Preprints

There are 15 Preprints listed.

Tuning sedimentation through surface charge and particle shape

Ali Seiphoori, Andrew Gunn, Sébastien Kosgodagan Acharige, Paulo Arratia, Douglas J. Jerolmack

Published: 2020-10-22
Subjects: Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Mud forms the foundation of many coastal and tidal environments. Clay suspensions carried downstream from rivers encounter saline waters, which encourages aggregation and sedimentation by reducing electrostatic repulsion among particles. We perform experiments to examine the effects of surface charge on both the rate and style of sedimentation, using kaolinite particles as a model mud suspension [...]

Was the Kalkarindji continental flood basalt province a driver of environmental change at the dawn of the Phanerozoic?

Peter Marshall, Luke E Faggetter, Mike Widdowson

Published: 2020-10-22
Subjects: Paleobiology, Volcanology

The Kalkarindji continental flood basalt province of Northern Australia is the oldest basaltic LIP in the Phanerozoic having erupted in the mid Cambrian. At this time, during the Cambrian Explosion, the global environment suffered a series of mass extinctions and biotic turnover. Kalkarindji had the potential to release 1.65 x 106 Tg of CO2, approximately 1.72% of the total Cambrian atmospheric [...]

Dam busy: beavers and their influence on the structure and function of river corridor hydrology, geomorphology, biogeochemistry and ecosystems

Annegret Larsen, Stuart N Lane, Joshua R Larsen

Published: 2020-10-22
Subjects: Education

Beavers (castor fiber, castor canadensis) are the most influential mammalian ecosystem engineer, heavily modifying river corridors and influencing hydrology, geomorphology, nutrient cycling, and ecology. As an agent of disturbance, they achieve this first and foremost through dam construction, which impounds flow and increases the extent of open water, and from which all other landscape and [...]

Towards a new geological time scale: A template for improved rock-based subdivision of pre-Cryogenian time

Graham Anthony Shields, Robin A Strachan, Susannah M Porter, Galen Pippa Halverson, Francis A Macdonald, Kenneth A Plumb, Carlos J de Alvarenga, Dhiraj M Banerjee, Andrey Bekker, Alexander Brasier, Partha P Chakraborty, Kent Condie, Kaushik Das, Richard Ernst, Anthony E Fallick, Hartwig Frimmel, Reinhardt Fuck, Paul F Hoffman, Balz S Kamber, Anton Kuznetsov, Ross Mitchell, Daniel G Poire, Simon W Poulton, Robert Riding, Mukund Sharma, Craig Storey, Eva Stueeken, Rosalie Tostevin, Elizabeth Turner, Shuhai Xiao, Shuanhong Zhang, Ying Zhou, Maoyan Zhu

Published: 2020-10-22
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Four first-order (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic eon) and nine second-order (Paleoarchean, Mesoarchean, Neoarchean, Paleoproterozoic, Mesoproterozoic, Neoproterozoic, Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic era) units continue to provide intuitive subdivision of geological time. Major transitions in Earth’s tectonic, biological and environmental history occurred at approximately 2.5-2.3, [...]

An explanation to the Nusselt-Rayleigh discrepancy in naturally convected porous media

Po-Wei Huang, Florian Wellmann

Published: 2020-10-22
Subjects: Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

We model hydrothermal convection using a partial differential equation formed by Darcy velocity and temperature - the velocity formulation. Using the Elder problem as a benchmark, we found that the velocity formulation is a valid model of hydrothermal convection. By performing simulations with Rayleigh numbers in the non-oscillatory regime, we show that multiple quasi-steady-state solutions can [...]

Sedimentological and stratigraphic criteria to distinguish between basin-floor and slope mudstones: Implications for the delivery of mud to deep-water environments

Kévin Boulesteix, Miquel Poyatos-Moré, Stephen S. Flint, David Mark Hodgson, Kevin G. Taylor, Rufus L. Brunt

Published: 2020-10-22
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Deep-water mudstones overlying basin-floor and slope sandstone-prone deposits are widely interpreted as hemipelagic drapes deposited during extended periods of sand starvation. However, the processes of mud transport and deposition, and the resulting facies and sedimentary architecture of mudstones in different deep-water environments, remain poorly understood. This study documents the [...]

Assessing streamflow sensitivity to precipitation variability in karst-influenced catchments with unclosed water balance

Yan Liu, Thorsten Wagener, Andreas Hartmann

Published: 2020-10-21
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Karst hydrological models are widely used for simulating groundwater dynamics at the aquifer scale. However, modeling streamflow of a topographic catchment that is partially covered by karst is rarely reported. This is due to difficulties of properly considering the strong differences of karstic and non-karstic hydrodynamics and the widespread occurrence of unclosed water balances in karstic [...]

