Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Water Resource Management

OpenOBS: Open-source, low-cost optical backscatter sensors for water quality and sediment-transport research

Emily Eidam, Theodore Langhorst, Evan B Goldstein, McKenzie McLean

Published: 2021-06-17
Subjects: Environmental Monitoring, Fluid Dynamics, Fresh Water Studies, Geomorphology, Oceanography, Sedimentology, Water Resource Management

Optical backscatter sensors (OBSs) are commonly used to measure the turbidity, or light obscuration, of water in fresh and marine environments and various industrial applications. These turbidity measurements are commonly calibrated to yield total suspended solids (TSS) or suspended sediment concentration (SSC) measurements for water quality, sediment transport, and diverse other research and [...]

Advancing on the Promises of Techno-ecological Nature-based Solutions: A Framework for Green Technology in Water Supply & Treatment

Emma A.J. Blackburn, Monica B. Emelko, Sarah Dickson-Anderson, Michael Stone

Published: 2021-06-10
Subjects: Environmental Engineering, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Other Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sustainability, Water Resource Management

Nature-based Solutions (NBS) are increasingly proposed for effectively and adaptively addressing societal challenges such as water security and natural disasters. However, NBS that are exclusively reliant on natural processes are not fit-for-purpose for the provision of safe drinking water—some range of built technology is required. There is a wide spectrum of techno-ecological NBS—“green [...]

The importance of threshold in alluvial river channel geometry and dynamics

Colin Phillips, Claire Masteller, Louise Slater, Kieran Dunne, Simona Francalanci, Stefano Lanzoni, Dorothy Merritts, Eric Lajeunesse, Douglas J. Jerolmack

Published: 2021-05-27
Subjects: Fluid Dynamics, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Sedimentology, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, Water Resource Management

Many cities and settlements are organized around alluvial rivers, which are self-formed channels composed of gravel, sand and mud. Much of the time alluvial river channels are oversized, in that they could accommodate greater water flow; yet during extreme storms they are woefully undersized, and potentially catastrophic flooding can occur. Considering widely varying hydroclimates, sediment [...]

Evaluating the Economic Fairways for Hydrogen Production in Australia

Stuart Duncan Christopher Walsh, Laura Easton, Zhehan Weng, Changlong Wang, Joseph Moloney, Andrew Feitz

Published: 2021-05-20
Subjects: Chemical Engineering, Natural Resource Economics, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Physical and Environmental Geography, Power and Energy, Water Resource Management

Assessments of hydrogen project viability typically focus on evaluating specific sites for development, or providing generic cost-estimates that are independent of location. In reality, the success of hydrogen projects will be intimately linked to the availability of local energy resources, access to key infrastructure and water supplies, and the distance to export ports and energy markets. In [...]

Integrating ecosystem services information into water resource management: an indicator-based approach

Kashif Shaad, Nicholas J Souter, Derek Vollmer, Helen M Regan, Maíra Ometto Bezerra

Published: 2021-05-19
Subjects: Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Water Resource Management

Natural ecosystems are fundamental to local water cycles and the water-related ecosystem services that humans enjoy, such as water provision and protection from natural hazards. However, integrating ecosystem services into water resources management requires that they be acknowledged, quantified, and communicated to decision makers. We present an indicator framework that incorporates the supply [...]

Release timing and duration control the fate of photolytic compounds in stream-hyporheic systems

Jase Hixson, Adam Scott Ward, Christina Remucal, Megan McConville

Published: 2021-04-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Water Resource Management

Predicting environmental fate requires an understanding of the underlying, spatiotemporally variable interaction of transport and transformation processes. Photolytic compounds, for example, interact with both time-variable photolysis and the perennially dark hyporheic zone, generating potentially unexpected dynamics that arise from time-variable reactivity. This interaction has been found to [...]

A Hydrologist’s Guide to Open Science

Caitlyn A Hall, Sheila M. Saia, Andrea Popp, Nilay Dogulu, Stan Schymanski, Niels Drost, Tim van Emmerik, Rolf Hut

Published: 2021-04-22
Subjects: Climate, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Water Resource Management

Hydrologic research that is open, accessible, reusable, and reproducible will have the largest impact on the scientific community and broader society. While more and more members of the hydrology community and key hydrology organizations are embracing open science practices, technical (e.g., limited coding experience), resource (e.g., open access fees), and social (e.g., fear of being scooped) [...]

