There are 2627 Preprints listed.

The future of Swiss run-of-river hydropower production: climate change, environmental flow requirements and technical production potential

Tobias Wechsler, Bettina Schaefli, Massimiliano Zappa, et al.

Published: 2021-11-11
Subjects: Engineering

Run-of-river (RoR) hydropower is essential in Alpine energy production and highly sensitive to climate change, due to no or limited water storage capacity. Here, we estimate climate change impact on 21 RoR plants in Switzerland, where 60% of the annual electricity is produced by hydropower (30% by RoR). This is one of the first comprehensive, simulation-based studies on climate change impacts on [...]

Massive-Parallel Trajectory Calculations version 2.2 (MPTRAC-2.2): Lagrangian transport simulations on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs)

Lars Hoffmann, Paul F. Baumeister, Zhongyin Cai, et al.

Published: 2021-11-10
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Computer Sciences, Meteorology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Lagrangian models are fundamental tools to study atmospheric transport processes and for practical applications such as dispersion modeling for anthropogenic and natural emission sources. However, conducting large-scale Lagrangian transport simulations with millions of air parcels or more can become numerically rather costly. In this study, we assessed the potential of exploiting graphics [...]

Subglacial bedform sensitivity to bed characteristics across the deglaciated Northern Hemisphere

Marion A. McKenzie, Lauren Miller Simkins, Sarah Principato

Published: 2021-11-10
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Glaciology

Streamlined subglacial bedforms observed in deglaciated landscapes provide the opportunity to assess the sensitivity of ice dynamics to bed characteristics across broader spatiotemporal scales than is possible for contemporary glacial systems. While many studies of streamlined subglacial bedforms rely on manual mapping and qualitative (i.e., visual) assessment, we semi-automatically identify [...]

PbIso: an R package and web app for calculating and plotting Pb isotope data

Sheree Ellen Armistead, Bruce M Eglington, Sally J Pehrsson

Published: 2021-11-09
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The package PbIso is a free and open R toolbox for commonly used calculations and plots of Pb-Pb isotope data. In this paper, we review Pb isotope systematics and the calculations that are commonly used, such as model age, model source

The origin of tree-ring reconstructed summer cooling in Northern Europe during the 18th century eruption of Laki

Julie Edwards, Kevin Anchukaitis, Björn Gunnarson, et al.

Published: 2021-11-09
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Basaltic fissure eruptions, which are characteristic of Icelandic volcanism, are extremely hazardous due to the large quantities of gases and aerosols they release into the atmosphere. The 1783 --1784 CE Laki eruption was one of the most significant high-latitude eruptions in the last millennium and had substantial environmental and climatic impacts. Contemporary observations recorded the [...]

Sedimentological data-driven bottom friction parameter estimation in modelling Bristol Channel tidal dynamics

Simon Charles Warder, Athanasios Angeloudis, Matthew D Piggott

Published: 2021-11-09
Subjects: Oceanography, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Accurately representing the bottom friction effect is a significant challenge in numerical tidal models. Bottom friction effects are commonly defined via parameter estimation techniques. However, the bottom friction coefficient (BFC) can be related to the roughness of the sea bed. Therefore, sedimentological data can be beneficial in estimating BFCs. Taking the Bristol Channel and Severn Estuary [...]

WlCount: Geological lamination detection and counting using an image analysis approach

Fabio Oriani, Pauline C Treble, Andy Baker, et al.

Published: 2021-11-09
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Longitudinal Data Analysis and Time Series, Speleology, Stratigraphy

The manual identification and count of laminae in layered textures is a common practice in the study of geological records, which can be time consuming and carry large uncertainty for dense or disturbed lamina textures. We present here a novel image analysis approach to detect and count laminae in geoscientific imagery, called WlCount. Based on Dynamic Time Warping and Wavelet analysis, WlCount [...]

