There are 2365 Preprints listed.

VESIcal Part II: A critical approach to volatile solubility modelling using an open-source Python3 engine

Penny E Wieser, Kayla Iacovino, Simon Matthews, et al.

Published: 2021-07-26
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Volcanology

Accurate models of H2O and CO2 solubility in silicate melts are vital for understanding volcanic plumbing systems. These models are used to estimate the depths of magma storage regions from melt inclusion volatile contents, investigate the role of volatile exsolution as a driver of volcanic eruptions, and track the degassing paths followed by magma ascending to the surface. However, despite the [...]

Integrating Scientific Knowledge into Machine Learning using Interactive Decision Trees

Georgios Sarailidis, Thorsten Wagener, Francesca Pianosi

Published: 2021-07-24
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Engineering, Environmental Engineering

Decision Trees (DT) is a machine learning method that has been widely used in the environmental sciences to automatically extract patterns from complex and high dimensional data. However, like any data-based method, is hindered by data limitations and potentially physically unrealistic results. We develop interactive DT (iDT) that put the human in the loop and integrate the power of experts’ [...]

Sub-kilometre scale distribution of snow depth on Arctic sea ice from Soviet drifting stations

Robbie Mallett, Julienne C. Stroeve, Michel Tsamados, et al.

Published: 2021-07-23
Subjects: Other Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The sub-kilometre scale distribution of snow depth on Arctic sea ice impacts atmosphere-ice fluxes of heat and light, and is of importance for satellite estimates of sea ice thickness from both radar and lidar altimeters. While information about the mean of this distribution is increasingly available from modelling and remote sensing, the full distribution cannot yet be resolved. We analyse 33539 [...]

Toward automating post processing of aquatic sensor data

Amber S Jones, Tanner Lex Jones, Jeffery S Horsburgh

Published: 2021-07-23
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Civil Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Monitoring, Hydrology

Sensors measuring environmental phenomena at high frequency commonly report anomalies related to fouling, sensor drift and calibration, and datalogging and transmission issues. Suitability of data for analyses and decision making often depends on manual review and adjustment of data. Machine learning techniques have potential to automate identification and correction of anomalies, streamlining [...]

Creating a Diamond Open Access community journal for Seismology and Earthquake Science

Martijn van den Ende, Lucile Bruhat, Gareth Funning, et al.

Published: 2021-07-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

On 24 November 2020, the Springer Nature publishing group announced the introduction of Open Access (OA) articles in Nature and its sibling journals. The corresponding OA publication fee (charged directly to the authors) was set to €9,500/$11,390/£8,290, an amount that may be well out of reach for many researchers. This is especially a problem for researchers in developing countries, early-career [...]

Complex rupture process of the 2014 Thailand Mw 6.2 earthquake on the conjugate fault system of the Phayao fault zone

Tira Tadapansawut, Yagi Yuji, Ryo Okuwaki, et al.

Published: 2021-07-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The earthquake with a moment magnitude 6.2 that occurred in northern Thailand on 5 May 2014 is the largest recorded in Thailand by modern seismographs; the source is located in the multi-segmented complex fault system of the Phayao fault zone in the northern Thai province of Chiang Rai. This geological setting is appropriate environment for investigating a compound rupture process associated with [...]

Fluvial sedimentation and its reservoir potential at foreland basin margins: A case study of the Puig-reig anticline (South-eastern Pyrenees)

Xiaolong Sun, Juan Alcalde, Enrique Gomez-Rivas, et al.

Published: 2021-07-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Fluvial fans represent one of the dominant sedimentary systems at the active margins of non-marine foreland basins. The Puig-reig anticline at the north-eastern margin of the Ebro Foreland Basin (SE Pyrenees, Spain) exposes continuous outcrops of late Eocene-early Oligocene fluvial deposits, from proximal to medial fluvial fan environments. The proximal deposits, located in the northern limb of [...]

When does faulting-induced subsidence drive distributary network reorganization?

Andrew J. Moodie, Paola Passalacqua

Published: 2021-07-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geomorphology

Deltas exhibit spatially and temporally variable subsidence, including vertical displacement due to movement along fault planes. Faulting-induced subsidence perturbs delta-surface gradients, potentially causing distributary networks to shift sediment dispersal within the landscape. Sediment dispersal restricted to part of the landscape could hinder billion-dollar investments aiming to restore [...]

