Preprints

There are 1809 Preprints listed.

The shape of volcanic conduits inferred from bubble size distributions

Sahand Hajimirza, Helge M. Gonnermann, James E. Gardner

Published: 2020-11-28
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Volcanology

The most intense known explosive volcanic eruptions on Earth are Plinian eruptions of silicic magma. Geospeedometers indicate that Plinian magma erupts from high pressure within the magma chamber at average speeds of 0.001-1 MPa/s. Concurrently dissolved magmatic volatiles, predominantly water, nucleate about one quadrillion bubbles per cubic meter of melt, preserved as vesicles within tephra. [...]

Carbonate clumped isotope analysis (Δ47) of 21 carbonate standards determined via gas source isotope ratio mass spectrometry on four instrumental configurations using carbonate-based standardization and multi-year datasets

Deepshikha Upadhyay, Jamie Lucarelli, Alexandrea Arnold, Randy Flores, Hayley Bricker, Robert Ulrich, Gregory Jesmok, William Defliese, Robert Eagle, Hannah Carroll, Jesse Bateman, Victoria Petryshyn, Sean Loyd, Jianwu Tang, Antra Priyadarshi, Ben Elliott, Aradhna Tripati

Published: 2020-11-28
Subjects: Chemistry, Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Rationale: Clumped isotope geochemistry examines the pairing or clumping of rare, heavy isotopes in molecules and provides information about the thermodynamic and kinetic controls on their formation. Since clumped isotope measurements of carbonate minerals were first published 15 years ago, interlaboratory offsets in calibrations have been observed, and laboratory and community practices for [...]

High-resolution downscaled CMIP5 projections dataset of essential surface climate variables over Europe coherent with ERA5-Land reanalyses for climate change impact assessments

Thomas Noël, Harilaos Loukos, Dimitri Defrance, Mathieu Vrac, Guillaume Levavasseur

Published: 2020-11-27
Subjects: Engineering, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

A high-resolution climate projections dataset is obtained by statistically downscaling climate projections from the CMIP5 experiment using the ERA5-Land reanalyses from the Copernicus Climate Change service. The dataset is over Europe, has a spatial resolution of 0.10° x 0.10°, comprises 21 climate models and includes 5 surface daily variables: air temperature (mean, minimum, and maximum), [...]

High-resolution downscaled CMIP5 projections dataset of essential surface climate variables over the globe coherent with ERA5 reanalyses for climate change impact assessments

Thomas Noël, Harilaos Loukos, Dimitri Defrance, Mathieu Vrac, Guillaume Levavasseur

Published: 2020-11-27
Subjects: Engineering, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

A high-resolution climate projections dataset is obtained by statistically downscaling climate projections from the CMIP5 experiment using the ERA5 reanalyses from the Copernicus Climate Change service. The dataset is global has a spatial resolution of 0.25°x 0.25°, comprises 21 climate models and includes 5 surface daily variables: air temperature (mean, minimum, and maximum), precipitation, and [...]

Reconstructing the morphologies and hydrodynamics of ancient rivers from source to sink: Cretaceous Western Interior Basin, Utah, USA

Sinead Lyster, Alexander C Whittaker, Gary J Hampson, Elizabeth A Hajek, Peter A Allison, Bailey Lathrop

Published: 2020-11-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Quantitative reconstruction of palaeohydrology from fluvial stratigraphy provides sophisticated insights into the response, and relative impact, of tectonic and climatic drivers on ancient fluvial landscapes. Here, field measurements and a suite of quantitative approaches are used to develop a four-dimensional (space and time) reconstruction of palaeohydrology in Late Cretaceous palaeorivers of [...]

A benthic light index of water quality in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

Marites Canto, Katharina Fabricius, Murray Logan, Stephen Lewis, Lachlan McKinna, Barbara Robson

Published: 2020-11-25
Subjects: Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Good water quality is essential to the health of marine ecosystems, yet current metrics used to track water quality in the Great Barrier Reef are not strongly tied to ecological outcomes. There is a need for a better water quality index (WQI). Benthic light, the amount of light reaching the seafloor, is critical for coral and seagrass health and is strongly affected by water quality. It therefore [...]

Enhanced hydrological cycle increases ocean heat uptake and moderates transient climate sensitivity

Maofeng Liu, Gabriel Vecchi, Brian Soden, Wenchang Yang, Bosong Zhang

Published: 2020-11-25
Subjects: Climate, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

The large-scale moistening of the atmosphere in response to the greenhouse gas increases tends to amplify the existing patterns of precipitation minus evaporation (P-E) which, in turn, amplifies the spatial contrast in sea surface salinity (SSS). We propose that subtropical surface salinification due to the intensified hydrological cycle provides a buoyancy sink that increases the rate of ocean [...]

