Preprints

There are 3491 Preprints listed.

From ground motion simulations to landslide occurrence prediction

Ashok Dahal, David Alejandro Casto Cruz, Hakan Tanyas, et al.

Published: 2023-01-17
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Soil Science, Statistical Models, Statistics and Probability

Ground motion simulations solve wave equations in space and time, thus producing detailed estimates of the shaking time series. This is essentially uncharted territory for geomorphologists, for we have yet to understand which ground motion (synthetic or not) parameter, or combination of parameters, is more suitable to explain the coseismic landslide distribution. To address this gap, we developed [...]

A Bayesian Level Set Method for Identifying Subsurface Geometries and Rheological Properties in Stokes Flow

Lukas Holbach, Michael Gurnis, Georg Stadler

Published: 2023-01-16
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing

We aim to simultaneously infer the shape of subsurface structures and material properties such as density or viscosity from surface observations. Modeling mantle flow using incompressible instantaneous Stokes equations, the problem is formulated as an infinite-dimensional Bayesian inverse problem. Subsurface structures are described as level sets of a smooth auxiliary function, allowing for [...]

A global apparent polar wander path for the last 320 Ma calculated from site-level paleomagnetic data

Bram Vaes, Douwe J.J. van Hinsbergen, Suzanna H.A. van de Lagemaat, et al.

Published: 2023-01-16
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Apparent polar wander paths (APWPs) calculated from paleomagnetic data describe the motion of tectonic plates relative to the Earth’s rotation axis through geological time, providing a quantitative paleogeographic framework for studying the evolution of Earth’s interior, surface, and atmosphere. Previous APWPs were typically calculated from collections of paleomagnetic poles, with each pole [...]

How fine is fine enough? Effect of mesh resolution on hydrodynamic simulations in coral reef environments

Antoine Saint-Amand, Jonathan Lambrechts, Christopher J. Thomas, et al.

Published: 2023-01-14
Subjects: Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Coral reef environments are biodiversity hotspots that provide many services to coastal communities. They are currently facing an increasing anthropogenic pressure that jeopardises their survival. Numerical ocean models are an important tool to understand the functioning of coral ecosystems and the mechanisms ensuring their resilience. However, simulating the water circulation through reef [...]

The upper mantle geoid for lithospheric structure and dynamics

Juan Carlos Afonso, Farshad Salajeghegh

Published: 2023-01-14
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Geoid anomalies offer crucial information on the internal density structure of the Earth, and thus, on its constitution and dynamic state. In order to interpret geoid undulations in terms of depth, magnitude and lateral extension of density anomalies in the lithosphere and upper mantle, the effects of lower mantle density anomalies need to be removed from the full geoid (thus obtaining a residual [...]

Consumer-grade UAV solid-state LiDAR accurately quantifies topography in a vegetated fluvial environment

Craig John MacDonell, Richard David Williams, Georgios Maniatis, et al.

Published: 2023-01-13
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Unoccupied Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) with passive optical sensors have become popular for reconstructing topography using Structure from Motion photogrammetry (SfM). Advances in UAV payloads and the advent of solid-state LiDAR have enabled consumer-grade active remote sensing equipment to become more widely available, potentially providing opportunities to overcome some challenges associated with [...]

Mapping glacier basal sliding with machine learning

Josefine Umlauft, Christopher W. Johnson, Philippe Roux, et al.

Published: 2023-01-13
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology

During the RESOLVE project ("High-resolution imaging in subsurface geophysics: development of a multi-instrument platform for interdisciplinary research"), continuous surface displacement and seismic array observations were obtained on Glacier d'Argentière in the French Alps for 35 days during May in 2018. This unique data set offers the chance to perform a detailed, local study of targeted [...]

meltPT: A Python package for basaltic whole-rock thermobarometric analysis with application to Hawai'i

Fergus McNab, Patrick W. Ball

Published: 2023-01-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences

Quantifying the depths and temperatures from which igneous rocks are derived is an important step in understanding volcanic, magmatic and mantle processes. We present meltPT, a Python package that allows users to apply twelve published whole-rock thermobarometers within a consistent framework, as well as combine thermobarometric results and geothermal models to estimate mantle potential [...]

