Filtering by Subject: Volcanology

Insights into the nature of plume-ridge interaction and outflux of H2O from the Galápagos Spreading Centre

Matthew Lloyd Morgan Gleeson, Sally Gibson

Published: 2021-02-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

The flow of high-temperature and compositionally-enriched material between mantle plumes and nearby spreading centres influences up to 30% of the global mid-ocean ridge system and represents a significant, but currently unconstrained, flux of volatiles out of the mantle. Here we present new analyses of H2O, F, Cl and S in basaltic glass chips from an archetypal region of plume-ridge interaction, [...]

Classification, segmentation and correlation of zoned minerals

Tom Sheldrake, Oliver John Higgins

Published: 2021-02-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Statistics and Probability, Volcanology

Minerals exhibit zoning patterns that can be related to changes in the environment in which they grew. Using statistical methods that have been designed to segment optical images, we have developed a procedure to segment zonation within minerals and correlate these zones between multiple crystals using elemental maps. This allows us to quantify the complexity and variability of chemical zoning [...]

Quantitative chemical mapping of plagioclase as a tool for the interpretation of volcanic stratigraphy: an example from Saint Kitts, Lesser Antilles

Oliver John Higgins, Tom Sheldrake, Luca Caricchi

Published: 2021-02-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Stratigraphy, Volcanology

Establishing a quantitative link between magmatic processes occurring at depth and volcanic eruption dynamics is essential to forecast the future behaviour of volcanoes, and to correctly interpret monitoring signals at active centres. Chemical zoning in minerals, which captures successive events or states within a magmatic system, can be exploited for such a purpose. However, to develop a [...]

Observational estimates of dynamic topography through space and time

Mark Hoggard, Jacqueline Austermann, Cody Randel, Simon Stephenson

Published: 2021-01-24
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Paleobiology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Earth's mantle undergoes convection on million-year timescales as heat is transferred from depth to the surface. Whilst this flow has long been linked to the large-scale horizontal forces that drive plate tectonics and supercontinent cycles, geologists are increasingly recognising the signature of convection through transient vertical motions in the rock record, known as "dynamic topography". A [...]

The building blocks of igneous sheet intrusions: insights from 3D seismic reflection data

Jonas Köpping, Craig Magee, Alexander R. Cruden, Christopher A-L Jackson, James Norcliffe

Published: 2021-01-19
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Dykes, sills, and inclined sheets may intrude as continuous, planar sheets, but can also form by the amalgamation of discrete injections of magma. Describing the host rock deformation style around distinct geometric components within sheet intrusions can help us to determine emplacement mechanisms, how magma flow influences accumulation of economic resources, and how magma migration may translate [...]

Integrated magnetotelluric and petrological analysis of felsic magma reservoirs: Insights from Ethiopian rift volcanoes

Friedemann Samrock, Alexander V. Grayver, Olivier Bachmann, Özge Karakas, Martin O Saar

Published: 2021-01-16
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geophysics and Seismology, Volcanology

Geophysical and petrological probes are key to understanding the structure and the thermochemical state of active magmatic systems. Recent advances in laboratory analyses, field investigations and numerical methods have allowed increasingly complex data-constraint models with new insights into magma plumbing systems and melt evolution. However, there is still a need for methods to quantitatively [...]

Simultaneous classification and location of volcanic deformation in SAR interferograms using deep learning and the VolcNet database

Matthew Gaddes, Andy Hooper, Fabien Albino

Published: 2021-01-12
Subjects: Volcanology

With the evolution of InSAR into a tool for active hazard monitoring, through its ability to detect ground deformation with low latency, new methods are sought to quickly and automatically interpret the large number of interferograms that are created. In this work, we present a convolutional neural network (CNN) that is able to both classify the type of deformation, and to locate the [...]

