Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Public Health

Wildfire smoke exposure and mortality burden in the US under future climate change

Minghao Qiu, Jessica Li, Carlos Gould, et al.

Published: 2024-03-13
Subjects: Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Sciences, Public Health, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Wildfire activity has increased in the US and is projected to accelerate under future climate change. However, our understanding of the impacts of climate change on wildfire smoke and health remains highly uncertain. Here we quantify the mortality burden in the US due to wildfire smoke fine particulate matter (PM2.5) under future climate change. We construct an ensemble of statistical and machine [...]

Exposure to Climate Events and Mental Health: Risk and Protective Factors from the California Health Interview Survey

Daniel Zhao, Elissa Epel, Elaine Allen, et al.

Published: 2024-02-22
Subjects: Public Health

There is increasing awareness of the effects of climate change on mental health, but more work on understanding risk and protective factors is needed. The 2021 California Health Interview Survey included new questions about exposure to extreme weather events and mental health responses. This study aims to identify how individual factors and neighborhood social cohesion are associated with [...]

Natural occurrence of asbestos in serpentinite quarries from Southern Spain.

Andrea Bloise, Claudia Ricchiuti, Rafael Navarro, et al.

Published: 2024-01-29
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Public Health

The nevado-filábride complex (NFC) (southern Spain) is well known for its widespread mining and quarrying activities. Serpentinite and metabasite rocks are extracted, processed and traded as building and ornamental stones. Due to the possible presence of natural occurrence of asbestos (NOA) in these rocks, the aim of this paper is to conduct an in-depth characterisation of fibrous minerals. To [...]

Designing and describing climate change impact attribution studies: a guide to common approaches

Colin J Carlson, Dann Mitchell, Tamma Carleton, et al.

Published: 2024-01-06
Subjects: Climate, Earth Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Public Health, Environmental Studies, Human Geography, Physical and Environmental Geography, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Probability, Public Health, Spatial Science, Statistical Methodology, Statistical Models, Statistics and Probability

Impact attribution is an emerging transdisciplinary sub-discipline of detection and attribution, focused on the social, economic, and ecological impacts of climate change. Here, we provide an overview of common end-to-end frameworks in impact attribution, focusing on examples relating to the human health impacts of climate change. We propose a typology of study designs based on whether [...]

Comprehensive review of the annual haze episode in Northern Thailand

Cassian P. F. Pirard, Artima Charoenpanwutikul

Published: 2023-12-09
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Public Health

The mountainous part of northern Thailand is subject to an intense haze episode occurring almost every year between January and May. In the last couple of decades, this atmospheric phenomenon has been extensively covered in the media and is now a main concern for the population living in this area. In this review, we synthesized the information available from hundreds of publications on air [...]

Factors influencing access to safely managed sanitation in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review protocol

Beatrice Chiwala, Choolwe Jacobs, Mpundu Makasa, et al.

Published: 2023-11-02
Subjects: Public Health

Introduction   Several interventions have been implemented to improve access for all to safely managed sanitation in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) since the beginning of the Sustainable Development Goals in September 2015. However, consolidated evidence on how such interventions worked or not worked remains limited. The proposed systematic review aims to synthesis evidence on how, why and under which [...]

Bacteriological quality of household drinking water and cholera risk in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana

Anthony Zunuo Dongdem, Bismark Sarfo, Adolphina Addo-Lartey, et al.

Published: 2023-08-25
Subjects: Public Health

Background The bacteriological quality of drinking water plays a critical role in preventing waterborne diseases. In Ghana, there is water scarcity and many communities depend on contaminated water sources for their domestic use. This study aimed to assess the microbiological quality of household drinking water in both cholera endemic and non-endemic areas in Greater Accra Region. Methods A [...]

What can be said about risks, vulnerabilities, and adaptation to climate change in Caribbean small island developing states (SIDS)? The case of Dominica. A qualitative study

Sarah Cooper, Christiana Abraham, Terrilia Ravaliere, et al.

Published: 2023-08-02
Subjects: Public Health

Introduction Caribbean Small island developing states (SIDS) are generally qualified as disproportionately vulnerable to climate change, including extreme weather events like hurricanes. While many studies already documented the impacts of climate change on health in the wealthiest countries, there is little knowledge in this field in Caribbean SIDS. Our study aims to discuss health risks and [...]