Structure-from-Motion on shallow reefs and beaches: potential and limitations of consumer-grade drones to reconstruct topography and bathymetry

C. Gabriel David, Nina Kohl, Elisa Casella, Alessio Rovere, Pablo Ballesteros, Torsten Schlurmann

Published: 2020-10-21
Subjects: Civil Engineering, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Studies, Fluid Dynamics, Fresh Water Studies, Geographic Information Sciences, Hydraulic Engineering, Other Civil and Environmental Engineering, Other Environmental Sciences, Remote Sensing

Reconstructing the topography of shallow underwater environments using Structure-from-Motion – Multi View Stereo (SfM-MVS) techniques applied to aerial imagery from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is a challenging problem, as it involves non-linear distortions caused by water refraction. This study presents an experiment with aerial photographs collected with a consumer-grade UAV on the [...]

The International Sedimentary Geosciences Congress (ISGC) 2021 – An Opportunity to Shape the Future of Sedimentary Geosciences

Andrea Fildani, Jean Hsieh

Published: 2020-10-21
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The 1st International Sedimentary Geosciences Congress (ISGC) was conceived a few years ago as a unique opportunity for the broad sedimentary geosciences community to come together in a time of transformations. The aim of the congress is to allow the community to express, plan and implement what we all know are necessary changes to progress into the new decades with new motivations, ideas and [...]

Modulation of riverine concentration-discharge relationships by changes in the shape of the water transit time distribution

Mark Albert Torres, J. Jotautas Baronas

Published: 2020-10-21
Subjects: Geochemistry, Hydrology

The concentrations of weathering-derived solutes in rivers and their co-variance with discharge are thought to reflect reactive-transport processes in hillslopes and to reveal the sensitivity of solute fluxes to climatic change. It is expected that discharge-driven changes in water transit times play some role in setting concentration-discharge (C-Q) relationships, but knowledge gaps remain. To [...]

Pangeo Benchmarking Analysis: Object Storage vs. POSIX File System

Haiying Xu, Kevin Paul, Anderson Banihirwe

Published: 2020-10-21
Subjects: Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Pangeo is a community of scientists and software developers collaborating to enable Big Data Geoscience analysis interactively in the public cloud and on high-performance computing (HPC) systems. At the core of the Pangeo software stack is (1) Xarray, which adds labels to metadata such as dimensions, coordinates and attributes for raw array-oriented data, (2) Dask, which provides parallel [...]

River Planform Extraction From High-Resolution SAR Images Via Generalised Gamma Distribution Superpixel Classification

Odysseas Pappas, Nantheera Anantrasirichai, Alin Achim, Byron Adams

Published: 2020-10-21
Subjects: Computer Engineering, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Engineering, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology

The extraction of river planforms from remotely sensed satellite images is a task of crucial importance to many applications such as land planning, water resource monitoring or flood prediction. In this paper we present a novel framework for the extraction of rivers from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, based on superpixel segmentation and subsequent classification. Superpixel segmentation [...]

Seismic energy radiation and along-strike heterogeneities of shallow tectonic tremors at the Nankai Trough and Japan Trench

Suguru Yabe, Satoru Baba, Takashi Tonegawa, Masaru Nakano, Shunsuke Takemura

Published: 2020-10-21
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology

Shallow slow earthquakes have been documented along shallow plate interfaces near trenches. Recent geophysical observation networks located offshore of Japan enable us to analyze shallow tremors in the Nankai Trough and the Japan Trench. Onshore seismic stations are also important for detecting shallow very low frequency earthquakes (VLFEs) and for evaluating their seismicity prior to the [...]

Relative humidity gradients as a key constraint on terrestrial water and energy fluxes

Yeonuk Kim, Monica Garcia, Laura Morillas, Ulrich Weber, T. Andrew Black, Mark S Johnson

Published: 2020-10-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Earth’s climate and water cycle are highly dependent on the latent heat flux (LE) associated with terrestrial evapotranspiration. While the widely-used Penman-Monteith LE model is useful to explore vegetative controls on LE, land-atmosphere interactions are difficult to interpret due to the complex role of biological controls on underlying physical processes. Here, we present a novel LE model [...]

The importance of the study of igneous rocks and compositions to constrain the martian planetary evolution

Arya Udry, Justin Filiberto, Juliane Gross, Mariek Schmidt, Deanne Rogers, Elisabeth Hausrath, Roger Wiens, Nina Lanza

Published: 2020-10-21
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

This white paper summarizes the scientific importance of studying igneous compositions in meteorites, surface samples, and through orbital analyses to better constrain the geology of Mars as a whole and better understand the geological processes that have shaped Mars in the past and present. In support of martian igneous studies, we strongly advocate for the following in the upcoming [...]

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