Preprints

There are 3244 Preprints listed.

TempNet – Temporal Super Resolution of Radar Rainfall Products with Residual CNNs

Muhammed Sit, Bong-Chul Seo, Ibrahim Demir

Published: 2022-09-22
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Engineering

The temporal and spatial resolution of rainfall data is crucial for environmental modeling studies in which its variability in space and time is considered as a primary factor. Rainfall products from different remote sensing instruments (e.g., radar, satellite) have different space-time resolutions because of the differences in their sensing capabilities and post-processing methods. In this [...]

Ocean heat uptake efficiency increase since 1970

B. B. Cael

Published: 2022-09-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The ocean stores the bulk of anthropogenic heat in the Earth system. The ocean heat uptake efficiency (OHUE) -- the flux of heat into the ocean per degree of global warming -- is therefore a key factor in how much warming will occur in the coming decades. In climate models, OHUE is well-characterised, tending to decrease on centennial timescales; in contrast, OHUE is not well-constrained from [...]

python-ags4: A Python library to read, write, and validate AGS4 geodata files

Asitha Senanayake, Roger Chandler, Tony Daly, et al.

Published: 2022-09-21
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Geochemistry, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Geotechnical Engineering

Data gathered from geotechnical, geoenvironmental, and geophysical investigations can be broadly described as "geodata". The AGS4 data format is one of the most widely used data transmittal formats for geodata and is used across the world. It is a plain text format consisting of multiple tables of comma-separated values, tied together with a robust data schema and a comprehensive suite of [...]

Volcanic Lightning and Prebiotic Chemistry on the Early Earth

Jeffrey L Bada

Published: 2022-09-16
Subjects: Chemistry, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Based on the paper by Pan et al., on the early Earth >4.2 Ga with limited exposed land areas, coupled with an ice covered ocean, lightning could have been rare. This presents a conundrum because lightning is considered to be an important energy source needed for the synthesis of prebiotic compounds required for the origin of life. Lightning occurrence during eruptions on wide spread volcanic [...]

Rapid estimation of climate-air quality interactions in integrated assessment using a response surface model

Sebastian David Eastham, Erwan Monier, Daniel Rothenberg, et al.

Published: 2022-09-15
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Public Health, Environmental Studies

Air quality and climate change are substantial and linked sustainability challenges, and there is a need for improved tools to assess the implications of addressing them in combination. High-fidelity chemistry-climate simulations can capture combined climate-air quality responses to policy change, but computational cost has prevented integration of accurate air quality impacts into integrated [...]

Secular change of true polar wander over the past billion years

Hairuo Fu, Shihong Zhang, Daniel Condon, et al.

Published: 2022-09-15
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The rate of movement of Earth’s solid shell relative to its spin axis, or true polar wander, depends on variations in mantle convection and viscosity. We report paleomagnetic and geochronologic data from South China that constrain the rate of rapid true polar wander (>5° Myr-1) from 832–821 million years ago. Analysis of the paleomagnetic database demonstrates secular change of true polar wander [...]

U-Net-based Semantic Classification for Flood Extent Extraction using SAR Imagery and GEE Platform: A Case Study for 2019 Central US Flooding

Zhouyayan Li, Ibrahim Demir

Published: 2022-09-15
Subjects: Planetary Sciences

Data-driven models for water body extraction have experienced accelerated growth in recent years, thanks to advances in processing techniques and computational resources, as well as improved data availability. In this study, we modified the standard U-Net, a convolutional neural network (CNN) method, to extract water bodies from scenes captured from Sentinel-1 satellites of selected areas during [...]

How inclusive is volcanology? Insights from global bibliometric analyses

Geoffrey A Lerner, George T Williams, Elinor S Meredith, et al.

Published: 2022-09-15
Subjects: Library and Information Science, Volcanology

In this study, we use bibliometric methods to assess the way in which local researchers are included in volcanological publications by comparing the affiliation of authors with the country in which researched volcanoes are located. Globally, 40% of articles about a specific volcano do not include an author whose affiliation is based in the country where the volcano is located (a locally domiciled [...]

North Atlantic Drift Sediments Constrain Eocene Tidal Dissipation and the Evolution of the Earth-Moon System

David De Vleeschouwer, Donald Penman, Simon D'haenens, et al.

Published: 2022-09-15
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Cyclostratigraphy and astrochronology are now at the forefront of geologic timekeeping. While this technique heavily relies on the accuracy of astronomical calculations, solar system chaos limits how far back astronomical calculations can be performed with confidence. High-resolution paleoclimate records with Milankovitch imprints now allow reversing the traditional cyclostratigraphic approach: [...]

The Equator Project

Natasha Joanne Dowey, Sam Giles, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, et al.

Published: 2022-09-10
Subjects: Education, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Geography, Earth and Environmental Science (GEES) research will play a vital role in addressing the grand challenges of the 21st century, contributing to many of the UN sustainable development goals and the global energy transition. However, geoscience knowledge cannot be successfully applied to global problems that impact people from all walks of life unless the discipline itself is equitable. [...]

Lithogeochemistry in exploration for intrusion-hosted magmatic Ni-Cu-Co deposits

Steve Barnes

Published: 2022-09-09
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Magmatic Ni-Cu-Co-PGE deposits are notoriously difficult exploration targets owing to a lack of alteration haloes or other extended distal footprints. Success requires prediction of prospective terranes, followed by identification of suitable host intrusions and deposition sites within those intrusions. At the regional scale, potential ore-hosting magmas tend to have lithophile trace element [...]

Wavelet-based wavenumber spectral estimate of eddy kinetic energy: Theory

Takaya Uchida, Quentin Jamet, Andrew C. Poje, et al.

Published: 2022-09-09
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

A wavelet-based method is introduced in an oceanographic context to estimate wavenumber spectrum and spectral flux of kinetic energy and enstrophy. We apply this to a numerical simulation of idealized, doubly-periodic quasi-geostrophic flows, i.e.~the flow is constrained by the Coriolis force and vertical stratification. The double periodicity allows for a straightforward Fourier analysis as [...]

Emerging advanced oxidation processes for water and wastewater treatment – guidance for systematic future research –

Uwe Hübner, Stephanie Spahr, Holger Lutze, et al.

Published: 2022-09-09
Subjects: Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Sciences

Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for water treatment are a growing research field with a large variety of different concepts and materials being tested at laboratory scale. However, only few concepts have been translated into pilot- and full-scale operation recently. One major concern are the inconsistent experimental approaches applied across different studies that impede identification, [...]

Seasonal flow types of glaciers in Sermilik Fjord, Greenland, over 2016–2021

Kristin Poinar

Published: 2022-09-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Glaciology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Greenland glaciers have three primary seasonal ice flow patterns, or “types”: terminus driven, runoff driven, and runoff adapting. To date, glacier types have been identified by analyzing flow at a single location near the terminus; information at all other locations is discarded. Here, we use principal component (PC) / empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to decompose multi-year time [...]

The impacts of mineral dust aerosols on global climate and climate change

Jasper F Kok, Trude Storelvmo, Vlassis Karydis, et al.

Published: 2022-09-08
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Mineral dust aerosols impact Earth’s energy budget through interactions with radiation, clouds, atmospheric chemistry, the cryosphere and biogeochemistry. In this review, we summarize these interactions and assess the resulting impacts of dust, and of changes in dust, on global climate and climate change. We find that the total effect of these interactions on Earth’s global energy budget—the dust [...]

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