Preprints

There are 1992 Preprints listed.

Nature of the Cuvier Abyssal Plain crust, offshore NW Australia

Matthew Reeve, Craig Magee, Ian Bastow, Carl McDermott, Christopher A-L Jackson, Rebecca E. Bell, Julie Prytulak

Published: 2021-02-24
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Magnetic stripes have long been assumed to be indicative of oceanic crust. However, continental crust heavily intruded by magma can also record magnetic stripes. We re-evaluate the nature of the Cuvier Abyssal Plain (CAP), offshore NW Australia, which hosts magnetic stripes and has previously been defined as oceanic crust. We show chemical data from a basalt within the CAP, previously described [...]

Episodicity and Migration of Low Frequency Earthquakes modeled with Fast Fluid Pressure Transients in the Permeable Subduction Interface

Gaspard Farge, Claude Jaupart, Nikolai M. Shapiro

Published: 2021-02-24
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology

In many subduction zones, the plate interface hosts intermittent, low-frequency, low-magnitude seismic tremor and low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs). Episodically, activity clusters in bursts that migrate along the fault zone in complex ways. Geological observations report a pervasive imprint of intense fluid pressure and permeability variations in the tremor source region. The dynamics of such [...]

Stable a posteriori LES of 2D turbulence using convolutional neural networks: Backscattering analysis and generalization to higher Re via transfer learning

Yifei Guan, Ashesh Chattopadhyay, Adam Subel, Pedram Hassanzadeh

Published: 2021-02-24
Subjects: Engineering

There is a growing interest in developing data-driven subgrid-scale (SGS) models for large-eddy simulation (LES) using machine learning (ML). In a priori (offline) tests, some recent studies have found ML-based data-driven SGS models that are trained on high-fidelity data (e.g., from direct numerical simulation, DNS) to outperform baseline physics-based models and accurately capture [...]

Evidence for crustal removal, tectonic erosion and flare-ups from the Japanese evolving forearc sediment provenance

Daniel Pastor-Galán, Christopher Spencer, Tan Furukawa, Tatsuki Tsujimori

Published: 2021-02-24
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Tectonics and Structure

Forearc basins preserve the geologic record relating strictly to arc magmatism. The provenance of forearc sediment can be used to differentiate periods of crustal growth, accretion, and destruction, enhanced magmatism, advancing and retreating subduction slabs, delamination, etc. All these tectonic events systems predict differing degrees of sedimentary reworking of the older forearc units. [...]

Global climate-driven trade-offs between the water retention and cooling benefits of urban greening

Mark Cuthbert, Gabriel Rau, Adam Bates, Marie Ekstrom, Denis O'Carroll

Published: 2021-02-23
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Construction Engineering and Management, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Sciences, Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sustainability, Water Resource Management

Heat-related mortality and flooding are pressing challenges for the >4 billion urban population worldwide, exacerbated by increasing urbanization and climate change. Urban greening, such as green roofs and parks, can potentially help address both problems, but the geographical variation of the relative hydrological and thermal performance benefits of such interventions are unknown. Here we [...]

Stranded methane to food: techno-economic analysis of methanotrophic protein production

Sahar Head El Abbadi, Evan D Sherwin, Adam R Brandt, Stephen P. Luby, Craig S. Criddle

Published: 2021-02-23
Subjects: Bioresource and Agricultural Engineering, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Engineering, Environmental Engineering

Methane is emitted and flared from industrial sources across the United States, contributing to global climate change. This need not be the case. Methanotrophic (methane-oxidizing) bacteria can transform methane into useful protein-rich biomass (e.g., to replace fishmeal in animal feeds). Here, we analyze the economic potential of producing methanotrophic microbial protein from methane emitted [...]

A record of plume-induced plate rotation triggering seafloor spreading and subduction initiation

Douwe J.J. van Hinsbergen, Bernhard Steinberger, Carl Guilmette, Marco Maffione, Derya Gürer, Kalijn Peters, Alexis Plunder, Peter McPhee, Carmen Gaina, Eldert L. Advokaat, Reinoud L.M. Vissers, Wim Spakman

Published: 2021-02-23
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Tectonics and Structure

The formation of a global network of plate boundaries surrounding a mosaic of lithospheric fragments was a key step in the emergence of Earth’s plate tectonics. So far, propositions for plate boundary formation are regional in nature but how plate boundaries are being created over 1000s of km in short periods of geological time remains elusive. Here, we show from geological observations that a [...]

