Preprints

There are 2627 Preprints listed.

Geochemical variability as an indicator for large volume eruptions in volcanic arcs

Gregor Weber, Tom Sheldrake

Published: 2021-11-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Volcanology

Caldera-forming eruptions have the potential to impact global climate and induce drastic socioeconomic change. However, the criteria to identify volcanoes capable of producing large magnitude eruptions in the future are not well constrained. Here we compile and analyse data, revealing that volcanoes which have produced catastrophic caldera-forming eruptions in the past, typically show larger [...]

Geographically-resolved social cost of anthropogenic emissions accounting for both direct and climate-mediated effects

Jennifer Burney, Geeta G Persad, Jonathan Proctor, et al.

Published: 2021-11-17
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Environmental Sciences, Physical and Environmental Geography, Sustainability

The magnitude and distribution of physical and societal impacts from long-lived greenhouse gases are insensitive to the emission source location; the same is not true for major co-emitted short-lived pollutants like aerosols. Here we combine novel global climate model simulations with established response functions to show that identical aerosols emitted from different regions (Brazil, China, [...]

rassta: Raster-based Spatial Stratification Algorithms

Bryan Andre Fuentes, Minerva Justine Dorantes, John Robert Tipton

Published: 2021-11-17
Subjects: Agriculture, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Forest Sciences, Life Sciences

Spatial stratification of landscapes allows for the development of efficient sampling surveys, the inclusion of domain knowledge in data-driven modeling frameworks, and the production of information relating the spatial variability of response phenomena to that of landscape processes. This work presents the rassta package as a collection of algorithms dedicated to the spatial stratification of [...]

Syn-shearing deformation mechanisms of minerals in partially molten metapelites

Dripta Dutta, Santanu Misra, David Mainprice

Published: 2021-11-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences

We investigated an experimentally sheared (γ = 15, γ ̇ = 3 x 10-4s-1, 300 MPa, 750°C) quartz-muscovite aggregate to understand the deformation of parent and new crystals in partially molten rocks. The SEM and EBSD analyses along the longitudinal axial section of the cylindrical sample suggest that quartz and muscovite melted partially and later produced K-feldspar, ilmenite, biotite, mullite, and [...]

A data-driven framework for paleomagnetic Euler pole analysis

Leandro Cesar Gallo, Facundo Sapienza, Mathew Domeier

Published: 2021-11-15
Subjects: Geology, Geophysics and Seismology

Owing to the inherent axial symmetry of the Earth’s magnetic field, paleomagnetic data only directly record the latitudinal and azimuthal positions of crustal blocks in the past, but paleolongitude cannot be constrained. An ability to overcome this obstacle is fundamental to paleogeographic reconstruction. The paleomagnetic Euler pole (PEP) analysis presents a unique means to recover such [...]

Climate change, fire return intervals and the growing risk of permanent forest loss in boreal Eurasia

Arden L Burrell, Qiaoqi Sun, Robert Baxter, et al.

Published: 2021-11-15
Subjects: Climate, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Other Environmental Sciences, Physical and Environmental Geography, Remote Sensing, Spatial Science

Climate change has driven an increase in the frequency and severity of fires in Eurasian boreal forests. A growing number of field studies have linked the change in fire regime to post-fire recruitment failure and permanent forest loss. In this study we used four burnt area and two forest loss datasets to calculate the landscape-scale fire return interval (FRI) and associated risk of permanent [...]

Optimizing nature-based solutions by combining social equity, hydro-environmental efficiency, and economic costs through a novel Gini coefficient

Cyndi Castro

Published: 2021-11-15
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Civil Engineering, Computational Engineering, Engineering, Environmental Studies, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Nature and Society Relations, Operations Research, Systems Engineering and Industrial Engineering, Physical and Environmental Geography, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Systems Engineering

A robust multi-functional decision support system for widespread planning of nature-based solutions (NBSs) must incorporate components of social equity. NBS systems advance social well-being through enhanced levels of greenspace, which have been shown to improve physical health (e.g., heart disease, diabetes), mental health (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder, depression), and socio-economics [...]

Rare allanite in granulitised eclogites constrains timing of eclogite to granulite facies transition in the Bhutan Himalaya

Eleni Wood, Clare Warren, Nick M. W. Roberts, et al.