Particulate PhozzyLogic Index for policy makers—an index for a more accurate and transparent identification of critical source areas

Gerold Hepp, Eva Strenge, Matthias Zessner

Published: 2021-04-20
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Water Resource Management

This study presents an algorithm for the allocation of particulate phosphorus (PP) loads entering surface waters to their sources of origin, which is a basic requirement for the identification of critical PP source areas and in turn a cost-effective implementation of mitigation measures. Furthermore, it conducts a sensitivity analysis determining the impacts of storm drains, discharge frequencies [...]

A quantitative history of the U.S. Clean Water Act’s jurisdiction

Riley Walsh, Adam Scott Ward

Published: 2021-04-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Water Resource Management

The Clean Water Act (CWA) is the primary federal mechanism by which the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of streams, lakes, and wetlands are protected in the U.S. The CWA has evolved considerably since its initial passage in 1948, including explicit expansions and contractions of jurisdictional scope through a series of legislative actions, court decisions, and agency rules. Here, we [...]

Global climate-driven trade-offs between the water retention and cooling benefits of urban greening

Mark Cuthbert, Gabriel Rau, Adam Bates, Marie Ekstrom, Denis O'Carroll

Published: 2021-02-23
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Construction Engineering and Management, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sustainability, Water Resource Management

Heat-related mortality and flooding are pressing challenges for the >4 billion urban population worldwide, exacerbated by increasing urbanization and climate change. Urban greening, such as green roofs and parks, can potentially help address both problems, but the geographical variation of the relative hydrological and thermal performance benefits of such interventions are unknown. Here we [...]

How EU policies could reduce nutrient pollution in European inland and coastal waters?

Bruna Grizzetti, Olga Vigiak, Angel Udias, Alberto Aloe, Michela Zanni, Faycal Bouraoui, Alberto Pistocchi, Chiara Dorati, Rene Friedland, Ad De Roo, Carlos Benitez Sanz, Adrian Leip, Maria Bielza

Published: 2021-02-16
Subjects: Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Planetary Biogeochemistry, Water Resource Management

Intensive agriculture and densely populated areas represent major sources of nutrient pollution for European inland and coastal waters, altering the aquatic ecosystems and affecting their capacity to provide ecosystem services and support economic activities. Ambitious water policies are in place in the European Union (EU) for protecting and restoring aquatic ecosystems under the Water Framework [...]

Why do we have so many different hydrological models? A review based on the case of Switzerland

Pascal Horton, Bettina Schaefli, Martina Kauzlaric

Published: 2021-02-02
Subjects: Hydrology, Water Resource Management

Hydrology plays a central role in applied as well as fundamental environmental sciences, but it is well known to suffer from an overwhelming diversity of models, in particular to simulate streamflow. Based on Switzerland's example, we discuss here in detail how such diversity did arise even at the scale of such a small country. The case study's relevance stems from the fact that Switzerland shows [...]

LakeEnsemblR: An R package that facilitates ensemble modelling of lakes

Tadhg N. Moore, Jorrit P. Mesman, Robert Ladwig, Johannes Feldbauer, Freya Olsson, Rachel M. Pilla, Tom Shatwell, Jason J. Venkiteswaran, Austin D. Delany, Hilary Dugan, Kevin C. Rose, Jordan S. Read

Published: 2021-01-06
Subjects: Fresh Water Studies, Hydrology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Water Resource Management

Model ensembles have several benefits compared to single-model applications but are not frequently used within the lake modelling community. Setting up and running multiple lake models can be challenging and time consuming, despite the many similarities between the existing models (forcing data, hypsograph, etc.). Here we present an R package, LakeEnsemblR, that facilitates running ensembles of [...]

Multi-decadal improvement in U.S. lake water clarity

Simon Nemer Topp, Tamlin M. Pavelsky, Emily H. Stanley, Xiao Yang, Claire G. Griffin, Matthew R.V. Ross

Published: 2020-12-17
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Hydrology, Water Resource Management

Across the globe, recent work examining the state of freshwater resources paints an increasingly dire picture of degraded water quality. However, much of this work either focuses on a small subset of large waterbodies or uses in situ water quality datasets that contain biases in when and where sampling occurred. Using these unrepresentative samples limits our understanding of landscape level [...]

Impacts of a regional multi-year insect defoliation event on seasonal runoff ratios and instantaneous streamflow characteristics

Sarah Smith-Tripp, Alden Griffith, Valerie Pasquarella, Jaclyn Hatala Matthes

Published: 2020-10-26
Subjects: Forest Sciences, Hydrology, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology, Water Resource Management

Repeated moderate severity forest disturbances can cause short- and long-term shifts in ecosystem processes. Prior work has found that stand-replacing disturbances (e.g., clear-cutting) increases streamflow in temperate forests, but streamflow responses to repeated moderate severity disturbances are more equivocal. This study examined a moderate disturbance caused by an unexpected population [...]

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