Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Volcanology

The dynamics of the Campi Flegrei caldera magma chamber.

Chiara Paola Montagna, Paolo Papale, Antonella Longo

Published: 2021-09-10
Subjects: Fluid Dynamics, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Volcanology

The Campi Flegrei volcanic system is certainly a remarkable case study for what concerns magma chamber dynamics. In fact, its magmatic and volcanic history appears to have been largely driven by chamber processes like fractional crystallization, magma mixing, and volatile degassing. These processes have been intensely investigated with a variety of approaches that are described in many chapters [...]

Safety and Belonging in the Field: A Checklist for Educators

Sarah E Greene, Gwen S. Antell, Jake Atterby, et al.

Published: 2021-08-19
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Climate, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Education, Environmental Education, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Fresh Water Studies, Geochemistry, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Higher Education, Human Geography, Hydrology, Life Sciences, Meteorology, Mineral Physics, Natural Resource Economics, Natural Resources and Conservation, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Nature and Society Relations, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Other Geography, Other Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Planetary Sciences, Outdoor Education, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical and Environmental Geography, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Biogeochemistry, Planetary Geochemistry, Planetary Geology, Planetary Geomorphology, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Glaciology, Planetary Hydrology, Planetary Mineral Physics, Planetary Sciences, Planetary Sedimentology, Remote Sensing, Sedimentology, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Soil Science, Spatial Science, Speleology, Stratigraphy, Sustainability, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology, Water Resource Management

Ensuring taught fieldwork is a positive, generative, collective, and valuable experience for all participants requires considerations beyond course content. To guarantee safety and belonging, participants’ identities (backgrounds and protected characteristics) must be considered as a part of fieldwork planning and implementation. Furthermore, getting fieldwork right is an important step in [...]

VESIcal Part II: A critical approach to volatile solubility modelling using an open-source Python3 engine

Penny E Wieser, Kayla Iacovino, Simon Matthews, et al.

Published: 2021-07-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Volcanology

Accurate models of H2O and CO2 solubility in silicate melts are vital for understanding volcanic plumbing systems. These models are used to estimate the depths of magma storage regions from melt inclusion volatile contents, investigate the role of volatile exsolution as a driver of volcanic eruptions, and track the degassing paths followed by magma ascending to the surface. However, despite the [...]

Machine learning thermobarometry and chemometry using amphibole and clinopyroxene: a window into the roots of an arc volcano (Mount Liamuiga, Saint Kitts)

Oliver John Higgins, Tom Sheldrake, Luca Caricchi

Published: 2021-07-04
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Mineral Physics, Stratigraphy, Volcanology

The physical and chemical properties of magma govern the eruptive style and behaviour of volcanoes. Many of these parameters are linked to the storage pressure and temperature of the erupted magma, and melt chemistry. However, reliable single-phase thermobarometers and chemometers which can recover this information, particularly using amphibole chemistry, remain elusive. We present a suite of [...]

Deglaciation-enhanced mantle CO2 fluxes at Yellowstone imply positive climate feedback

Fiona Clerc, Mark Behn, Brent Minchew

Published: 2021-06-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

The generation of mantle melts in response to decompression by glacial unloading has been linked to enhanced volcanic activity and volatile release in Iceland and in global eruptive records. However, it is unclear whether this process is also important in magmatically-active systems that do not show evidence of enhanced eruption rates. For example, the deglaciation of the Yellowstone ice cap did [...]

A Multiphysics approach to constrain the dynamics of the Altiplano-Puna magmatic system

Arne Spang, Tobias S. Baumann, Boris J. P. Kaus

Published: 2021-06-25
Subjects: Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Volcanology

Continuous Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) monitoring (> 25 years) has revealed a concentric surface deformation pattern above the Altiplano-Puna magma body (APMB) in the central Andes. Here, we use a joint interpretation of seismic imaging, gravity anomalies and InSAR data to constrain location, 3D geometry and density of the magma body. By combining gravity modelling, [...]

An autonomous petrological database for geodynamic simulations of magmatic systems

Lisa Rummel, Tobias S. Baumann, Boris J. P. Kaus

Published: 2021-06-24
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Self-consistent modelling of magmatic systems is challenging as the melt continuously changes its chemical composition upon crystallization, which may affect the mechanical behaviour of the system. Melt extraction and subsequent crystallization create new rocks while depleting the source region. As the chemistry of the source rocks changes locally due to melt extraction, new calculations of the [...]