The evolution of spatial variability during an algal bloom event in shallow lakes

David Adrian Ortiz, Grace M Wilkinson

Published: 2021-02-23
Subjects: Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

1. Lakes are both temporally and spatially heterogeneous, but little is known about how algae blooms develop across surfaces over time and what drivers are influencing those patterns over the span of the growing season. Does the common practice of single location monitoring capture the full range of a heterogeneous ecosystem? If not, is there a feasible optimal number of sampling locations to [...]

The Trash-Tracker: A Macroplastic Transport and Fate Model at River Basin Scale

Yvette Agnes Maria Mellink, Tim van Emmerik, Merel Kooi, Charlotte Laufkötter, Helge Niemann

Published: 2021-02-22
Subjects: Other Environmental Sciences

Land-based plastic waste is assumed to be the major source for freshwater and marine plastic pollution. Yet, the transport pathways over land, in rivers and into the oceans remain highly uncertain. Here, we introduce a new modelling concept to predict plastic transport pathways on land: the Trash-Tracker; a numerical model that simulates the spatiotemporal distribution of macroplastic waste at [...]

A database of submarine landslides offshore West and Southwest Iberia

Davide Gamboa, Rachid Omira, Pedro Terrinha

Published: 2021-02-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology

Submarine landslides are major geohazards occurring on distinct seabed domains ranging from shallow coastal areas to the deeper points of the ocean. The nature and relief of the seabed are key factors influencing the location and size of submarine landslides. Efforts have recently been made to compile databases of submarine landslide distribution and morphometry, a crucial task to assess [...]

The True Cost of Field Education is a Barrier to Diversifying Geosciences

Antoinette Abeyta, Anjali M. Fernandes, Robert Clyde Mahon, Travis Eric Swanson

Published: 2021-02-19
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Education, Environmental Sciences, Geology, Higher Education, Outdoor Education, Science and Mathematics Education

Fieldwork is considered critical to developing technical skills in geoscience education, and typical undergraduate degrees require >30 days in the field. Tuition costs of enrolling in field camp are acknowledged as a barrier to participation in geosciences; however, the cost of participation in field activities may also include the cost of personal field gear (hiking boots, backpacks, etc.), [...]

Mirroring minoritized students’ cultures in Geoscience courses

Vashan Wright, Alissa Kotowski

Published: 2021-02-19
Subjects: Education

The use of active-learning strategies to teach out-of-school time (OST) geoscience courses has not significantly increased the number of racially minoritized students that pursue Geoscience. Studies hypothesize that significantly more minoritized students would pursue Geoscience if courses better resemble the students’ Collectivist cultures. We test this hypothesis by using pre-course, post-course, [...]

Real-time Flood Mapping on Client-side Web Systems using HAND model

Anson Hu, Ibrahim Demir

Published: 2021-02-19
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Computational Engineering, Engineering

The height above nearest drainage (HAND) model is frequently used to calculate properties of the soil as well as predict flood inundation extents. HAND is extremely useful due to its lack of reliance on prior data, as only the digital elevation model (DEM) is needed. It is close to optimal, running in linear or linearithmic time in the number of cells depending on the values of the heights. It [...]

The surface deformation of the 2020 Doğanyol-Sivrice earthquake (Mw 6.8) and the earlier events suggest Mw˂7.0 earthquakes do not create significant surface slip along the East Anatolian Fault Zone

Kenan Akbayram, Kemal Kıranşan, Çağlar Özer, Sadık Varolgüneş

Published: 2021-02-18
Subjects: Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

The 2020 Mw 6.8 Doğanyol-Sivrice earthquake occurred on the Pütürge Segment of the left-lateral East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ). Our field investigation within 6 weeks after the earthquake suggests the following results. (1) The 2020 earthquake created a ~54-km-long surface deformation zone along the Pütürge Segment. (2) No co-seismic surface slip has been formed after the earthquake. (3) The [...]

A deposition baseline for microplastic particle distribution in an estuary

Matthew L. H. Cheng, Thomas C Lippmann, Jennifer Dijkstra, Gabriela Bradt, Salme Cook, Jang-Geun CHoi, Bonnie L Brown

Published: 2021-02-18
Subjects: Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Microplastics (MP) known to be ubiquitous in the plastisphere, have yet to be quantified within Great Bay Estuary (GBE) in the Gulf of Maine region of North America. We extracted and analyzed MP in archived sediment cores obtained from representative transects across GBE. Results indicated that MP are distributed in GBE sediments, 0-30 cm, at an average occurrence of 100±50 particles g-1 and that [...]

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