There are 2478 Preprints listed.

Three-dimensional fluid-driven stable frictional ruptures

Alexis Sáez, Brice Lecampion, Pathikrit Bhattacharya, et al.

Published: 2021-09-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics

We investigate the quasi-static growth of a fluid-driven frictional shear crack that propagates in mixed mode (II+III) on a planar fault interface that separates two identical half-spaces of a three-dimensional solid. The fault interface is characterized by a shear strength equal to the product of a constant friction coefficient and the local effective normal stress. Fluid is injected into the [...]

On the asymmetry of cyclones and anticyclones in the cellular regime of rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection

Hao Fu, Shiwei Sun

Published: 2021-09-12
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RRBC) denotes the free convection between two parallel plates with a fixed temperature difference, placed in a rotating reference frame. It is a prototype model of geophysical and astrophysical convection. Rotation breaks the symmetry on its rotating axis, making the cyclones and anticyclones unequal in size and magnitude. Such an asymmetry has long been [...]


Natalia Rybnikova, Alejandro Sánchez de Miguel, Sviatoslav Rybnikov, et al.

Published: 2021-09-11
Subjects: Planetary Sciences

Artificial night-time light (NTL), emitted by various on-ground human activities, becomes further intensive in many regions worldwide. Its adverse effects on humans’ and ecosystems’ health crucially depend on the light spectrum, making the remote discrimination between different lamps a highly important task. However, such studies remain extremely limited, and none of them exploits freely [...]


Sergio C Rubin, Carlos de Castro

Published: 2021-09-11
Subjects: Life Sciences

Many neo-Darwinists have rejected the Gaia hypothesis, arguing that organisms cannot reach a common good by natural selection and that natural selection cannot act on the whole planet. In response, Watson and Lovelock put forward a model they called Daisyworld (Dw), a hypothetical planet which can regulate its temperature over a wide range of solar luminosities. This is accomplished by ordinary [...]

A re-evaluation of wetland carbon sink concepts and measurements: A diagenetic solution down sediments

John Barry Gallagher, Ke Zhang, Chee Hoe Chuan

Published: 2021-09-10
Subjects: Life Sciences

Aquatic canopy ecosystems ability to mitigate greenhouse gases (GHG) is currently based on the rate of sedimentary organic carbon accumulation (CA) and the protection of vulnerable stocks from remineralisation. However, remineralisation of allochthonous inputs constrains CA as sequestration, assessments neglect remineralisation over climatic scales, and often fail to account for recalcitrant [...]

Streambed pollution: A comprehensive review of its sources, eco-hydro-geo-chemical impacts, assessment, and mitigation strategies

Aadhityaa Mohanavelu, Shivansh Shrivastava, Sujay Raghavendra Naganna

Published: 2021-09-10
Subjects: Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Streambeds are among the important components of stream ecosystems and support several critical ecosystem services such as transformation of organic matter and nutrients and provide habitat for aquatic organisms. Increasing anthropogenic influence introduces multiple stressors to the stream networks resulting in pollution of streambeds, which in turn, could have detrimental effects on overall [...]

Predicting Fire Season Intensity in Maritime Southeast Asia with Interpretable Models

William Stewart Daniels, Dorit M Hammerling, Rebecca R Buchholz, et al.

Published: 2021-09-10
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Statistical Models

There have been many extreme fire seasons in Maritime Southeast Asia (MSEA) over the last two decades, a trend which will likely continue, if not accelerate, due to climate change. Fires, in turn, are a major driver of atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) variability, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. Previous studies have explored the relationship between climate variability and fire counts, [...]

Flow-dependent and dynamical systems analyses of predictability of the Pacific-North American summertime circulation

Ebrahim Nabizadeh, Sandro W Lubis, Pedram Hassanzadeh

Published: 2021-09-10
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Dynamical Systems, Earth Sciences

Forecast skills of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models and intrinsic predictability can be flow-dependent, e.g., different among weather regimes. Here, we have examined the predictability of distinct Pacific-North American weather regimes in June-September. Four weather regimes are identified using a self-organizing map analysis of daily 500-hPa geopotential height anomalies, and are [...]

