Preprints

There are 3244 Preprints listed.

Taxon cycles in Neotropical mangroves

Valentí Rull

Published: 2022-09-27
Subjects: Life Sciences

The concept of taxon cycle involves successive range expansions and contractions over time through which a species can maintain indefinitely its core distribution. Otherwise, it becomes extinct. A typical taxon cycle can be subdivided into four stages: (I) expansion, (II) population differentiation, (III) local extinction and incipient speciation (eventually initiating a new cycle), and (IV) [...]

STEEP: a remotely-sensed energy balance model for evapotranspiration estimation in seasonally dry tropical forests

Ulisses A. Bezerra, John Cunha, Fernanda Falente, et al.

Published: 2022-09-27
Subjects: Hydrology, Meteorology

Improvement of evapotranspiration (ET) estimates using remote sensing (RS) products based on multispectral and thermal sensors has been a breakthrough in hydrological research. In large-scale applications, methods that use the approach of RS-based surface energy balance (SEB) models often rely on oversimplifications of the aerodynamic resistances. The use of these SEB models for Seasonally Dry [...]

Eocene/Oligocene global disruption and the revolution of Caribbean mangroves

Valentí Rull

Published: 2022-09-27
Subjects: Life Sciences

In a recent paper, the author demonstrated that, in contrast with the prevailing view of eventual gradual regional differentiation from a hypothetical Cretaceous pantropical mangrove belt around the Tethys Sea, the Caribbean mangroves originated de novo in the Eocene after the evolutionary appearance of the first mangrove-forming tree species known for the region, the ancestor of the extant [...]

Cautionary tales from the mesoscale eddy diffusivity tensor

Takaya Uchida, Dhruv Balwada, Quentin Jamet, et al.

Published: 2022-09-26
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The anisotropic mesoscale eddy diffusivity tensor is diagnosed using passive tracers advected in both an idealized 101-member mesoscale-resolving quasi-geostrophic (QG) double-gyre ensemble, and a realistic 24-member eddying ($1/12^\circ$) ensemble of the North Atlantic. We assert that the Reynold's decomposition along the ensemble dimension, rather than the spatial or temporal dimension, allows [...]

A Systematic Review of Deep Learning Applications in Streamflow Data Augmentation and Forecasting

Muhammed Sit, Bekir Zahit Demiray, Ibrahim Demir

Published: 2022-09-26
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Engineering, Environmental Engineering

The volume and variety of Earth data have increased as a result of growing attention to climate change and, subsequently, the availability of large-scale sensor networks and remote sensing instruments. This data has been an important resource for data-driven studies to generate practical knowledge and services, support environmental modeling and forecasting needs, and transform climate and earth [...]

All aboard! Earth system investigations with the CH2O-CHOO TRAIN v1.0

Tyler Kukla, Daniel Enrique Ibarra, Kimberly V. Lau, et al.

Published: 2022-09-24
Subjects: Climate, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Models of the carbon cycle and climate on geologic (>10^4 year) timescales have improved tremendously in the last 50 years due to parallel advances in our understanding of the Earth system and the increase in computing power to simulate its key processes. Despite these advances, balancing the Earth System's vast complexity with a model's computational expense is a primary challenge in model [...]

CloudSEN12 - a global dataset for semantic understanding of cloud and cloud shadow in Sentinel-2

Cesar Aybar, Luis Ysuhuaylas, Jhomira Loja, et al.

Published: 2022-09-24
Subjects: Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Accurately characterizing clouds and their shadows is a long-standing problem in the Earth Observation community. Recent works showcase the necessity to improve cloud detection methods for imagery acquired by the Sentinel-2 satellites. However, the lack of consensus and transparency in existing reference datasets hampers the benchmarking of current cloud detection methods. Exploiting the [...]

Intra-channel detachment in a collisional orogen: the Jhala Normal Fault in the Bhagirathi river section, Garhwal Higher Himalaya, India

Narayan Bose, Takeshi Imayama, Ryoichi Kawabata, et al.

