Preprints

There are 3149 Preprints listed.

Distinct roles of cyclones and anticyclones in setting the midwinter minimum of the North Pacific eddy activity. Part II: Eulerian eddy statistics and energetics

Satoru Okajima, Hisashi Nakamura, Yohai Kaspi

Published: 2022-08-14
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences

The characteristics and dynamics of midlatitude storm-tracks have been long investigated. Nevertheless, our understandings of the storm-tracks, especially the midwinter minimum of the North Pacific storm-track activity, are still limited, partly because Eulerian eddy statistics are incapable of separating cyclonic and anticyclonic contributions. Here we investigate the detailed seasonal evolution [...]

Data mining by watching old documentary TV programs to learn about the relationships between people’s lives and the landscape in Sakha in the perestroika era at the end of the 1980s

Shin Nagai, Ayumi Kotani, Yasuyuki Maruya, et al.

Published: 2022-08-14
Subjects: Geography

To accurately evaluate the spatiotemporal variability of ecosystem functions and services, as well as biodiversity, under a rapidly changing climate and shifting anthropogenic activities, it is an important but challenging task to retrieve information about past relationships among society, people’s lives, and the landscape. We watched documentary TV programs broadcast by the Japanese public [...]

DNA sequencing, microbial sensors, and the discovery of buried mineral resources

rachel simister, Bianca Patrizia Iulianella Phillips, Andrew P Wickham, et al.

Published: 2022-08-14
Subjects: Life Sciences

New mineral resources are critical to both sustaining human population growth and technological improvements that will enable global decarbonization. New and innovative exploration technologies that enable detection of deeply buried mineralization and host rocks are required to meet these demands. Here we show that DNA amplicon sequencing of soil microbial communities resolves anomalies in [...]

Algorithm theoretical basis document for GEDI footprint aboveground biomass density

James Kellner, John Armston, Laura Duncanson

Published: 2022-08-14
Subjects: Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) lidar is a multibeam laser altimeter on the International Space Station (ISS). GEDI is the first spaceborne instrument designed to measure vegetation height and to quantify aboveground carbon stocks in temperate and tropical forests and woodlands. This document describes the algorithm theoretical basis underpinning the development of the GEDI [...]

Understanding recent tropospheric ozone trends in the context of large internal variability: A new perspective from chemistry-climate model ensembles

Arlene M. Fiore, Sarah Hancock, Jean-Francois Lamarque, et al.

Published: 2022-08-12
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Observational records of meteorological and chemical variables are imprinted by an unknown combination of anthropogenic activity, natural forcings, and internal variability. With a 15-member initial-condition ensemble generated from the CESM2-WACCM6 chemistry-climate model for 1950-2014, we extract signals of anthropogenic (‘forced’) change from the noise of internally arising climate [...]

Validating mechanistic models of fluid displacement during imbibition

Sharon Ellman, Arjen Mascini, Tom Bultreys

Published: 2022-08-11
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Pore-scale modelling is an important tool to improve our understanding of multiphase flow in porous media. Slow fluid invasion is commonly modelled using quasi-static pore network models (PNM). These models simulate the invasion in a network of simplified pores and throats by invading network elements in order of the quasi-static “invasion” capillary pressure it would take for the wetting phase [...]

A note on climate science and climate policy

Nicola Botta, Nuria Brede, Michel Crucifix, et al.

Published: 2022-08-11
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

A short note on climate science and climate policy, discussing planning vs acting, and the differences between decision making and regret under uncertainty and in a deterministic environment.

Geomorphological indicators

Alessio Rovere, Marta Pappalardo, Michael J. O'Leary

Published: 2022-08-09
Subjects: Earth Sciences

Several physical, chemical, and biological processes shape coastal environments close to sea level. Acting through time, these processes create a variety of coastal landforms. When found outside their environment of formation, these landforms can be used by geoscientists as geomorphological indicators of former relative sea levels. In this chapter, we outline the main processes acting on coastal [...]