Earthquake clusters analysis in Central and East Java region, Indonesia, based on hypocenter determination and relocation with waveform cross-correlation

Faiz Muttaqy, Andri Dian Nugraha, Nanang T. Puspito, David P. Sahara, Zulfakriza Zulfakriza, Supriyanto Rohadi, Pepen Supendi

Published: 2020-11-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology

The Central and East Java region, which is part of Sunda Arc, has relatively high seismicity rates due to the convergence between two major tectonic plates in Indonesia region, the Indo-Australian plate that subducts under the Eurasian plate. Many devastating earthquakes in the study area occurred as results of these plates interaction, such as the 1994 Banyuwangi earthquake (Mw 7.6) and the 2006 [...]

Deformation memory in the lithosphere: A comparison of damage-dependent weakening and grain-size sensitive rheologies

Lukas Fuchs, Thorsten W. Becker

Published: 2020-11-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology

Strain localization in the lithosphere and the formation, evolution, and maintenance of resulting plate boundaries play a crucial role in plate tectonics and thermo-chemical mantle convection. Previously activated lithospheric deformation zones often appear to maintain a “memory” of weakening, leading to tectonic inheritance within plate reorganizations including the Wilson cycle. Different [...]

Automatic Slowness Vector Measurements of Seismic Arrivals with Uncertainty Estimates using Bootstrap Sampling, Array Methods and Unsupervised Learning

James Ward, michael Thorne, Andy Nowacki, Sebastian Rost

Published: 2020-11-25
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Horizontal slowness vector measurements using array techniques have been used to analyse many Earth phenomena from lower mantle heterogeneity to meteorological event location. While providing observations essential for studying much of the Earth, slowness vector analysis is limited by the necessary and subjective visual inspection of observations. Furthermore, the interpretation of the [...]

The predictability of shallow landslides: lessons from a natural laboratory

Rupert Bainbridge, Michael Lim, Stuart Dunning, Mike Winter, Alejandro Diaz-Moreno, James Martin, Hamdi Torun, Bradley Sparkes, Muhammad Khan, Nanlin Jin

Published: 2020-11-23
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Shallow landslides are a significant hillslope erosion mechanism and can transform into destructive debris-flows. Limited understanding of the controls on debris-flow initiation, development and deposition results in persistent risk and high impacts where linear infrastructure is affected. Here, we analyse steep slopes above a key road, the A83 Rest and be Thankful, Scotland, where near-real-time [...]

A Vision for the Future Low-Temperature Geochemical Data-scape

Susan L. Brantley, Tao Wen, Deb Agarwal, Jeff Catalano, Paul A. Schroeder, Kerstin Lehnert, Charuleka Varadharajan, Julie Pett-Ridge, Mark Engle, Anthony M. Castronova, Rick Hooper, Xiaogang Ma, Lixin Jin, Kenton McHenry, Emma Aronson, Andrew Shaughnessy, Lou Derry, Justin Richardson, Jerad Bales, Eric Pierce

Published: 2020-11-21
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Computer Sciences, Databases and Information Systems, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Other Computer Sciences, Other Earth Sciences, Soil Science

Data sharing benefits the researcher, the scientific community, and most importantly, the public by enabling more impactful analysis of data and greater transparency in scientific research. However, like many other scientists, the low-temperature geochemistry (LTG) community has generally not developed protocols and standards for publishing, citing, and versioning datasets. This paper is the [...]

Low significance of foreshock activity in Southern California

Luc Moutote, David Marsan, Olivier Lengliné, Zacharie Duputel

Published: 2020-11-20
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology

Earthquakes preceding large events are commonly referred as foreshocks. They are often considered as precursory signals reflecting the nucleation process of the main rupture. Such foreshock sequences may also be explained by cascades of triggered events. Recent advances in earthquake detection is a motivation to re-evaluate seismicity variations prior to mainshocks. Based on a highly complete [...]

Mantle earthquakes in recently thinned Neoproterozoic lithosphere: Harrat Lunayyir, Saudi Arabia

Alexander Robert Blanchette, Simon L Klemperer, Walter D Mooney, Hani M Zahran

Published: 2020-11-20
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

We use earthquake geothermometry, measured heat flow, and structural constraints from P-wave receiver functions to model the thermal evolution of the lithosphere beneath Harrat Lunayyir. We suggest that the lithosphere thinned to its present 60-km thickness in a second stage of lithospheric thinning at 15–12 Ma following initial Red Sea extension at ~27 Ma. Harrat Lunayyir is an active volcanic [...]

Particle energy partitioning and transverse diffusion during rarefied travel on an experimental hillslope

Sarah Williams, David Furbish

Published: 2020-11-19
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geomorphology

Recent theoretical and experimental work (Furbish et al., 2020a, 2020b) indicates that rarefied particle motions on rough hillslope surfaces are controlled by the balance between gravitational heating of particles due to conversion of potential to kinetic energy and frictional cooling of the particles due to collisions with the surface. Here we elaborate how particle energy is partitioned [...]

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