Improving drinking water consumer confidence reports: Applying user-centered design

Mary Fox, Vidisha Agarwalla, Kayla R. Iuliano, et al.

Published: 2023-07-20
Subjects: Public Health

The US Environmental Protection Agency is revising its policy on drinking water quality reports for consumers. These reports are intended to enhance the public’s “right to know” and to spur action to protect and promote safe water. However, these reports are known to be highly technical and difficult to access compromising their communication value. This study engaged a focus group to gather [...]

The weather does not support farmers: an exploratory qualitative study in Kavre district, Nepal.

Ishwar Tiwari, Denise Spitzer, Stephen Hodgins, et al.

Published: 2023-06-22
Subjects: Public Health

Kavre district, Nepal, is highly vulnerable to climate change impacts, including increases in erratic rainfall, drought, floods, and landslides. As gender roles, culture, age, physical and physiological characteristics increase, mainly Nepalese women's and children's, health risks associated with climate change and air pollution, listening to and learning from women is critical. This study [...]

Using Detrending to Assess SARS-CoV-2 Wastewater Loads as a Leading Indicator of Fluctuations in COVID-19 Cases at Fine Temporal Scales: Correlations Across Twenty Sewersheds in North Carolina

Kelly Hoffman, David Holcomb, Stacie Reckling, et al.

Published: 2023-06-03
Subjects: Public Health

Wastewater surveillance emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic as a novel strategy for tracking the burden of illness in communities. Previous work has shown that trends in wastewater SARS-CoV-2 viral loads correlate well with reported COVID-19 case trends over longer time periods (i.e., months). We used detrending time series to reveal shorter sub-trend patterns (i.e., weeks) to identify leads or [...]

Climate change, concern, and children: A systematic review exploring the intersection of climate change, mental health, and reproductive decision-making

Hope Dillarstone, Laura Brown, Elaine Flores

Published: 2023-05-27
Subjects: Public Health

The impact of climate change on reproductive decision-making is becoming a significant issue, with anecdotal evidence indicating a growing number of people factoring their concerns about climate change into their childbearing plans. Although empirical research has explored climate change and its relationship to mental health, as well as the motivations behind reproductive decision-making [...]

The Invisibility of Health Effects Associated with Water Pollution within Disease Burden Estimates: Analysis from a Colombian Andean Watershed

Fabian Mendez, Laura E. Piedrahita-Gómez, Andrés Fernando Toro, et al.

Published: 2023-04-15
Subjects: Public Health

Modernization goes along with a significant increase in pollution-related health risks linked to the ever growing economic and technological development. In addition to water-related communicable diseases, there are emerging concerns regarding the burden of disease attributable to the complexity of chemical pollution loads released into the environment. Studies demonstrating an association [...]

Understanding and Assessing Demographic (In)Equity Resulting from Extreme Heat Exposure due to Lack of Tree Canopies in Norfolk, VA using Agent-Based Modeling

Virginia Zamponi, Kevin Obrien, Erik Jensen, et al.

Published: 2023-03-31
Subjects: Biodiversity, Environmental Public Health, Environmental Studies, Human Geography, Public Health, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Statistics and Probability

Prolonged exposure to extreme heat can result in illness and death. In urban areas of dense concentrations of pavement, buildings, and other surfaces that absorb and retain heat, extreme heat conditions can arise regularly and create harmful environmental exposures for residents daily during certain parts of the year. Tree canopies provide shade and help to cool the environment, making mature [...]

Crisis at the Salton Sea: The Vital Role of Science

Marilyn Fogel, Hoori Ajami, Emma Aronson, et al.

Published: 2021-03-04
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Chemistry, Climate, Earth Sciences, Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Public Health, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Medicine and Health Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Public Health, Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Salton Sea—a hypersaline, terminal lake in southern California—is in crisis. A combination of mismanagement and competition among federal, state and local agencies has hindered efforts to address declining lake levels and unstable water chemistry. This delay has heightened the public health threat to regional communities as retreating shorelines expose dry lakebed— a source of potentially [...]

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