Structural controls on the emplacement and evacuation of magma from a sub-volcanic laccolith; Reyðarártindur Laccolith, SE Iceland

Vincent Twomey, William McCarthy, Craig Magee

Published: 2021-01-06
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Higher Education, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Science and Mathematics Education, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

VESIcal Part I: An open-source thermodynamic model engine for mixed volatile (H2O-CO2) solubility in silicate melts

Kayla Iacovino, Simon Matthews, Penny E Wieser, Gordon Moore, Florence Bégué

Published: 2020-12-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Geochemistry, Planetary Geology, Planetary Sciences, Volcanology

Thermodynamics has been fundamental to the interpretation of geologic data and modeling of geologic systems for decades. However, more recent advancements in computational capabilities and a marked increase in researchers’ accessibility to computing tools has outpaced the functionality and extensibility of currently available modeling tools. Here we present VESIcal (Volatile Equilibria and [...]

The shape of volcanic conduits inferred from bubble size distributions

Sahand Hajimirza, Helge M. Gonnermann, James E. Gardner

Published: 2020-11-28
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Volcanology

The most intense known explosive volcanic eruptions on Earth are Plinian eruptions of silicic magma. Geospeedometers indicate that Plinian magma erupts from high pressure within the magma chamber at average speeds of 0.001-1 MPa/s. Concurrently dissolved magmatic volatiles, predominantly water, nucleate about one quadrillion bubbles per cubic meter of melt, preserved as vesicles within tephra. [...]

Boron isotopic signatures of melt inclusions from North Iceland reveal recycled material in the Icelandic mantle source

Margaret Hartley, Oliver Shorttle, Cees-Jan de Hoog

Published: 2020-11-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Trace element and volatile heterogeneity in the Earth's mantle is inuenced by the recycling of oceanic lithosphere through subduction. Oceanic island basalts commonly have high concentrations of volatiles compared to mid-ocean ridge basalts, but the extent to which this enrichment is linked to recycled mantle domains remains unclear. Boron is an ideal tracer of recycled subducted material, [...]

Segment tip geometry of sheet intrusions, II: Field observations of tip geometries and a model for evolving emplacement mechanisms

Tara Louise Stephens, Richard J Walker, David Healy, Alodie Bubeck

Published: 2020-11-03
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Volcanology

Igneous sheet intrusions are segmented across several orders of magnitude, with segment tip geometry commonly considered indicative of the propagation mechanism (brittle or non-brittle). Proposed propagation mechanisms are inferred to represent host rock mechanical properties during initial magma emplacement; typically, these models do not account for segment sets that show a range of tip [...]

Studying the initiation of volcanic eruptions: Time for a petrological perspective.

Adam J Kent, Christy B Till, Kari M Cooper

Published: 2020-10-28
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Volcanology

Volcano monitoring is essential for mitigating the risks associated with volcanic activity. As monitoring becomes more sophisticated and widespread, there is a growing need for understanding the relationship between different monitoring records and magmatic processes occurring at depth. This is particularly relevant to the processes that initiate eruptions after the extended periods of repose and [...]

Salt-magma interactions influence intrusion distribution and salt tectonics in the Santos Basin, offshore Brazil

Craig Magee, Leonardo Muniz Pichel, Amber Madden-Nadeau, Christopher A-L Jackson, Webster Mohriak

Published: 2020-10-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Many sedimentary basins host thick evaporite (salt) deposits. Some of these basins also host extensive igneous intrusion networks. It thus seems inevitable that, in some locations, magma will interact with salt. Yet how interaction between these materials may influence salt tectonics or magma emplacement, particularly at the basin-scale, remains poorly understood. We use 3D seismic reflection [...]

Was the Kalkarindji continental flood basalt province a driver of environmental change at the dawn of the Phanerozoic?

Peter Marshall, Luke E Faggetter, Mike Widdowson

Published: 2020-10-22
Subjects: Paleobiology, Volcanology

The Kalkarindji continental flood basalt province of Northern Australia is the oldest basaltic LIP in the Phanerozoic having erupted in the mid Cambrian. At this time, during the Cambrian Explosion, the global environment suffered a series of mass extinctions and biotic turnover. Kalkarindji had the potential to release 1.65 x 106 Tg of CO2, approximately 1.72% of the total Cambrian atmospheric [...]


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