Filtering by Subject: Volcanology

Mapping surface displacement using a pair of interferograms: comparative study

Stéphanie Dumont, Fernando Lopes, Freysteinn Sigmundsson, Vincent Drouin

Published: 2020-02-26
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Interferometric analysis of Synthetic Aperture Radar satellite images (InSAR) measures only one component of ground deformation, in the satellite line-of-sight direction. In order to fully resolve the three dimensional (3D) ground displacement field, InSAR images acquired with different imaging geometries are required. Despite the increase in the number of SAR missions, an area is most frequently [...]

Geodetic Evidence for a Buoyant Mantle Plume Beneath the Eifel Volcanic Area, NW Europe

Corné Kreemer, Geoffrey Blewitt, Paul M. Davis

Published: 2020-02-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

The volcanism of the Eifel volcanic field (EVF), in west-central Germany, is often considered an example of hotspot volcanism given its geochemical signature and the putative mantle plume imaged underneath. EVF’s setting in a stable continental area provides a rare natural laboratory to image surface deformation and test the hypothesis of there being a thermally buoyant plume. Here we use Global [...]

Did sea-level change cause the switch from fissure-type to central-type volcanism at Mount Etna, Sicily?

Iain Stewart

Published: 2020-02-12
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

One of the most intriguing aspects of the evolution of Mount Etna (eastern Sicily) is the switch from a fissure-type shield volcano coincident with the Ionian coast to an inland cluster of nested stratovolcanoes close to the currently active centre. Previous geological studies infer that the switch reflects a tectonically-driven rearrangement of the major border faults that direct the Etnean [...]

Chalcophile elements track the fate of sulfur at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai’i

Penny E Wieser, Frances Jenner, Marie Edmonds, John Maclennan, Barbara Kunz

Published: 2020-02-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Chalcophile element concentrations in melt inclusions and matrix glasses may be used to investigate low pressure degassing processes, as well as sulfide saturation during crustal fractionation, and mantle melting. Erupted products from Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaiʻi, record three stages of sulfide saturation (in the mantle, crust, and within lava lakes), separated by episodes of sulfide resorption [...]

Fault rupture during the December 26, 2018, Mw 4.9 Fleri earthquake (Mt. Etna): surface faulting in a volcano-tectonic environment

domenico bella, FRANZ LIVIO, Maria Francesca Ferrario, Gianluca Groppelli, Giorgio Tringali, Domenico Boso, Anna Maria Blumetti, Pio Di Manna, Eutizio Vittori, Luca Guerrieri

Published: 2020-02-04
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

On December 26, 2018, the largest instrumental earthquake ever recorded in Mt. Etna (Sicily, southern Italy) shook the eastern flank of the volcano, with epicenter near the Fleri village along the right-lateral Fiandaca Fault (focal depth less than 1 km, Mw 4.9). The mainshock was accompanied by widespread surface faulting. We surveyed and mapped the coseismic ground ruptures and collected [...]

Novel insights from Fe-isotopes into the lithological heterogeneity of Ocean Island Basalts and plume-influenced MORBs

Matthew Gleeson, Sally A Gibson, Helen Wiliams

Published: 2020-02-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

The extent of lithological heterogeneity in the Earth’s convecting mantle is highly debated. Whilst the presence of pyroxenite in the mantle source regions of Ocean Island Basalts (OIBs) has traditionally been constrained using the minor-element chemistry of olivine phenocrysts, recent studies have shown that the Ni and Mn contents of primitive olivines are influenced by the conditions of mantle [...]

Pleistocene - Holocene volcanism at the Karkar geothermal prospect, Armenia

Khachatur Meliksetian, Iain Neill, Dan N. Barfod, Eilidh Milne, Emma Waters, Gevorg Navasardyan, Edmond Grigoryan, Valerie Olive, Nicholas Odling, Arkady Karakhanian

Published: 2020-01-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Quaternary volcanic centres north of the Bitlis-Zagros suture in Turkey, Iran and the Caucasus represent both volcanic hazards and potential or actual geothermal energy resources. Such challenges and opportunities cannot be fully quantified without understanding these volcanoes’ petrogenesis, geochronology and magmatic, tectonic or other eruption triggers. In this preliminary study, we discuss [...]

