There are 1901 Preprints listed.

Data-Driven Inference of the Mechanics of Slip Along Glacier Beds Using Physics-Informed Neural Networks

Bryan Valmonte Riel, Brent Minchew, Tobias Bischoff

Published: 2021-01-19
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Reliable projections of sea-level rise depend on accurate representations of how fast-flowing glaciers slip along their beds. The mechanics of slip are often parameterized as a constitutive relation (or 'sliding law') whose proper form remains uncertain. Here, we present a novel deep learning-based framework for learning the time evolution of drag at glacier beds from time-dependent ice velocity [...]

The building blocks of igneous sheet intrusions: insights from 3D seismic reflection data

Jonas Köpping, Craig Magee, Alexander R. Cruden, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, James Norcliffe

Published: 2021-01-19
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Dykes, sills, and inclined sheets may intrude as continuous, planar sheets, but can also form by the amalgamation of discrete injections of magma. Describing the host rock deformation style around distinct geometric components within sheet intrusions can help us to determine emplacement mechanisms, how magma flow influences accumulation of economic resources, and how magma migration may translate [...]

Earthquake-triggered landslide susceptibility in Italy by means of Artificial Neural Network

Gabriele Amato, Matteo Fiorucci, Salvatore Martino, Luigi Lombardo, Lorenzo Palombi

Published: 2021-01-18
Subjects: Geomorphology

The use of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approaches has gained a significant role over the last decade in the field of predicting the distribution of effects triggered by natural forcing, this being particularly relevant for the development of adequate risk mitigation strategies. Among the most critical features of these approaches, there are the accurate geolocation of the available data as [...]

The Rayleigh-Haring-Tayfun distribution of wave heights in deep water

Saulo Mendes, Alberto Scotti

Published: 2021-01-17
Subjects: Engineering, Fluid Dynamics, Hydraulic Engineering, Oceanography, Statistical Models

Regarding wave statistics, nearly every known exceeding probability distribution applied to rogue waves has shown disagreement with its peers. More often than not, models and experiments have shown a fair agreement with the Rayleigh distribution whereas others show that the latter underpredicts extreme heights by almost one order of magnitude. Virtually all previous results seem to be [...]

On the physical constraints for the exceeding probability of deep water rogue waves

Saulo Mendes, Alberto Scotti, Paul Stansell

Published: 2021-01-16
Subjects: Engineering

Nearly four decades have elapsed since the first efforts to obtain a realistic narrow-banded model for extreme wave crests and heights were made, resulting in a couple dozen different exceeding probability distributions. These models reflect results of numerical simulations and storm records measured off of oil platforms, buoys and more recently satellite data. Nevertheless, no consensus has been [...]

Earthquake rupture on multiple splay faults and its effect on tsunamis

Iris van Zelst, Leonhard Rannabauer, Alice-Agnes Gabriel, Ylona van Dinther

Published: 2021-01-16
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Detailed imaging of accretionary wedges reveal complex splay fault networks which could pose a significant tsunami hazard. However, the dynamics of multiple splay fault activation and interaction during megathrust events and consequent effects on tsunami generation are not well understood. We use a 2D dynamic rupture model with six complex splay fault geometries consistent with initial stress [...]

Integrated magnetotelluric and petrological analysis of felsic magma reservoirs: Insights from Ethiopian rift volcanoes

Friedemann Samrock, Alexander V. Grayver, Olivier Bachmann, Özge Karakas, Martin O Saar

Published: 2021-01-16
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geophysics and Seismology, Volcanology

Geophysical and petrological probes are key to understanding the structure and the thermochemical state of active magmatic systems. Recent advances in laboratory analyses, field investigations and numerical methods have allowed increasingly complex data-constraint models with new insights into magma plumbing systems and melt evolution. However, there is still a need for methods to quantitatively [...]

Measurement error analysis of surface-bonded distributed fiber-optic strain sensor subjected to linear gradient strain: Theory and experimental validation

Xing Zheng, Bin Shi, Cheng-Cheng Zhang, Lei Zhang, Yijie Sun, Heming Han

Published: 2021-01-16
Subjects: Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Strain transfer analysis is an important means of correcting the measurement error of embedded or surface-bonded distributed fiber-optic sensors, but the effect of host strain patterns has not been well elucidated. Here, a theoretical model for strain transfer analysis of surface-bonded multi-layered fiber-optic sensor subjected to a linear gradient strain was established. Closed-form solutions [...]

