Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Volcanology

Explosive activity on Kīlauea’s Lower East Rift Zone fuelled by a volatile-rich, dacitic melt

Penny E Wieser, Marie Edmonds, Cheryl Gansecki, et al.

Published: 2022-01-12
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Magmas with matrix glass compositions ranging from basalt to dacite erupted from a series of 24 fissures in the first two weeks of the 2018 Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) eruption of Kīlauea Volcano. Eruption styles ranged from low spattering and fountaining to strombolian activity. Major element trajectories in matrix glasses and melt inclusions hosted by olivine, pyroxene and plagioclase are [...]

Insights into Magma Storage Beneath a Frequently Erupting Arc Volcano (Villarrica, Chile) from Unsupervised Machine Learning Analysis of Mineral Compositions

Felix Boschetty, David Ferguson, Joaquín Cortés, et al.

Published: 2022-01-12
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geology, Volcanology

A key method to investigate magma dynamics is the analysis of the crystal cargoes carried by erupted magmas. These cargoes may comprise crystals that crystallize in different parts of the magmatic system (throughout the crust) and/or different times. While an individual eruption likely provides a partial view of the sub-volcanic plumbing system, compiling data from multiple eruptions builds a [...]

Experimental multiblast craters and ejecta — seismo-acoustics, jet characteristics, craters, and ejecta deposits and implications for volcanic explosions

Ingo Sonder, Alison H. Graettinger, Tracianne B. Neilsen, et al.

Published: 2022-01-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Blasting experiments were performed that investigate multiple explosions that occur in quick succession in the ground and their effects on host material and atmosphere. Such processes are known to occur during volcanic eruptions at various depths, lateral locations, and energies. The experiments follow a multi-instrument approach in order to observe phenomena in the atmosphere and in the ground, [...]

Downward-propagating eruption following vent unloading implies no direct magmatic trigger for the 2018 lateral collapse of Anak Krakatau

Kyra S. Cutler, Sebastian Watt, Mike Cassidy, et al.

Published: 2021-12-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Stratigraphy, Volcanology

The lateral collapse of Anak Krakatau volcano, Indonesia, in December 2018 highlighted the potentially devastating impacts of volcanic edifice instability. Nonetheless, the trigger for the Anak Krakatau collapse remains obscure. The volcano had been erupting for the previous six months, and although failure was followed by intense explosive activity, it is the period immediately prior to collapse [...]

Tectonic controls on geomorphology and spatial distribution of monogenetic volcanoes in the Central Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes (Argentina)

Fernanda Silva Santos, Carlos Augusto Sommer, Mauricio Barcelos Haag, et al.

Published: 2021-12-16
Subjects: Geology, Geomorphology, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Monogenetic volcanoes are among the most common volcanic landforms on Earth. The morphology and distribution of small volcanoes can provide important information about eruption dynamics and tectonics. The Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes (CSVZ) comprises one of the most active magmatic regions on Earth. Characterized by the presence of polygenetic volcanoes and calderas in a complex tectonic [...]

Flow regimes during fluid-filled crack propagation in elastic media: Applications to volcanology and magma flow within dykes

Janine Lynsey Kavanagh, Thomas J Jones, David JC Dennis

Published: 2021-12-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Physics, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Scaled analogue experiments were conducted to explore the effect of magma flow regimes, characterised by the Reynolds number (Re), on the transit of magma through the lithosphere via fractures. An elastic, transparent gelatine solid (the crust analogue) was injected by a fluid (magma analogue) to create a thin, vertical, and penny-shaped crack that is analogous to a magma-filled crack (dyke). A [...]

External surface water influence on explosive eruption dynamics, with implications for stratospheric sulfur delivery and volcano-climate feedback

Colin Rowell, Mark Jellinek, Sahand Hajimirza, et al.

Published: 2021-12-09
Subjects: Fluid Dynamics, Geophysics and Seismology, Volcanology

Explosive volcanic eruptions can inject sulfur dioxide (SO2) into the stratosphere to form aerosol particles that modify Earth’s radiation balance and drive surface cooling. Eruptions involving interactions with shallow layers (< 500 m) of surface water and ice modify the eruption dynamics that govern the delivery of SO2 to the stratosphere. External surface water potentially controls the [...]

Variety of the drift pumice clasts from the 2021 Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba eruption, Japan.