The architecture of an intrusion in magmatic mush

Alexandre Carrara, Alain Burgisser, George W. Bergantz

Published: 2020-01-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Magmatic reservoirs located in the upper crust have been shown to result from the repeated intrusions of new magmas, and spend much of the time as a crystal-rich mush. The geometry of the intrusion of new magmas may greatly affect the thermal and compositional evolution of the reservoir. Despite advances in our understanding of the physical processes that may occur in a magmatic reservoir, the [...]

Logarithmic growth of dikes from a depressurizing magma chamber

Benjamin E. Grossman-Ponemon, Elias Rafn Heimisson, Adrian J. Lew, Paul Segall

Published: 2019-11-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Dike propagation is an intrinsically multiphase problem, where deformation and fluid flow are intricately coupled in a fracture process. Here we perform the first fully-coupled simulations of dike propagation in two dimensions, accounting for depressurization of a circular magma chamber, dynamic fluid flow, fracture formation, and elastic deformation. Despite the complexity of the governing [...]

Investigating potential icequakes at Llaima volcano, Chile

Oliver D. Lamb, Jonathan Lees, Luis Franco Marin, Jonathan Lazo, Andres Rivera, Michael J. Shore, Stephen J. Lee

Published: 2019-10-24
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Glaciology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Glacially- and magmatically-derived seismic events have been noted to heavily overlap in characteristics, thus there exists the potential for false-alarms or missed warnings at ice-covered volcanoes. Here we present the first study to specifically target icequakes at an ice-covered volcano in Southern Chile. Two months of broadband seismic data collected at Llaima volcano in 2015 were analyzed in [...]

Deep and rapid thermo-mechanical erosion by a small-volume lava flow

Elisabeth Gallant, Fanghui Deng, Surui Xie, Charles B. Connor, Timothy H. Dixon, J. Armando Saballos, Carmen Guitierrez, Douglas Myhre, Laura J. Connor, John M. Zayac

Published: 2019-10-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

We document remarkably efficient thermo-mechanical erosion by a small-volume lava flow. Downcutting by a basaltic-andesite lava flow on the steep-sided Momotombo volcano, Nicaragua, occurred at 100 times the rate commonly reported for thermal erosion in lava flow fields, even though this flow was small-volume (0.02 km^3) and effused at a low rate for <1 week. The erosion depth, up to 30 m [...]

Deep Low-Frequency Earthquakes Associated with the Eruptions of Shinmoe-dake in Kirishima Volcanoes

Ryo Kurihara, Kazushige Obara, Akiko Takeo, Yusaku Tanaka

Published: 2019-10-06
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Deep low-frequency (DLF) earthquakes occur beneath the Kirishima volcanoes in southwest Japan at depths of 10–30 km. In this study, we aim to reveal the relationship between DLF earthquakes and volcanic activity including eruptions by relocating the hypocenters of the earthquakes using the network correlation coefficient method and detecting the earthquakes comprehensively using the matched [...]

Machine Learning Reveals the Seismic Signature of Eruptive Behavior at Piton de la Fournaise Volcano

Christopher X. Ren, Aline Peltier, Valerie Ferrazzini, Bertrand Rouet‐Leduc, Paul Johnson, Florent Brenguier

Published: 2019-09-30
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Volcanic tremor is key to our understanding of active magmatic systems but, due to its complexity, there is still a debate concerning its origins and how it can be used to characterize eruptive dynamics. In this study we leverage machine learning (ML) techniques using 6 years of continuous seismic data from the Piton de la Fournaise volcano (La Réunion island) to describe specific patterns of [...]

How do deep-water volcanoes grow?

Qiliang Sun, Craig Magee, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, Samuel J. Mitchell, Xinong Xie

Published: 2019-09-23
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Deep-water volcanoes are emplaced in water depths >1.0 km and are widespread along continental margins and in ocean basins. Whilst the external morphology of deep-water volcanoes can be mapped using bathymetric surveys, their internal structure and true volume remain enigmatic. It is thus difficult to determine how deep-water volcanoes grow. We investigate 13 Late Miocene-to-Quaternary, [...]

The near-tip region of a hydraulic fracture with pressure-dependent leak-off and leak-in

Evgenii Kanin, Dmitry Garagash, Andrei A. Osiptsov

Published: 2019-09-03
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

This paper is concerned with an analysis of the near tip region of a propagating fluid-driven fracture in a saturated permeable rock. The study attempts to accurately resolve the coupling between the physical processes - rock breakage, fluid pressure drop in the viscous fluid flow in the fracture, and fluid exchange between fracture and the rock - that exert influence on the hydraulic fracture [...]


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