone is the archetype to calibrate geological responses of continent-continent collision, but hosts a paradox: there is no orogen-wide geological record of oceanic subduction after initial collision around 60-55 Ma, yet thousands of kilometers of post-collisional subduction occurred before arrival of unsubductable continental lithosphere that currently horizontally [...]

Explosive activity on Kīlauea’s Lower East Rift Zone fuelled by a volatile-rich, dacitic melt

Penny E Wieser, Marie Edmonds, Cheryl Gansecki, et al.

Published: 2022-01-12
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Magmas with matrix glass compositions ranging from basalt to dacite erupted from a series of 24 fissures in the first two weeks of the 2018 Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) eruption of Kīlauea Volcano. Eruption styles ranged from low spattering and fountaining to strombolian activity. Major element trajectories in matrix glasses and melt inclusions hosted by olivine, pyroxene and plagioclase are [...]

Insights into Magma Storage Beneath a Frequently Erupting Arc Volcano (Villarrica, Chile) from Unsupervised Machine Learning Analysis of Mineral Compositions

Felix Boschetty, David Ferguson, Joaquín Cortés, et al.

Published: 2022-01-12
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geology, Volcanology

A key method to investigate magma dynamics is the analysis of the crystal cargoes carried by erupted magmas. These cargoes may comprise crystals that crystallize in different parts of the magmatic system (throughout the crust) and/or different times. While an individual eruption likely provides a partial view of the sub-volcanic plumbing system, compiling data from multiple eruptions builds a [...]

Experimental multiblast craters and ejecta — seismo-acoustics, jet characteristics, craters, and ejecta deposits and implications for volcanic explosions

Ingo Sonder, Alison H. Graettinger, Tracianne B. Neilsen, et al.

Published: 2022-01-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Blasting experiments were performed that investigate multiple explosions that occur in quick succession in the ground and their effects on host material and atmosphere. Such processes are known to occur during volcanic eruptions at various depths, lateral locations, and energies. The experiments follow a multi-instrument approach in order to observe phenomena in the atmosphere and in the ground, [...]

Downward-propagating eruption following vent unloading implies no direct magmatic trigger for the 2018 lateral collapse of Anak Krakatau

Kyra S. Cutler, Sebastian Watt, Mike Cassidy, et al.

Published: 2021-12-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Stratigraphy, Volcanology

The lateral collapse of Anak Krakatau volcano, Indonesia, in December 2018 highlighted the potentially devastating impacts of volcanic edifice instability. Nonetheless, the trigger for the Anak Krakatau collapse remains obscure. The volcano had been erupting for the previous six months, and although failure was followed by intense explosive activity, it is the period immediately prior to collapse [...]

Tectonic controls on geomorphology and spatial distribution of monogenetic volcanoes in the Central Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes (Argentina)

Fernanda Silva Santos, Carlos Augusto Sommer, Mauricio Barcelos Haag, et al.

Published: 2021-12-16
Subjects: Geology, Geomorphology, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Monogenetic volcanoes are among the most common volcanic landforms on Earth. The morphology and distribution of small volcanoes can provide important information about eruption dynamics and tectonics. The Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes (CSVZ) comprises one of the most active magmatic regions on Earth. Characterized by the presence of polygenetic volcanoes and calderas in a complex tectonic [...]

External surface water influence on explosive eruption dynamics, with implications for stratospheric sulfur delivery and volcano-climate feedback

Colin Rowell, Mark Jellinek, Sahand Hajimirza, et al.

Published: 2021-12-09
Subjects: Fluid Dynamics, Geophysics and Seismology, Volcanology

Explosive volcanic eruptions can inject sulfur dioxide (SO2) into the stratosphere to form aerosol particles that modify Earth’s radiation balance and drive surface cooling. Eruptions involving interactions with shallow layers (< 500 m) of surface water and ice modify the eruption dynamics that govern the delivery of SO2 to the stratosphere. External surface water potentially controls the [...]


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