Preprints

There are 4741 Preprints listed.

Evaluating the Flood Vulnerability of Urban Areas in Polk County, Iowa using Social-Ecological-Technological Framework

Atiye Beyza Cikmaz, Jerry Mount, Ibrahim Demir

Published: 2024-07-08
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Risk Analysis

The escalating prominence of floods globally, with their catastrophic potential to inflict substantial losses in terms of both human lives and economic resources, underscores their significance. Particularly susceptible to flooding between May and July, the US Midwest faces heightened risks during this critical period, characterized by the highest average precipitation rates of the year. Flood [...]

Excitable Dynamics of Neoproterozoic to Early Paleozoic Atmospheric and Ocean Oxygen

Stuart Daines, Ziheng Li

Published: 2024-07-05
Subjects: Biogeochemistry

The geochemical carbon isotope and redox proxy record indicates that Earth’s surface oxygenation involved a prolonged period of extreme variability in atmospheric and oceanic oxygen, spanning from the early Neoproterozoic to the early Paleozoic. This variability has been linked to external tectonic and evolutionary forcings, as well as to internal nonlinear feedbacks related to the [...]

Building quantitative skills with a simplified physical model of coastal storm deposition

Eli Lazarus

Published: 2024-07-04
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Educational Methods, Geomorphology, Higher Education, Scholarship of Teaching and Learning

This article describes an exercise for a physical laboratory experiment designed to enable physical geography students to practice transferrable quantitative skills through inquiry-based learning. The exercise is a deliberately simplified physical model of storm-driven coastal overwash typical of low-lying coastal barrier systems. The experiment can be trialled in anything from a baking pan or [...]

Uranium-series isotopes as tracers of physical and chemical weathering in glacial sediments from Taylor Valley, Antarctica

Graham Harper Edwards, Gavin Piccione, Terrence Blackburn, et al.

Published: 2024-07-04
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Glaciology, Soil Science

The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica formed by extensive glacial erosion, yet currently exhibit hyperarid polar conditions characterized by limited chemical and physical weathering. Efficient chemical weathering occurs when moisture is available, and polythermal subglacial conditions may accommodate ongoing mechanical weathering and valley incision. Taylor Valley hosts several Pleistocene [...]

Micro-Scale Mapping of Soil Organic Carbon: The Potential of Soft X-Ray Spectromicroscopy

Maoz Dor, Tom Regier, Zachary Arthur, et al.

Published: 2024-07-04
Subjects: Agriculture, Environmental Sciences, Soil Science

Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a crucial role in soil fertility, productivity, and global carbon cycling. However, the mechanisms governing SOC persistence and turnover are not fully understood, hindering effective carbon management strategies. Especially limiting are challenges to visualize and characterize spatial distribution patterns of SOC within the intact soil. This study presents a novel [...]

Unraveling the crop yield response under ... through the deployment of a drought index

Sultan Tekie, Sebastian Zainali, Tekai Eddine Khalil Zidane, et al.

Published: 2024-07-04
Subjects: Engineering

Extensive research has explored the impact of shading on vegetation growth and crop yield under agrivoltaic (APV) systems. These studies have revealed a notable connection between shading and crop yields, with certain crop varieties showing benefits from shadings e.g., Berries and Leafy Vegetables, Forage remaining largely unaffected, and some crops e.g., Cereals, Grain Legumes, Fruits, and Root [...]

Mechanisms for upstream migration of firn aquifer drainage: preliminary observations of Helheim Glacier, Greenland

Jessica Mejia, Kristin Poinar, Colin R. Meyer, et al.

Published: 2024-07-03
Subjects: Glaciology

Surface meltwater can influence subglacial hydrology and ice dynamics if it reaches the ice sheet’s base. Firn aquifers store meltwater and drain into wide crevasses marking the aquifer’s downstream boundary, indicating water from firn aquifers drives hydrofracture to establish the upglacier-most surface-to-bed hydraulic connections. Yet, sparse observations limit our understanding of the [...]

Increasingly seasonal jet stream drives stormy episodes with joint wind-flood risk in Great Britain

John Hillier, Hannah Bloomfield, Colin Manning, et al.