Kenta Yoshida, Yoshihiko Tamura, Tomoki Sato, et al.

Published: 2021-11-25
Subjects: Geology, Volcanology

Pumice rafts that arrived at the Nansei Islands, Japan, provided a unique opportunity to investigate the Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba (FOB) eruption of August 2021. Despite drifting for two months for >1300 km, the drift pumice raft had a large volume and contained a variety of pumice clasts, some of which were deposited during a high tide in a typhoon, while others were washed up on a sandy beach. Most of [...]

Geochemical variability as an indicator for large volume eruptions in volcanic arcs

Gregor Weber, Tom Sheldrake

Published: 2021-11-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Volcanology

Caldera-forming eruptions have the potential to impact global climate and induce drastic socioeconomic change. However, the criteria to identify volcanoes capable of producing large magnitude eruptions in the future are not well constrained. Here we compile and analyse data, revealing that volcanoes which have produced catastrophic caldera-forming eruptions in the past, typically show larger [...]

Modeling Volcano-Magmatic Systems: Workshop Report for the Modeling Collaboratory for Subduction Research Coordination Network

Helge M. Gonnermann, Kyle Anderson

Published: 2021-11-12
Subjects: Volcanology

This document summarizes the outcomes of the Modeling Collaboratory for Subduction Zone Science (MCS) Volcanic Systems Workshop and presents a vision for advancing collaborative modeling of volcano-magmatic systems. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has identified 161 potentially active volcanoes in the United States and its territories, of which 57 are considered to be high or very high [...]

Open access in geochemistry from preprints to data sharing: past, present and future

Olivier Pourret, Dasapta Erwin Irawan

Published: 2021-11-08
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Volcanology

In this short communication, we discuss the latest advances regarding Open Access in the Earth Sciences and geochemistry community from preprints to findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable data following 14f session held at Goldschmidt conference (4-9 July 2021) dedicated to “Open Access in Earth Sciences”.

Persistent shallow micro-seismicity at Llaima volcano, Chile, with implications for long-term monitoring

Oliver Lamb, Jonathan M Lees, Luis Franco Marin, et al.

Published: 2021-11-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Identifying the source mechanisms of low-frequency earthquakes at ice-covered volcanoes can be challenging due to overlapping characteristics of glacially and magmatically derived seismicity. Here we present an analysis of two months of seismic data from Llaima volcano, Chile, recorded by the permanent monitoring network in 2019. We find over 2,000 repeating low-frequency events split across 82 [...]

Reproducibility in subsurface geoscience

Michael J. Steventon, Chris Jackson, Mark Ireland, et al.

Published: 2021-10-27
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Environmental Education, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Hydrology, Mineral Physics, Natural Resource Economics, Natural Resources and Conservation, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Sedimentology, Soil Science, Speleology, Stratigraphy, Sustainability, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology, Water Resource Management

Reproducibility, the extent to which consistent results are obtained when an experiment or study is repeated, sits at the foundation of science. The aim of this process is to produce robust findings and knowledge, with reproducibility being the screening tool to benchmark how well we are implementing the scientific method. However, the re-examination of results from many disciplines has caused [...]

Magma pressurisation sustains eruptive episode at dome-building Soufrière Hills Volcano

James Hickey, Karen Pascal, Matthew Head, et al.

Published: 2021-10-22
Subjects: Volcanology

Dome-building volcanoes are particularly challenging for volcanic hazard assessment, where long-term eruptive episodes can be interspersed with periods of intra-eruptive repose. Defining the end of eruptive episodes is vitally important for the socio-economic recovery of affected communities, but highly problematic due to the potential for prolonged, seemingly low-risk, repose to rapidly [...]

Improving the reliability of Fe- and S-XANES measurements in silicate glasses: Correcting beam damage and identifying Fe-oxide nanolites in hydrous and anhydrous melt inclusions

Allan Lerner, Michelle Muth, Paul Wallace, et al.

Published: 2021-10-19
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geology, Mineral Physics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

The redox state of silicate melts influences crystallization, element partitioning, and degassing behavior. Synchrotron-based micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (μXANES) spectroscopy has emerged as a powerful tool for determining redox conditions through the direct measurement of speciation of multivalent elements such as iron and sulfur in silicate glasses. In particular, the high [...]

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