Published: 2022-09-24
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

In the Bhagirathi River Transect of the Garhwal Himalaya, India, the existence of the Jhala Normal Fault (JNF) and its movement sense are disputed. The JNF has been considered either as part of the South Tibetan Detachment System (STDS) or as a distinct, more southerly discontinuity within the Higher Himalayan Crystalline Sequence (HHCS). Field studies reveal that the JNF lies entirely within the [...]

Macrophyte-hydrodynamic interactions mediate stratification and dissolved oxygen dynamics in ponds

Ellen Amara Albright, Robert Ladwig, Grace Marie Wilkinson

Published: 2022-09-24
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Hydrology, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Small waterbodies are sensitive to stressors such as eutrophication and heatwaves; however, interactions between macrophytes and hydrodynamics may mediate the effects of compounding stressors. Leveraging an ecosystem experiment and hydrodynamic model, we evaluated how macrophyte biomass, thermal structure, and dissolved oxygen (DO) responded to the interaction of episodic nutrient loading and [...]

Complex evolution of the 2016 Kaikoura earthquake revealed by teleseismic body waves

Kenta Ohara, Yagi Yuji, Shinji Yamashita, et al.

Published: 2022-09-23
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The 2016 Kaikoura earthquake, New Zealand, ruptured more than a dozen faults, making it difficult to prescribe a model fault for analysing the event by inversion. To model this earthquake from teleseismic records, we used a potency density tensor inversion, which projects multiple fault slips onto a single model fault plane, which reduced the non-uniqueness due to the uncertainty in selecting the [...]

Overlooked risks and opportunities for global protected areas revealed by mapping groundwatersheds

David Serrano, Xander Huggins, Tom Gleeson, et al.

Published: 2022-09-23
Subjects: Natural Resources and Conservation, Water Resource Management

Protected areas are a key tool for conserving biodiversity, sustaining ecosystem services and improving human well-being. Global initiatives that aim to expand and connect protected areas generally focus on controlling ‘above ground’ impacts such as land use, overlooking the potential for human actions in adjacent areas to affect protected areas through groundwater flow. Here, we assess the [...]

Calling time on alien plantscapes

Lennard Gillman

Published: 2022-09-23
Subjects: Life Sciences

Both urban and rural environments around the globe have become dominated by alien plant species to the extent that plantscapes from one region or country have become difficult to distinguish from many others. This process of plant community homogenisation comes at a cost to cultural identity and undermines people’s sense of place. Although invasive alien plant species have received considerable [...]

Calling Time on the Imperial Lawn and the Imperative for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

Lennard Gillman, Barbara Bollard, Sebastian Leuzinger

Published: 2022-09-23
Subjects: Life Sciences

Non-technical summary As green spaces, lawns are often thought to capture carbon from the atmosphere. However, once mowing, fertlising, and irrigation are taken into account, we show that they become carbon sources, at least in the long run. Converting unused urban and rural lawn and grassland to treescapes can make a substantial contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and increasing [...]

Marine Radiocarbon Calibration in Polar Regions: A Simple Approximate Approach using Marine20

Timothy J Heaton, Martin Butzin, Edouard Bard, et al.

Published: 2022-09-23
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Mathematics, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Statistics and Probability

The Marine20 radiocarbon (14C) age calibration curve, and all earlier marine radiocarbon calibration curves from the IntCal group, must be used extremely cautiously for the calibration of marine 14C samples from polar regions (outside ~ 40ºS – 40ºN) during glacial periods. Calibrating polar 14C marine samples from glacial periods against any Marine calibration curve (Marine20 or any earlier [...]

Characterisation of phosphate mineralogy in Montebras-en-Soumans Pegmatite, Massif Central, France

Cassian P. F. Pirard

Published: 2022-09-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Mineral Physics

Montebras-en-Soumans pegmatitic cupola hosts large pods of phosphate composed of primary amblygonite-montebrasite. These aluminium phosphate masses are considerably altered by post-magmatic processes producing a number of secondary metasomatic hydrothermal phosphates (lacroixite, wardite, morinite, viitaniemiite, apatite, triplite, eosphorite) and low-temperature phosphates (apatite, crandallite, [...]

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