Plastic plants: Water hyacinths as driver of plastic transport in tropical rivers

Louise Schreyers, Tim van Emmerik, Thanh Luan Nguyen, Evelien Castrop, Ngoc-Anh Phung, Thuy-Chung Kieu-Le, Emilie Strady, Lauren Biermann, Martine van der Ploeg

Published: 2021-01-14
Subjects: Environmental Monitoring, Fresh Water Studies, Hydrology, Remote Sensing, Spatial Science

Recent studies suggest that water hyacinths play an important role in the transport of macroplastics in freshwater ecosystems. Forming large patches of several meters at the water surface, water hyacinths tend to entrain and aggregate large amounts of floating debris, including plastic items. Research on this topic is still novel and few studies have quantified the role of the water hyacinths in [...]

Time to Depth Seismic Reprocessing of Vintage Data: a Case Study in the Otranto Channel (South Adriatic Sea)

Giuseppe Brancatelli, Edy Forlin, Nicolò Bertone, Anna Del Ben, Riccardo Geletti

Published: 2021-01-14
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

In this chapter, we present a case study focused on the reprocessing of marine seismic line MS-29, acquired in 1971 in the Otranto Channel, in the South Adriatic Sea (Italy). This line crosses the channel between South Italy and Albania, a key location for understanding the geodynamics of the North Adria Plate. The work is divided into two steps. The first step consists of a modern broadband [...]

Proximal to distal grain-size distribution of basin-floor lobes: A study from the Battfjellet Formation, Central Tertiary Basin, Svalbard

Yvonne T. Spychala, Thymen A.B. Ramaaker, Joris T. Eggenhuisen, Sten-Andreas Grundvåg, Florian Pohl, Sara Wroblewska

Published: 2021-01-14
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The grain-size distribution of sediment particles is an important aspect of the architecture of submarine fans and lobes. It governs depositional sand quality, and reflects distribution of particulate organic carbon and pollutants. Documenting the grain-size distribution of these deep-marine sedimentary bodies can also offer us an insight in the flows that deposited them. Submarine lobes are [...]

Bayesian geophysical inversion using invertible neural networks

Xin Zhang, Andrew Curtis

Published: 2021-01-13
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Constraining geophysical models with observed data usually involves solving nonlinear and non-unique inverse problems. Mixture density networks (MDNs) produce an efficient way to estimate Bayesian posterior probability density functions (pdf’s) that represent the non-unique solution. However it is difficult to infer correlations between parameters using MDNs, and in turn to draw samples from the [...]

Modelling cross-shore shoreline change on multiple timescales and their interactions

Rob Schepper, Rafael Almar, Erwin Bergsma, Sierd de Vries, Ad Reniers, Mark Davidson, Kristen D Splinter

Published: 2021-01-13
Subjects: Engineering

Understanding and predicting shoreline changes is paramount to coastal managers to anticipate potential threats. These shoreline changes are often driven by complex processes at multiple timescales. In this paper, a new approach to model wave-driven, cross-shore shoreline change incorporating multiple timescales is introduced. As a base we use the equilibrium shoreline prediction model ShoreFor [...]

Mixing-induced chemical disequilibrium creates and modifies basaltic crystal cargoes

David Axford Neave, Philipp Beckmann, Harald Behrens, Francois Holtz

Published: 2021-01-13
Subjects: Geochemistry

Crystal cargoes of oceanic basalts often preserve records of mantle-derived chemical variability that are erased from their carrier melts by magma mixing. However, the impacts of mixing between similarly primitive but chemically variable magmas remain poorly understood despite ubiquitous evidence of chemical variability in primary melt compositions and chemical disequilibrium in erupted crystal [...]

Dynamic recrystallization by subgrain rotation in olivine revealed by high-spatial resolution electron backscatter diffraction

Marco Antonio Lopez-Sanchez, Andrea Tommasi, Walid Ben Ismail, Fabrice Barou

Published: 2021-01-12
Subjects: Earth Sciences

We document how dynamic recrystallization by subgrain rotation (SGR) develops in natural olivine-rich rocks deformed in extension to up to 50% bulk finite strain (1473 K, confining pressure of 300 MPa, and stresses between 115-180 MPa) using high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) mapping. SGR occurs preferentially in highly deformed grains (well-oriented to deform by dislocation [...]


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