A two-way coupling 2D-3D hybrid finite element numerical model using overlapping method for tsunami simulation

Guoming Ling, Junichi Matsumoto, Kazuo Kashiyama

Published: 2023-01-13
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Engineering

This paper describes a 2D-3D hybrid model for tsunami simulations that uses an overlapping method based on an arbitrary grid. A 2D model is used to simulate wave propagation from the source area to the offshore area, and a 3D model is then used to simulate the free surface flow around structures in coastal areas. An overlapping method that satisfies the conservation and compatibility conditions [...]

Residual U-Net with Attention for Detecting Clouds in Satellite Imagery

Alexander L. De Souza, Parnia Shokri

Published: 2023-01-13
Subjects: Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Semantic segmentation of clouds in Earth observation imagery is an important task in a variety of remote sensing contexts: from the application of atmospheric corrections to being able to accurately omit cloud pixels when extracting information about ground features. Here we introduce a deep learning approach based on the popular U-Net architecture. The core of the architecture is an U-Net with [...]

STICr: An open-source package and workflow for processing and analyzing data from Stream Temperature, Intermittency, and Conductivity (STIC) loggers

Chris Wheeler, Sam Zipper, Stephen C. Cook, et al.

Published: 2023-01-13
Subjects: Hydrology

Non-perennial streams constitute over half the world’s stream miles, and require hydrologic characterization to understand their flow regimes and impacts on ecosystems and society. Stream Temperature, Intermittency, and Conductivity (STIC) loggers are a widely used tool for studying non-perennial streams because they provide a relatively inexpensive and robust method for characterizing flow [...]

Mixtures of sediment chemical contaminants at freshwater sampling sites across Europe with different contaminant burdens

Samantha Richardson, Will M Mayes, Sonja Faetsch, et al.

Published: 2023-01-13
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Extended chemical analyses of fluvial sediments was undertaken to establish the key pollutant pressures and mixtures present across nine European Union inland waterways. A wide range of chemical components and physical parameters were investigated including substances from the EU Priority List and Watch List. The data set was examined for key indicator compounds, however it was found that a wide [...]

Benefit-cost ratios of CO2 removal strategies

B. B. Cael, Philip Goodwin, David Stainforth

Published: 2023-01-13
Subjects: Climate

Limiting global warming to 1.5$^\circ$C will very likely require, or to 2$^\circ$C may require, large-scale removal of carbon dioxide (CO$_2$) from the atmosphere. Many CO$_2$ removal strategies (CDRSs), or negative emissions technologies, have been proposed, which vary widely in both price per ton of CO$_2$ removed and storage timescale of this removed CO$_2$, as well as mechanism, maturity, [...]

Non-perennial stream networks as directed acyclic graphs: The R-package streamDAG

Ken Aho, Cathy Kriloff, Sarah E Godsey, et al.

Published: 2023-01-11
Subjects: Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Many conventional stream network metrics are time-invariant and/or do not consider the importance of individual stream locations to network functionality. As a result, they are not well-suited to non-perennial streams, in which hydrologic status (flowing vs. pooled vs. dry) can vary substantially in space and time. To help address this issue, we consider non-perennial streams as directed acyclic [...]

The Communication Distance of Non-Perennial Streams

Ken Aho, DeWayne Derryberry, Sarah E Godsey, et al.

Published: 2023-01-11
Subjects: Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

We developed Bayesian statistical approaches to assess non-perennial stream network connectivity. Our new methods allow: 1) consideration of changes to both local (stream segment) and global (stream network) connectivity over time, 2) incorporation of prior information from different data sources, and 3) straightforward computation of the posterior distributions of both active stream length and a [...]

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