Insights into the compositional evolution of crustal magmatic systems from coupled petrological-geodynamical models

Lisa Rummel, Boris J. P. Kaus, Tobias S. Baumann, et al.

Published: 2021-06-24
Subjects: Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

The evolution of crustal magmatic systems is incompletely understood, as most studies are limited either by their temporal or spatial resolution. Exposed plutonic rocks represent the final stage of a long-term evolution punctuated by several magmatic events with different chemistry and generated under different mechanical conditions. Although the final state can be easily described, the nature of [...]

The hazards of unconfined pyroclastic density currents: a new synthesis and classification according to their deposits, dynamics, and thermal and impact characteristics

Geoffrey A Lerner, Susanna F Jenkins, Sylvain J Charbonnier, et al.

Published: 2021-06-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) that escape their confining channels are among the most dangerous of volcanic hazards. These unconfined PDCs are capable of inundating inhabited areas that may be unprepared for these hazards, resulting in significant loss of life and damage to infrastructure. Despite their ability to cause serious impacts, unconfined PDCs have previously only been described [...]

Quantifying the influence of conduit inclination on Taylor Bubble behaviour in basaltic magmas.

Hannah Calleja, Tom D Pering

Published: 2021-05-27
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

The ascent of single Taylor bubbles suspended in a range of Newtonian liquids, scaled to mimic basaltic magmas, within vertical and inclined tubes has been studied experimentally over the range 0° to 70° (where 0° is vertical and 90° is horizontal). Using measurements of Taylor bubble parameters (ascent velocity and film thickness) and morphology, alongside dimensionless numbers, we show that [...]

A radial hydraulic fracture driven by a Herschel–Bulkley fluid

Evgenii Kanin, Egor Dontsov, Dmitry Garagash, et al.

Published: 2021-05-27
Subjects: Fluid Dynamics, Hydraulic Engineering, Hydrology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Volcanology

We analyse the influence of fluid yield stress on propagation of a radial (penny-shaped) hydraulic fracture in a permeable reservoir. In particular, the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model is adopted that includes yield stress and non-linearity of the shear stress. The rock is assumed to be linear elastic, and the fracture is driven by the point source fluid injection with a constant volumetric [...]

AMS and rock magnetism in the Caviahue-Copahue Volcanic Complex (Southern Andes): emission center, flow dynamics, and implications to the emplacement of non-welded PDCs

Mauricio Barcelos Haag, Carlos Augusto Sommer, Jairo Fransciso Savian, et al.

Published: 2021-05-14
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Pyroclastic deposits can cover significant areas and register major geological events. Despite their importance, understanding depositional dynamics of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) and linking explosive deposits to their emission centers is still a challenge, especially in the case of non-welded, massive ignimbrites. Located in the Southern Andes, the Caviahue Copahue Volcanic Complex [...]

Insights into the nature of plume-ridge interaction and outflux of H2O from the Galápagos Spreading Centre

Matthew Lloyd Morgan Gleeson, Sally Gibson

Published: 2021-02-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

The flow of high-temperature and compositionally-enriched material between mantle plumes and nearby spreading centres influences up to 30% of the global mid-ocean ridge system and represents a significant, but currently unconstrained, flux of volatiles out of the mantle. Here we present new analyses of H2O, F, Cl and S in basaltic glass chips from an archetypal region of plume-ridge interaction, [...]

Classification, segmentation and correlation of zoned minerals

Tom Sheldrake, Oliver John Higgins

Published: 2021-02-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Statistics and Probability, Volcanology

Minerals exhibit zoning patterns that can be related to changes in the environment in which they grew. Using statistical methods that have been designed to segment optical images, we have developed a procedure to segment zonation within minerals and correlate these zones between multiple crystals using elemental maps. This allows us to quantify the complexity and variability of chemical zoning [...]

Quantitative chemical mapping of plagioclase as a tool for the interpretation of volcanic stratigraphy: an example from Saint Kitts, Lesser Antilles

Oliver John Higgins, Tom Sheldrake, Luca Caricchi

Published: 2021-02-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Stratigraphy, Volcanology

Establishing a quantitative link between magmatic processes occurring at depth and volcanic eruption dynamics is essential to forecast the future behaviour of volcanoes, and to correctly interpret monitoring signals at active centres. Chemical zoning in minerals, which captures successive events or states within a magmatic system, can be exploited for such a purpose. However, to develop a [...]

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