The dynamics of the Campi Flegrei caldera magma chamber.

Chiara Paola Montagna, Paolo Papale, Antonella Longo

Published: 2021-09-10
Subjects: Fluid Dynamics, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Volcanology

The Campi Flegrei volcanic system is certainly a remarkable case study for what concerns magma chamber dynamics. In fact, its magmatic and volcanic history appears to have been largely driven by chamber processes like fractional crystallization, magma mixing, and volatile degassing. These processes have been intensely investigated with a variety of approaches that are described in many chapters [...]

Integrating the ‘the triangle of geography, geology and geophysics’ into sustainable development

Iain Stewart

Published: 2021-09-10
Subjects: Education, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

In the context of tackling climate change in the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East, HRH Prince El-Hassan bin Talal has called for an integrated approach to human and natu-ral resources management that takes account of ‘the triangle of geography, geology and geophysics’. The lack of application of geoscientific knowledge to sustainable develop-ment issues is surprising given that advancing [...]

An open workflow for the study of unseen weather extremes

Timo Kelder, Tim Marjoribanks, Louise Slater, et al.

Published: 2021-09-10
Subjects: Climate, Hydrology, Meteorology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing

Ensemble members from weather and climate predictions can be used to generate large samples of simulated weather events, allowing the estimation of extreme (hitherto unseen) events. Here, we provide a protocol and open workflow for applying the ‘UNSEEN’ method for hydro-climatic extremes globally, based on Copernicus Climate Change Services (C3S) seasonal predictions but also considering other [...]

Inhibition of photoferrotrophy by nitric oxide in ferruginous environments

Verena Nikeleit, Adrian Mellage, Giorgio Bianchini, et al.

Published: 2021-09-10
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Anoxygenic phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizers (photoferrotrophs) are thought to have thrived in Earth’s ancient ferruginous oceans and played a primary role in the precipitation of Archean and Paleoproterozoic (3.8-1.85 Ga) banded iron formations (BIF). The end of BIF deposition by photoferrotrophs has often been interpreted as being the result a deepening of water column oxygenation below the photic [...]

The influence of layer and voxel geological modelling strategy on groundwater modelling results

Trine Enemark, Lærke Andersen, Anne-Sophie Høyer, et al.

Published: 2021-09-09
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Water Resource Management

Reliable groundwater model predictions are dependent on representative models of the geological environment, which can be modelled using several different techniques. In order to inform the choice of the geological modelling technique, the differences between a layer modelling approach and a voxel modelling approach were analyzed. The layer model consist of stratigraphically ordered surfaces, [...]

The spatial dynamics of wheat yield and protein content at the field scale

Paul Christopher Stoy, Anam Khan, Aaron Wipf, et al.

Published: 2021-09-09
Subjects: Agriculture, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Life Sciences

Wheat is a staple crop that is critical for feeding a hungry and growing planet, but its nutritive value has declined as global temperatures have warmed. The price offered to producers depends not only on yield but also grain protein content (GPC), which are often negatively related at the field scale but can positively covary depending in part on management strategies, emphasizing the need to [...]

Tropical Cyclones Affecting Tokyo and Changing Storm Surge Hazard since 1980

Md. Rezuanul Islam, Masaki Satoh, Hiroshi Takagi

Published: 2021-09-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Risk Analysis

This study investigated tidal records and landfall tropical cyclone (TC) best tracks in Japan from 1980 to 2019 to determine changes in storm surge heights in coastal regions of eastern Japan, including Tokyo. The results indicate that annual mean storm surge heights have increased in the last 20 years (2000–2019) compared to those in 1980–1999, and that these changes are noteworthy, particularly [...]


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