There are 2102 Preprints listed.

Spatial spectrum of temperature fluctuations in buoyancy driven chaotic and turbulent atmosphere

Alexander Bershadskii

Published: 2021-03-26
Subjects: Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Sciences

It is shown, using results of direct numerical simulations, laboratory experiments, measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer, in troposphere, in stratosphere, and the satellite infrared radiances data that in many cases the temperature fluctuations in buoyancy driven chaotic and turbulent atmosphere can be well described by the distributed chaos approach based on the Bolgiano-Obukhov [...]

A data assimilation framework to constrain anthropogenically-induced geomechanical processes at depth: the subsidence case

Thibault Candela, Alin Chitu, Elisabeth Peters, Maarten Pluymaekers, Dries Hegen, Kay Koster, Peter Fokker

Published: 2021-03-26
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Statistics and Probability

Subsurface activities, such as reservoir gas production, geothermal heat extraction, ground water extraction, phreatic groundwater level lowering, storage of natural gas and CO2, potentially lead to geomechanical risks. The two most critical instances of these risks are anthropogenically-induced seismicity and subsidence. A combination of geological interpretations with seismic campaigns and [...]

Resolving Northern Alaska Earthquake Sequences Using the Transportable Array and Probabilistic Location Methods

Steven John Gibbons, Natalia Ruppert, Ezgi Karasözen, Kasey Aderhold, Ian Dickson

Published: 2021-03-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Between 2014 and 2017, almost 200 new seismic stations were installed in Alaska and northwestern Canada as part of the EarthScope USArray Transportable Array. These stations currently provide an unprecedented capability for the detection and location of seismic events in regions with otherwise relatively sparse station coverage. Two interesting earthquake sequences in 2018 and 2019 in the [...]

Slab temperature evolution over the lifetime of a subduction zone

Adam F Holt, Cailey Brown Condit

Published: 2021-03-25
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology

The thermal evolution of subducting slabs controls a range of subduction processes, yet we lack a robust understanding of how thermal structure develops over a subduction zone’s lifetime. We investigate the time-dependence of slab thermal structure using dynamically consistent, time evolving models. Pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions along the slab Moho and slab top exhibit substantial [...]

Shape of plutons in crustal shear zones: A tectono-magmatic guide based on analogue models

Maria Michail, Michael Rudolf, Matthias Rosenau, Alberto Riva, Piero Gianolla, Massimo Coltorti

Published: 2021-03-24
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Plutons in crustal shear zones may exploit inherited structures, interfere with strain localizing or be deformed passively. To constrain the relative timing of such tectono-magmatic constellations in natural settings is not always straight-forward. We here present sandbox-type analogue model experiments simulating magma emplacement into simple and transtensional crustal shear zones to test the [...]

Prediction of rapid intensification of tropical cyclones with deep learning

Sambatra Andrianomena, Mika Rafieferantsoa, Holifidy Rapanoel, Rondrotiana Barimalala

Published: 2021-03-24
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Tropical cyclones (TC) are one of the most destructive natural events claiming a lot of human lives and devastating coastal areas. Despite the advanced understanding of the formation of TC, prediction capabilities on the rapid intensification (RI) of TCs remain unsatisfactory. In this study, a deep learning framework using satellite images is used for the first time to identify RI events. We [...]

Low variability, snowmelt runoff inhibits coupling of climate, tectonics, and topography in the Greater Caucasus

Adam Matthew Forte, Joel Leonard, Matthew Rossi, Kelin Whipple, Arjun Heimsath, Lasha Sukhishvili, Tea Godoladze, Fakhraddin Kadirov

Published: 2021-03-23
Subjects: Geomorphology, Tectonics and Structure

Hypothesized feedbacks between climate and tectonics are mediated by the relationship between topography and long-term erosion rates. While many studies show monotonic relationships between channel steepness and erosion rates, the degree of nonlinearity in this relationship is geographically variable. There is a critical need to mechanistically explain controls on this relationship in natural [...]