Published: 2024-07-03
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Hydrology, Multivariate Analysis

Ignoring a correlation between flooding and extreme winds underestimates risk to insurers or providers of critical infrastructure such as railways or electricity. We explore this potential underestimation for Northwest Europe, illustrated using Great Britain (GB), using an event-based analysis in regional 12 km UK Climate Projections (UKCP18, 1981-1999, 2061-2079 – RCP8.5). We derive a new [...]

Probability of Detection and Multi-Sensor Persistence of Methane Emissions from Coincident Airborne and Satellite Observations

Alana Ayasse, Daniel H Cusworth, Kate Howell, et al.

Published: 2024-07-02
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Satellites are becoming a widely used measurement tool for methane detection and quantification. The landscape of satellite instruments with some methane point-source quantification capabilities is growing. Combining information across available sensor platforms could be pivotal for understanding trends and uncertainties in source-level emissions. However, to effectively combine information [...]

Littoral activity in the lava deltas of 2021 eruption on Cumbre Vieja Volcanic Rift, La Palma (Canary Islands): constraints on explosive water-magma interaction

Juan Jesus Coello-Bravo, Raquel Herrera, Álvaro Márquez, et al.

Published: 2024-07-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences

Tephra jets are a characteristic explosive phenomenon of lava deltas built by pāhoehoe or ‘a‘ā lava flows. Field observations made during the growth of the 2021 South Lava Delta (La Palma island), emplaced under a 100–150 m high marine cliff, show tephra jets driven by penetration of seawater through the external lava breccia into the interior of ‘a‘ā lava flows entering the ocean. However, this [...]

A scalable monitoring framework for leaf area index and green area index using 30°-tilted cameras

chongya Jiang, Kaiyu Guan, Hongliang Fang, et al.

Published: 2024-07-01
Subjects: Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

• Leaf area index (LAI) and green area index (GAI) are fundamental plant traits. However, there is a lack of ground observation network for LAI/GAI due to technical limitations. Here we present a new method to achieve continuous LAI/GAI monitoring using ordinary cameras. • By tilting ordinary cameras by 30°, images can cover a large view zenith angle range to measure multi-angular gap fractions [...]

Machine Learning-based Hydrological Models for Flash Floods: A Systematic Literature Review

Leonardo Santos, Luiz Fernando Satolo, Ricardo Oyarzabal, et al.

Published: 2024-07-01
Subjects: Hydrology

Background: Flash flood modeling faces many challenges since physically-based hydrological models are unsuitable for a small spatiotemporal scale. With the increased availability of hydrological observed data, an alternative approach is to use Machine Learning (ML) techniques. This work conducts a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) to enhance our comprehension of the research landscape on [...]

A global open-source dataset of monthly irrigated and rainfed cropped areas (MIRCA-OS) for the 21st century

Endalkachew Abebe Kebede, Kevin Ong’are Oluoch, Stefan Siebert, et al.

Published: 2024-07-01
Subjects: Agriculture

Crop production is among the most extensive human activities on the planet – with critical importance for global food security, land use, environmental burden, and climate. Yet despite the key role that croplands play in global land use and Earth systems, there remains little understanding of how spatial patterns of global crop cultivation have recently evolved and which crops have [...]

Food trade disruption after global catastrophes

Florian Ulrich Jehn, Łukasz G. Gajewski, Johanna Hedlund, et al.

Published: 2024-06-29
Subjects: Agriculture, Human Geography, International and Area Studies, Nature and Society Relations, Other Geography

The global food trade system is resilient to minor disruptions but vulnerable to major ones. Major shocks can arise from global catastrophic risks, such as abrupt sunlight reduction scenarios (e.g., nuclear war) or global catastrophic infrastructure loss (e.g., due to severe geomagnetic storms or a global pandemic). We use a network model to examine how these two scenarios could impact global [...]

A Range of Management Strategies for Planted Pine Systems Yields Net Climate Benefits

Sarah J. Puls, Rachel L. Cook, Justin S. Baker, et al.

Published: 2024-06-29
Subjects: Forest Sciences

Managed forests, including plantation systems, play a vital and often underappreciated role in contributing to the global carbon sink and mitigating climate change, and determining the most effective mitigation strategies requires accounting methods that accurately assess the climate effects of forests. We use a dynamic life cycle assessment methodology to compare the climate effects of [...]

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