LaserTRAM-DB: A Time Resolved Analysis Module for the complete reduction of Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry data

Jordan Lubbers, Adam J Kent, Chris Russo

Published: 2021-11-08
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

LaserTRAM-DB is a dashboard for the complete processing pipeline of Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) data in complex materials such as geologic samples. As LA-ICP- MS data in geologic samples frequently have multiple phases, inclusions, and other compositional complexities within them that do not represent the material of interest, user interaction is [...]

Non-linear multiphase flow in hydrophobic porous media

Yihuai Zhang, Branko Bijeljic, Martin Blunt

Published: 2021-11-08
Subjects: Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Multiphase flow in porous materials is conventionally described by an empirical extension to Darcy’s law which assumes that the pressure gradient is proportional to flow rate. Through a series of two-phase flow experiments, we demonstrate that even when capillary forces are dominant at the pore scale, there is a non-linear intermittent flow regime with a power-law dependence between pressure gradient [...]

Open access in geochemistry from preprints to data sharing: past, present and future

Olivier Pourret, Dasapta Erwin Irawan

Published: 2021-11-08
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Volcanology

In this short communication, we discuss the latest advances regarding Open Access in the Earth Sciences and geochemistry community from preprints to findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable data following 14f session held at Goldschmidt conference (4-9 July 2021) dedicated to “Open Access in Earth Sciences”.

Fire and water: contaminants and clearance following uncontrolled fires

Erin Ingrid Walsh, Tim Stevenson, Richard NL Terrett, et al.

Published: 2021-11-08
Subjects: Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

There is a growing body of evidence surrounding the implications of uncontrolled bushfires and wildfires on water. This topic has importance from an ecological perspective, and significance for human health as it has consequences for drinking water quality and supply. Against the backdrop of climate change, it is especially important to holistically understand the impact of fire on water. This [...]

Simultaneous Inference of Plate Boundary Stresses and Mantle Rheology Using Adjoints: Large-Scale Two-Dimensional Models

Johann Rudi, Michael Gurnis, Georg Stadler

Published: 2021-11-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing

Plate motions are a primary surface constraint on plate and mantle dynamics and rheology, plate boundary stresses, and the occurrence of great earthquakes. Within an optimization method, we use plate motion data to better constrain uncertain mantle parameters. For the optimization problem characterizing the maximum a posteriori rheological parameters we derive gradients using adjoints and [...]

Nonlinear time series analysis of palaeoclimate proxy records

Norbert Marwan, Jonathan F. Donges, Reik V. Donner, et al.

Published: 2021-11-08
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Climate, Dynamic Systems, Earth Sciences, Geology, Longitudinal Data Analysis and Time Series, Multivariate Analysis, Non-linear Dynamics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics

Identifying and characterising dynamical regime shifts, critical transitions or potential tipping points in palaeoclimate time series is relevant for improving the understanding of often highly nonlinear Earth system dynamics. Beyond linear changes in time series properties such as mean, variance, or trend, these nonlinear regime shifts can manifest as changes in signal predictability, [...]

Subsurface temperature from seismic reflection data: application to the post break up sequence offshore Namibia

Arka Dyuti Sarkar, Mads Huuse

Published: 2021-11-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology

Accurate estimations of present-day subsurface temperatures are of critical importance to the energy industry, in particular with regards to geothermal energy and petroleum exploration. This paper uses seismic reflection observations of bottom-simulating reflections and subsurface velocities coupled with an empirical velocity to thermal conductivity transform to estimate subsurface temperature in [...]

GESLA Version 3: A major update to the global higher-frequency sea-level dataset

Ivan D Haigh, Marta Marcos, Stefan A Talke, et al.

Published: 2021-11-05
Subjects: Oceanography

This paper describes a major update to the quasi-global, higher-frequency sea-level dataset known as GESLA (Global Extreme Sea Level Analysis). Versions 1 (released 2009) and 2 (released 2016) of the dataset have been used in many published studies, across a wide range of oceanographic and coastal engineering-related investigations concerned with evaluating tides, storm surges, extreme sea levels [...]


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