Preprints

There are 2559 Preprints listed.

Feasibility of Afforestation as an Equitable Nature-Based Solution in Urban Areas

TC Chakraborty, Tannushree Biswas, Leah Campbell, et al.

Published: 2021-10-23
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Although nature-based solutions for urban heat mitigation have gained momentum, it is important to quantitatively assess the feasibility of such strategies to utilize space efficiently and prioritize lower-income communities, who have fewer options for climate change adaptation. Here we combine data from US census estimates, satellites, and satellite-derived products to develop a framework to [...]

Late Eocene-early Oligocene paleoenvironmental changes recorded at Lühe, Yunnan, southwestern China

Vittoria Lauretano, Caitlyn R Witkowski, Alex Farnsworth, et al.

Published: 2021-10-23
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

During the late Eocene to the early Oligocene, marine records document a globally congruent record of declining carbon dioxide concentrations, Antarctic icesheet growth, and associated reorganisation of the global climate system. In contrast, the few existing terrestrial records demonstrate high heterogeneity of environmental change and are difficult to reconcile with those of the oceanic realm. [...]

Flood Mitigation Data Analytics and Decision Support Framework: Iowa Middle Cedar Watershed Case Study

Ibrahim Demir, Enes Yildirim, Yazeed Alabbad

Published: 2021-10-23
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Engineering, Environmental Studies, Geographic Information Sciences, Risk Analysis

Flooding is one of the most frequent natural disasters, causing billions of dollars in damage and threatening vulnerable communities worldwide. Although the impact of flooding can never be diminished, minimizing future losses is possible by taking structural or non-structural mitigation actions. Mitigation applications are often costly practices. However, they can be more feasible for long-term [...]

Sharp-based, mixed carbonate-siliciclastic shallow-marine deposits (upper Miocene, Betic Cordillera, Spain): the record of ancient transgressive shelf ridges?

Miquel Poyatos-Moré, Fernando García-García, Francisco J. Rodríguez-Tovar, et al.

Published: 2021-10-23
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Isolated sharp-based sedimentary bodies in shelf settings can develop through regressions associated with abrupt lowering of relative sea level, but also via the reworking of regressive deposits during transgressions. An example of these are shelf ridges, observed in modern and ancient shelves, and formed under a wide range of mixed processes. However, despite they have been widely studied partly [...]

Constraints on the ice composition of carbonaceous chondrites from their magnetic mineralogy

Sanjana Sridhar, James F. J. Bryson, Ashley J. King, et al.

Published: 2021-10-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences

Carbonaceous chondrites experienced varying degrees of aqueous alteration on their parent asteroids, which influenced their mineralogies, textures, and bulk chemical and isotopic compositions. Although this alteration was a crucial event in the history of these meteorites, their various alteration pathways are not well understood. One phase that formed during this alteration was magnetite, and [...]

Fe5S2 identified as a host for sulfur in Earth’s core

Claire Christine Zurkowski, Barbara Lavina, Abigail Case, et al.

Published: 2021-10-22
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Planetary habitability, as we experience on Earth, is linked to a functioning geodynamo which is in part driven by the crystallization of the liquid iron-nickel-alloy core as a planet cools over time. Cosmochemical considerations suggest that sulfur is a candidate light alloying element in rocky planetary cores of varying sizes and oxidation states; such that, iron sulfide phase relations at [...]

Forest data to insights and experiences using gamification

Mikko Vastaranta, Michael A. Wulder, Juho Hamari, et al.

Published: 2021-10-22
Subjects: Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Nature and Society Relations, Remote Sensing, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Magma pressurisation sustains eruptive episode at dome-building Soufrière Hills Volcano

James Hickey, Karen Pascal, Matthew Head, et al.

