Preprints

There are 3014 Preprints listed.

Quantifying excess heavy metal concentrations in drainage basins using conservative mixing modelling

Jonas Alexander Eschenfelder, Alex G. Lipp, Gareth G Roberts

Published: 2022-05-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sustainability, Water Resource Management

High concentrations of heavy metals and other pollutants in river sediments can have detrimental effects on the health of ecosystems and humans. As such, determining the composition of river sediments throughout drainage basins is an essential aspect of environmental monitoring. Well characterised natural baseline concentrations are important information with which observations can be compared [...]

Future projections for the Antarctic ice sheet until the year 2300 with a climate-index method

Ralf Greve, Christopher Robert Scott Chambers, Takashi Obase, et al.

Published: 2022-05-13
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

As part of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6), the Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project for CMIP6 (ISMIP6) was devised to assess the likely sea-level-rise contribution from the Earth's ice sheets. Here, we construct an ensemble of climate forcings for Antarctica until the year 2300 based on original ISMIP6 forcings until 2100, combined with climate indices from [...]

Hydraulic fracturing: Laboratory evidence of the brittle-to-ductile transition with depth

Runhua Feng, Shuo Liu, Joel Sarout, et al.

Published: 2022-05-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Engineering, Geology, Petroleum Engineering

Understand the propagation of hydraulic fracture (HF) is essential for effectively stimulating the hydrocarbon production of unconventional reservoirs. Hydraulic fracturing may induce distinct failure modes within the formation, depending on the rheology of the solid and the in-situ stresses. A brittle-to-ductile transition of HF is thus anticipated with increasing depth, although only scarce [...]

Early development and tuning of a global coupled cloud resolving model, and its fast response to increasing CO2

Thorsten Mauritsen, Rene Redler, Monika Esch, et al.

Published: 2022-05-13
Subjects: Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

Since the dawn of functioning numerical dynamical atmosphere- and ocean models, their resolution has steadily increased, fed by an exponential growth in computational capabilities. The computationally limited resolution of models means that a number of mostly small-scale or micro-scale processes have to be parameterised -- in particular those of atmospheric moist convection and ocean eddies are [...]

Complex fault system revealed from 3-D seismic reflection data with deep learning and fault network analysis

Thilo Wrona, Indranil Pan, Rebecca E. Bell, et al.

Published: 2022-05-13
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

Understanding where normal faults are is critical to an accurate assessment of seismic hazard, the successful exploration for and production of natural (including low-carbon) resources, and for the safe subsurface storage of CO2. Our current knowledge of normal fault systems is largely derived from seismic reflection data imaging intra-continental rifts and continental margins. However, [...]

Broadband Ocean Bottom Seismometer Noise Properties

Helen A Janiszewski, Zachary Eilon, Joshua Russell, et al.

Published: 2022-05-13
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology

We present a new compilation and analysis of broadband ocean bottom seismometer noise properties from 15 years of seismic deployments. We compile a comprehensive dataset of representative four-component (seismometer and pressure gauge) noise spectra and cross-spectral properties (coherence, phase, and admittance) for 551 unique stations spanning 18 US-led experiments. This is matched with a [...]

Cutting down trees does not build prosperity: On the continued decoupling of Amazon deforestation and economic development in 21st century Brazil

DARREN NORRIS, Terciane Sabadini Carvalho, Angela M. Guerrero, et al.

Published: 2022-05-13
Subjects: Environmental Studies, Forest Management, Life Sciences, Nature and Society Relations, Remote Sensing

Background and aims: We present evidence examining spatial and temporal patterns in forest cover changes and economic progress in Brazilian Amazonia. Specifically we tested two predictions embedded in arguments used by influential interest groups: i) where there is less forest cover economic progress should increase and ii) areas with most recent deforestation should have increased economic [...]

Analog experiments in volcanology: towards multimethod, upscaled and integrated models

Sam Poppe, Johan Gilchrist, Eric Christophe Pascal Breard, et al.

Published: 2022-05-13
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

For decades scaled analog experiments have improved the understanding of a broad range of multiphase volcanological processes in controlled laboratory environments. Successfully modeled processes include magma flow through magma reservoirs, conduits and sheets, associated crustal deformation, lava flow, volcanic plume dynamics, ash cloud dispersion, pyroclast sedimentation, pyroclastic density [...]

Rheology of debris-flow materials is controlled by the distance from jamming

Robert Paul Kostynick, Hadis Matinpour, Shravan Pradeep, et al.

Published: 2022-05-13
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology

Debris flows are dense and fast-moving complex suspensions of soil and water that threaten lives and infrastructure. Assessing the hazard potential of debris flows requires predicting yield and flow behavior. Reported measurements of rheology for debris-flow slurries are highly variable and sometimes contradictory, due to heterogeneity in grain size, shape, chemical composition, and solid-volume [...]

Experimental investigation of fire spread across a vegetative fuel bed incorporating the effect of wind velocity

Reza Ziazi, Abhinandan Singh, Ahmed O. Said, et al.

Published: 2022-05-10
Subjects: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering

Wind, moisture content, and density of fuel are three environmental factors that affect the rate of fire spread in wildland fires by changing the rate of convection, radiation, and conduction heat transfer from the flames and burned fuels to the unburned fuel. These effects have been experimentally investigated in the current study to further understand the complex phenomena of wildland fire [...]

Breaking the window of detection: Using multi-scale solute tracer studies to assess mass recovery at the detection limit

Adam Scott Ward, Steve Wondzell, Mike Gooseff, et al.

Published: 2022-05-05
Subjects: Hydrology

Stream solute tracers are commonly injected to assess transport and transformation in study reaches, but results are biased toward the shortest and fastest storage locations. While this bias has been understood for decades, the impact of an experimental constraint on our understanding has yet to be considered. Here, we ask how different our understanding of reach- and segment-scale transport [...]

Plant-microbe symbiosis widens the habitability range of the Daisyworld

Estefanía Muñoz, Jorge Carneiro

Published: 2022-05-04
Subjects: Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Plant-microbe symbiosis is pervasive in the Earth's ecosystems and dates back to the early land colonisation by plants. Mutualistic partnership with rhizobia bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi promotes plant nutrition, growth and diversity, impacting important ecosystem functions. However, how the global behaviour and dynamical properties of an ecosystem are modified by plant-microbe symbiosis is [...]

The CREp 36Cl exposure age calculator: development version “dev”

Irene Schimmelpfennig, Pierre-Henri BLARD, Jim Tesson, et al.

Published: 2022-05-04
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Glaciology, Sedimentology, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Chlorine-36 (36Cl) is currently the only in situ cosmogenic nuclide applicable in carbonates, Ca- and K-rich feldspars and aphyric silicate rocks. Because the production reactions of 36Cl are more numerous and complex than those of other cosmogenic nuclides (e.g. 10Be, 3He), comprehensive and user-friendly calculators are essential for routine application of 36Cl to Earth surface research [...]

21st-century stagnation in sand-sea activity

Andrew Gunn, Amy East, Douglas J Jerolmack

Published: 2022-05-03
Subjects: Climate, Geomorphology

Sand seas are vast expanses of Earth’s surface containing large areas of aeolian dunes—topographic patterns manifest from above-threshold winds and a supply of loose sand. Predictions of the role of future climate change for sand-sea activity are sparse and contradictory. Here we examine the impact of climate on all of Earth’s presently-unvegetated sand seas, using ensemble runs of an Earth [...]

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