Geology of a Neogene caldera cluster in Northeast Iceland – clues into rift zone architecture on a young Iceland

Steffi Burchardt, Birgir Vilhelm Oskarsson, Ludvik Eckard Gustafsson, et al.

Published: 2021-07-18
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The Borgarfjörður-Loðmundarfjörður area in Northeast Iceland hosts an unusual volume of silicic rocks, as well as volcanic and sub-volcanic structures emplaced in the Miocene between 13.5 and 12.2 Ma. Here, we summarise the geology of the area and present a new geological map to summarise the current state of knowledge. We describe the prominent features of the volcanic centres, as well as [...]

Sandstone body character, river styles, and geomorphology of the lower Eocene Willwood Formation, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA

Youwei WANG, Timothy Baars, Hiranya Sahoo, et al.

Published: 2021-07-18
Subjects: Geology, Geomorphology, Sedimentology

The lower Eocene Willwood Formation of the intermontane Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA, is an alluvial red bed succession with a sand content of ca. 20%-25%. The formation has been studied intensively for paleontology, paleoclimate, and sedimentary reconstruction. However, alluvial sandstone bodies and their corresponding river styles remain little characterized and documented. Here, efforts are [...]

Developing a long-term high-resolution winter fog climatology over south Asia using satellite observations from 2002 to 2020


Published: 2021-07-18
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences

The vast Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) south of the Himalaya are subject to dense fog every year during winter months (December-January), severely disrupting rail, air and public transport of millions of people living in northern India, Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh. Air pollution combined with high moisture availability in the shallow boundary layer, are important factors affecting the persistence [...]

Stylolites and stylolite networks as primary controls on the geometry and distribution of carbonate diagenetic alterations

Enrique Gomez-Rivas, Juan Diego Martín-Martín, Paul D. Bons, et al.

Published: 2021-07-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

There is an ongoing debate on whether stylolites act as barriers or conduits for fluids, or even play no role in terms of fluid transport. This problem can be tackled by examining the spatial and temporal relationships between stylolites and other diagenetic products at multiple scales. Using the well-known Lower Cretaceous Benicàssim case study (Maestrat Basin, E Spain), we provide new field and [...]

Illuminating a Contorted Slab with a Complex Intraslab Rupture Evolution during the 2021 Mw 7.3 East Cape, New Zealand Earthquake

Ryo Okuwaki, Stephen Paul Hicks, Timothy J Craig, et al.

Published: 2021-07-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The state-of-stress within subducting oceanic plates controls rupture processes of deep intraslab earthquakes. However, little is known about how the large-scale plate geometry and the stress regime relate to the physical nature of the deep-intraslab earthquakes. Here we find, by using globally and locally observed seismic records, that the moment magnitude 7.3 2021 East Cape, New Zealand [...]

Ten Simple Rules for Researchers Who Want to Develop Web Apps

Sheila M. Saia, Natalie G. Nelson, Sierra N. Young, et al.

Published: 2021-07-18
Subjects: Agricultural Science, Agriculture, Applied Statistics, Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Bioresource and Agricultural Engineering, Computer Sciences, Databases and Information Systems, Environmental Monitoring, Graphics and Human Computer Interfaces, Natural Resources and Conservation, Software Engineering, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology, Water Resource Management

Growing interest in data-driven, decision-support tools across the life sciences and physical sciences has motivated development of web applications, also known as web apps. Web apps can help disseminate research findings and present research outputs in ways that are more accessible and meaningful to the general public--from individuals, to governments, to companies. Specifically, web apps enable [...]

Assessment of a claimed ultra-low frequency electromagnetic (ULFEM) earthquake precursor

Can Wang, Lilianna E Christman, Simon L Klemperer, et al.

Published: 2021-07-16
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology

Anomalous ultra-low frequency electromagnetic (ULFEM) pulses occurring before the M5.4 2007 and M4.0 2010 Alum Rock earthquakes have been claimed to increase in number days to weeks prior to each earthquake. We re-examine the previously reported ultra-low frequency (ULF: 0.01-10 Hz) magnetic data recorded at a QuakeFinder site located 9 km from the earthquake hypocenter, as well as data from a [...]


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