Published: 2021-11-15
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

During continental collision, crustal rocks are buried, deformed, transformed and exhumed. The rates, timescales and tectonic implications of these processes are determined by linking geochemical, geochronological and microstructural data from metamorphic rock-forming and accessory minerals. Exposures of lower orogenic crust provide important insights into orogenic evolution, but are rare in [...]

Plagioclase archives of depleted melts in the oceanic crust

David Axford Neave, Olivier Namur

Published: 2021-11-15
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geology

Mid-ocean ridge and ocean island basalts provide vital but incomplete insights into the chemical structure of Earth’s mantle. For example, high-anorthite plagioclase carried by these basalts is generally too primitive and incompatible-element depleted to have crystallized from them. Moreover, erupted basalts rarely preserve the strong isotopic and incompatible-element depletions found in some [...]

Vertical Deformation and Residual Altimeter Systematic Errors around Continental Australia Inferred from a Kalman-Based Approach

Mohammad-Hadi Rezvani, Christopher S. Watson, Matt A. King

Published: 2021-11-15
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Other Earth Sciences

We further developed a space-time Kalman approach to estimate time-variable signals in residual altimeter systematic errors and vertical land motion (VLM) around the Australian coast since the 1990s, through combining multi-mission absolute sea-level (ASL), relative sea-level (RSL) from tide gauges (TGs) and GPS heights records. Our results confirmed continent-wide subsidence and TG-specific VLMs [...]

Weak, Seismogenic Faults Inherited From Mesozoic Rifts Control Mountain Building in the Andean Foreland

Sam Wimpenny

Published: 2021-11-15
Subjects: Earth Sciences

New earthquake focal mechanism and centroid depth estimates show that the deformation style in the forelands of the Andes is spatially correlated with rift systems that stretched the South American lithosphere in the Mesozoic. Where the rifts trend sub-parallel to the Andean range front, normal faults inherited from the rifts are being reactivated as reverse faults, causing the 30--45 km thick [...]

Modeling Volcano-Magmatic Systems: Workshop Report for the Modeling Collaboratory for Subduction Research Coordination Network

Helge M. Gonnermann, Kyle Anderson

Published: 2021-11-12
Subjects: Volcanology

This document summarizes the outcomes of the Modeling Collaboratory for Subduction Zone Science (MCS) Volcanic Systems Workshop and presents a vision for advancing collaborative modeling of volcano-magmatic systems. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has identified 161 potentially active volcanoes in the United States and its territories, of which 57 are considered to be high or very high [...]

Stable Silicon Isotopes Uncover a Mineralogical Control on the Benthic Silicon Cycle in the Arctic Barents Sea

James Ward, Katharine Hendry, Sandra Arndt, et al.

Published: 2021-11-12
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Soil Science

Biogeochemical cycling of silicon (Si) in the Barents Sea is under considerable pressure from physical and chemical changes, including dramatic warming and sea ice retreat, together with a decline in dissolved silicic acid (DSi) concentrations of Atlantic inflow waters since 1990. Moreover, further expansion of the Atlantic realm (termed `Atlantification') is expected to shift phytoplankton [...]

Elastoplastic constitutive behavior and strain localization of a low-porosity sandstone during brittle fracturing

Shihuai Zhang, Pei Guo, Shunchuan Wu

Published: 2021-11-12
Subjects: Engineering, Mechanics of Materials

We investigated the elastoplastic behavior and strain localization of the Zigong sandstone (porosity: 6.5%) during brittle fracturing based on two series of axisymmetric compression experiments. The experiments were conducted under various confining pressures (σ3 = 0 ~ 80 MPa). For each confining pressure, the sandstone specimens were deformed under constant axial and circumferential strain [...]

Insights into the mixing efficiency of submesoscale Centrifugal-Symmetric instabilities

Tomas Chor, Jacob O. Wenegrat, John Ryan Taylor

Published: 2021-11-11
Subjects: Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Submesoscale processes provide a pathway for energy to transfer from the balanced circulation to turbulent dissipation. One class of submesoscale phenomena that has been shown to be particularly effective at removing energy from the balanced flow are centrifugal-symmetric instabilities (CSIs), which grow via geostrophic shear production. CSIs have been observed to generate significant mixing in [...]

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