Majority of 21st century global irrigation expansion has been in water stressed regions

Piyush Mehta, Stefan Siebert, Matti Kummu, et al.

Published: 2022-08-09
Subjects: Agriculture, Spatial Science, Sustainability

The expansion of irrigated agriculture has increased global crop production but resulted in widespread stress to freshwater resources. Ensuring that increases in irrigated production only occur in places where water is relatively abundant is a key objective of sustainable agriculture, and knowledge of how irrigated land has evolved is important for measuring progress towards water sustainability. [...]

Double surface rupture and hydraulic recharge of a three-fault system during the Mw 4.9 earthquake of 11 November 2019 at Le Teil (France)

André Burnol, Antoine Armandine Les Landes, Daniel Raucoules, et al.

Published: 2022-08-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Hydrology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing

The Mw 4.9 earthquake of 11 November 2019 at Le Teil (France) occurred at a very shallow depth (about 1 km) inducing the surface rupture of La Rouvière fault, nearby of a limestone quarry. Thanks to satellite differential interferometry, we detected the existence of the secondary surface rupture of the quasi-parallel Bayne Rocherenard fault. A newly processed seismic cross-section allowed us to [...]

SubZero: A Sea Ice Model with an Explicit Representation of the Floe Life Cycle

Georgy Manucharyan, Brandon Montemuro

Published: 2022-08-08
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Sea ice dynamics span a wide range of scales and exhibit granular behavior as individual floes and fracture networks become evident at length scales O(10--100) km and smaller. Existing floe-scale sea ice models use bonded elements of predefined simple shapes like disks or tetrahedra to represent more complex floe geometries. However, floe-scale modeling remains challenging due to its typically [...]

Automated stratigraphic correlation and model building using chronostratigraphic principles

Zoltan Sylvester

Published: 2022-08-08
Subjects: Sedimentology, Software Engineering, Stratigraphy

Stratigraphic correlation of geophysical well logs is one of the most important - and most time-consuming - tasks that applied geoscientists perform on a daily basis. Using the dynamic time warping (DTW) algorithm, automated correlation of two wells is a fairly simple task; DTW can also be used to correlate a large number of wells along a single path. However, errors accumulate along a path and [...]

Estimating the Occurrence of Slow Slip Events and Earthquakes with an Ensemble Kalman Filter

Hamed Ali Diab-Montero, Meng Li, Ylona van Dinther, et al.

Published: 2022-08-08
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Our ability to forecast earthquakes and slow slip events is hampered by limited information on the current state of stress on faults. Ensemble data assimilation methods permit estimating the state by combining physics-based models and observations, while considering their uncertainties. We employ an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) to estimate shear stresses, slip rates, and the state theta acting [...]

Improved estimation of phytoplankton abundance and fine-scale water quality features via simultaneous discrete and semi-continuous surveys

Jemma Stachelek, Christopher Madden, Stephen P Kelly, et al.

Published: 2022-08-06
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Environmental Monitoring, Fresh Water Studies, Oceanography, Water Resource Management

The abundance and distribution of phytoplankton is driven by light and nutrient availability which in turn is controlled by larger-scale regional processes such as climatic variability and global teleconnections. However, such estimates are largely built on evidence gathered from coarse (on the order of kilometers), discrete grab sampling networks where the overall set of measured parameters is [...]

A High-order Accurate Summation-by-Parts Finite Difference Method for Fully-dynamic Earthquake Sequence Simulations within Sedimentary Basins

Tobias Harvey, Brittany Angela Erickson, Jeremy Edward Kozdon

Published: 2022-08-06
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

We present a computationally efficient numerical method for earthquake sequences that incorporates wave propagation during rupture. A vertical strike-slip fault governed by rate-and-state friction is embedded in a heterogeneous elastic half-space discretized using a high-order accurate Summation-by-Parts finite difference method. We develop a two solver approach: Adaptive time-stepping is [...]

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