Published: 2021-10-22
Subjects: Volcanology

Dome-building volcanoes are particularly challenging for volcanic hazard assessment, where long-term eruptive episodes can be interspersed with periods of intra-eruptive repose. Defining the end of eruptive episodes is vitally important for the socio-economic recovery of affected communities, but highly problematic due to the potential for prolonged, seemingly low-risk, repose to rapidly [...]

SAR data and field surveys combination to update rainfall-induced shallow landslides inventory

Pietro Miele, Mariano Di Napoli, Alessandro Novellino, et al.

Published: 2021-10-22
Subjects: Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Geology

The Campania region has been recurrently hit by severe landslides in volcanoclastic deposits. The city of Naples, and in particular the Camaldoli and Agnano hills, also suffered several landslide crises in weathered volcanoclastic rocks as a consequence of intense rainfalls or wildfires. This work provides an updated landslide database for the suburbs of Naples. The obtained database consists of [...]

The seismic wavefield as seen by Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) arrays: local, regional and teleseismic sources

Brian L.N. Kennett

Published: 2021-10-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) exploiting fibre optic cables provides a means for high-density sampling of the seismic wavefield. The scattered returns from multiple laser pulses provide local averages of strain rate over a finite gauge length, and the nature of the signal depends on the orientation of the cable with respect to the passing seismic waves. The properties of the wavefield in [...]

Linking technical geothermal potential from borehole heat exchangers and heating demand scenarios on a regional scale

Johannes Miocic, Marc Krecher

Published: 2021-10-20
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Extracting shallow geothermal energy using borehole heat exchangers (BHEs) can help decarbonising the residential heating sector. To assist urban planers and policy makers in developing carbon-neutral heating plans the regional technical shallow geothermal potential must be analysed. Here, we propose a methodology to estimate the technical geothermal potential of BHE fields on a regional scale [...]

The role of mass-transport complexes (MTCs) in the initiation and evolution of submarine canyons

Nan Wu, Harya Dwi Nugraha, Fa Guang Zhong, et al.

Published: 2021-10-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Sedimentology

The offshore area of the Otway Basin, located within the SE continental margin of Australia, is dominated by a multibranched canyon system where submarine mass-transport complexes (MTCs) are widely distributed. We integrate high-resolution multi-beam bathymetric and seismic reflection data to investigate the importance of regionally distributed MTCs in dictating the evolution of canyon systems. [...]

Ocean model response to stochastically perturbed momentum fluxes

Terence O'Kane, Russell Fiedler, Mark A Collier, et al.

Published: 2021-10-20
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

In climate model configurations, standard approaches to the representation of unresolved, or subgrid scales, via deterministic closure schemes are being challenged by stochastic approaches inspired by statistical dynamical theory. Despite gaining popularity, studies of various stochastic subgrid scale parameterizations applied to atmospheric climate and weather prediction systems have revealed a [...]

The relative contributions of weathering and aeolian inputs to postglacial formation of Mediterranean alpine loess

Michael Styllas, Christos Pennos, Matthieu Ghilardi, et al.

Published: 2021-10-19
Subjects: Earth Sciences

Between the southern margin of the European loess belt and Sahara Desert, thin and irregularly distributed loess deposits occur in Mediterranean mountains. During the most recent deglaciation, along the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary, the deposition of glacial, periglacial and outwash sediments, was the main local source of Mediterranean alpine loess, whereas proximal alluvial planes comprised a [...]

Improving the reliability of Fe- and S-XANES measurements in silicate glasses: correcting beam damage and identifying Fe-oxide nanolites in hydrous and anhydrous melt inclusions

Allan Lerner, Michelle Muth, Paul Wallace, et al.

Published: 2021-10-19
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geology, Mineral Physics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

The redox state of silicate melts influences crystallization, element partitioning, and degassing behavior. Synchrotron-based micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (μXANES) spectroscopy has emerged as a powerful tool for determining redox conditions through the direct measurement of speciation of multivalent elements such as iron and sulfur in silicate glasses. In particular, the high [...]

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