Filtering by Subject: Public Health

Bacteriological quality of household drinking water and cholera risk in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana

Anthony Zunuo Dongdem, Bismark Sarfo, Adolphina Addo-Lartey, et al.

Published: 2023-08-25
Subjects: Public Health

Background The bacteriological quality of drinking water plays a critical role in preventing waterborne diseases. In Ghana, there is water scarcity and many communities depend on contaminated water sources for their domestic use. This study aimed to assess the microbiological quality of household drinking water in both cholera endemic and non-endemic areas in Greater Accra Region. Methods A [...]

What can be said about risks, vulnerabilities, and adaptation to climate change in Caribbean small island developing states (SIDS)? The case of Dominica. A qualitative study

Sarah Cooper, Christiana Abraham, Terrilia Ravaliere, et al.

Published: 2023-08-02
Subjects: Public Health

Introduction Caribbean Small island developing states (SIDS) are generally qualified as disproportionately vulnerable to climate change, including extreme weather events like hurricanes. While many studies already documented the impacts of climate change on health in the wealthiest countries, there is little knowledge in this field in Caribbean SIDS. Our study aims to discuss health risks and [...]

Improving drinking water consumer confidence reports: Applying user-centered design

Mary Fox, Vidisha Agarwalla, Kayla R. Iuliano, et al.

Published: 2023-07-20
Subjects: Public Health

The US Environmental Protection Agency is revising its policy on drinking water quality reports for consumers. These reports are intended to enhance the public’s “right to know” and to spur action to protect and promote safe water. However, these reports are known to be highly technical and difficult to access compromising their communication value. This study engaged a focus group to gather [...]

The weather does not support farmers: an exploratory qualitative study in Kavre district, Nepal.

Ishwar Tiwari, Denise Spitzer, Stephen Hodgins, et al.

Published: 2023-06-22
Subjects: Public Health

Kavre district, Nepal, is highly vulnerable to climate change impacts, including increases in erratic rainfall, drought, floods, and landslides. As gender roles, culture, age, physical and physiological characteristics increase, mainly Nepalese women's and children's, health risks associated with climate change and air pollution, listening to and learning from women is critical. This study [...]

Using Detrending to Assess SARS-CoV-2 Wastewater Loads as a Leading Indicator of Fluctuations in COVID-19 Cases at Fine Temporal Scales: Correlations Across Twenty Sewersheds in North Carolina

Kelly Hoffman, David Holcomb, Stacie Reckling, et al.

Published: 2023-06-03
Subjects: Public Health

Wastewater surveillance emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic as a novel strategy for tracking the burden of illness in communities. Previous work has shown that trends in wastewater SARS-CoV-2 viral loads correlate well with reported COVID-19 case trends over longer time periods (i.e., months). We used detrending time series to reveal shorter sub-trend patterns (i.e., weeks) to identify leads or [...]

Climate change, concern, and children: A systematic review exploring the intersection of climate change, mental health, and reproductive decision-making

Hope Dillarstone, Laura Brown, Elaine Flores

Published: 2023-05-27
Subjects: Public Health

The impact of climate change on reproductive decision-making is becoming a significant issue, with anecdotal evidence indicating a growing number of people factoring their concerns about climate change into their childbearing plans. Although empirical research has explored climate change and its relationship to mental health, as well as the motivations behind reproductive decision-making [...]

The Invisibility of Health Effects Associated with Water Pollution within Disease Burden Estimates: Analysis from a Colombian Andean Watershed

Fabian Mendez, Laura E. Piedrahita-Gómez, Andrés Fernando Toro, et al.

Published: 2023-04-14
Subjects: Public Health

Modernization goes along with a significant increase in pollution-related health risks linked to the ever growing economic and technological development. In addition to water-related communicable diseases, there are emerging concerns regarding the burden of disease attributable to the complexity of chemical pollution loads released into the environment. Studies demonstrating an association [...]

Understanding and Assessing Demographic (In)Equity Resulting from Extreme Heat Exposure due to Lack of Tree Canopies in Norfolk, VA using Agent-Based Modeling

Virginia Zamponi, Kevin Obrien, Erik Jensen, et al.

Published: 2023-03-31
Subjects: Biodiversity, Environmental Public Health, Environmental Studies, Human Geography, Public Health, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Statistics and Probability

Prolonged exposure to extreme heat can result in illness and death. In urban areas of dense concentrations of pavement, buildings, and other surfaces that absorb and retain heat, extreme heat conditions can arise regularly and create harmful environmental exposures for residents daily during certain parts of the year. Tree canopies provide shade and help to cool the environment, making mature [...]

Crisis at the Salton Sea: The Vital Role of Science

Marilyn Fogel, Hoori Ajami, Emma Aronson, et al.

Published: 2021-03-04
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Chemistry, Climate, Earth Sciences, Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Public Health, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Medicine and Health Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Public Health, Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Salton Sea—a hypersaline, terminal lake in southern California—is in crisis. A combination of mismanagement and competition among federal, state and local agencies has hindered efforts to address declining lake levels and unstable water chemistry. This delay has heightened the public health threat to regional communities as retreating shorelines expose dry lakebed— a source of potentially [...]

ENSO Drives Child Undernutrition in the Global Tropics

Jesse K Anttila-Hughes, Amir Sultan Jina, Gordon C McCord

Published: 2020-11-12
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Climate, Environmental Public Health, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Other Environmental Sciences, Public Health, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Sustainability

The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a principal component of global climate variability known to influence a host of social and economic outcomes, but its systematic effects on human health remain poorly understood. We estimate ENSO’s association with child nutrition at global scale by combining variation in ENSO intensity from 1986-2018 with children’s height and weight from 186 surveys [...]

High Attenuation Recycled Materials as landfill liners (the HARM project) – A new concept for improved landfill liner design

Mercedes Regadío, Alex Cargill, Jonathan A. Black, et al.

Published: 2020-01-28
Subjects: Bioresource and Agricultural Engineering, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Education, Engineering, Engineering Science and Materials, Environmental Public Health, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geotechnical Engineering, Hydrology, Medicine and Health Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Public Health, Soil Science

A new approach in landfill liner design which combines hydraulic containment of leachate with contaminant attenuation to improve the performance of these environmental control systems at landfills is described. The idea is to re-use readily available industrial waste residues (construction and biomass waste) as additives for natural clay liners, wherein the additives have specific properties [...]

Creating a Model to Optimize and Evaluate the Heat-Reducing Capacity of Green Infrastructure

Natasha Stamler

Published: 2018-09-10
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Public Health, Environmental Studies, Medicine and Health Sciences, Public Health, Social and Behavioral Sciences

As global warming increases temperatures worldwide, cities are experiencing even greater temperatures due to the urban heat island effect, which is the trapping of heat in “gray” urban infrastructure. Cities are combatting this with green infrastructure (GI) initiatives, such as the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) GI initiative in New York City. However, these programs are often [...]

Knowledge in the Dark: Scientific Challenges and Ways Forward

Jonathan Jeschke, Sophie Lokatis, Isabelle Bartram, et al.

Published: 2018-03-26
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Education, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Higher Education, Language and Literacy Education, Liberal Studies, Library and Information Science, Life Sciences, Medicine and Health Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Public Health, Science and Mathematics Education, Social and Behavioral Sciences

We propose the concept of knowledge in the dark – or short: dark knowledge – and outline how it can help clarify why in our current era of Big Data, the knowledge (i.e. evidence-based understanding) of people does not seem to be substantially increasing despite a rapid increase in produced data and information. Key reasons underlying dark knowledge are: (1) the production of biased, erroneous or [...]

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