The role of random vorticity stretching in tropical depression genesis

Hao Fu, Morgan O'Neill

Published: 2021-03-23
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Tropical deep convection plays a key role at the tropical depression stage of tropical cyclogenesis by aggregating vorticity, but no existing theory can depict such a stochastic vorticity aggregation process. Vorticity probability distribution function (PDF) is proposed as a tool to predict the horizontal structure and wind speed of the tropical depression, a tropical cyclone in its early stage. [...]

The threat of wildfire to cannabis agriculture in California

Christopher Ronald Dillis, Van Butsic, Diana Moanga, Phoebe Parker-Shames, Ariani Wartenberg, Ted Grantham

Published: 2021-03-22
Subjects: Agriculture

At the intersection of climate change and rural development, wildfire has emerged as a threat to agriculture in the western United States. This nexus is particularly problematic for the rapidly developing cannabis industry in California, which includes farms located outside of traditional agricultural zones and within landscapes potentially more prone to wildfire. Using fire hazard severity [...]

Microanchored fiber-optic DSS in boreholes allows strain profiling of the shallow subsurface

Cheng-Cheng Zhang, Bin Shi, Song Zhang, Kai Gu, Su-Ping Liu, Xu-Long Gong, Guang-Qing Wei

Published: 2021-03-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Engineering

Vertical deformation profiles of subterranean geological formations are conventionally measured by borehole extensometry. Distributed strain sensing (DSS) paired with fiber-optic cables installed in the ground opens up possibilities of acquiring high-resolution static and quasistatic strain profiles of deforming strata, but it is currently limited by reduced data quality due to complicated [...]

Complex Network Theoretic Assessment of Precipitation Driven Meteorological Drought in India: Past and Future

Vibhuti Bhushan Jha, Ashwin Gujrati, R P Singh

Published: 2021-03-22
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Spatio-temporal analysis of droughts is of paramount importance especially for future climate scenarios. We use complex network theoretic measures to understand spatio-temporal properties of precipitation driven meteorological drought across India in past and future climate scenarios. We construct drought networks using Event synchronization (ES) for moderate and extreme drought conditions [...]

Carbon dioxide fluxes increase from day to night across European streams

Katrin Attermeyer, Joan Pere Casas-Ruiz, Thomas Fuss, Ada Pastor, Sophie Cauvy-Fraunié, Danny Sheath, Anna C Nydahl, Alberto Doretto, Ana Paula Portela, Brian C Doyle, Nikolay Simov, Catherine Gutmann Roberts, Georg H Niedrist, Xisca Timoner, Vesela Evtimova, Laura Barral-Fraga, Tea Bašić, Joachim Audet, Anne Deininger, Georgina Busst, Stefano Fenoglio, Núria Catalán, Elvira de Eyto, Francesca Pilotto, Jordi-René Mor, Juliana Monteiro, David Fletcher, Christian Noss, Miriam Colls, Magdalena Nagler, Liu Liu, Clara Romero González-Quijano, Ferran Romero, Nina Pansch, José L J Ledesma, Josephine Pegg, Marcus Klaus, Anna Freixa, Sonia Herrero Ortega, Clara Mendoza-Lera, Adam Bednařík, Jérémy A Fonvielle, Peter J Gilbert, Lyubomir A Kenderov, Martin Rulík, Pascal Bodmer

Published: 2021-03-22
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Globally, inland waters emit over 2 Pg of carbon (C) per year as carbon dioxide (CO2), of which the majority originates from streams and rivers. Despite the global significance of fluvial CO2 emissions, little is known about their diel dynamics. We present the first large-scale assessment of day- and night-time CO2 fluxes at the water-air interface across European streams. Fluxes were directly [...]

Western Gondwana imaged by S receiver-functions (SRF): new results on Moho, MLD (mid-lithospheric discontinuity) and LAB (lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary)

LIN LIU, Simon L Klemperer, Alexander Robert Blanchette

Published: 2021-03-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

We study the Moho, the mid-lithospheric discontinuity (MLD), and the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) from southern Africa to northern Arabia, from Archean cratons to active rifts, at 1° resolution using our comprehensive new database of shear-wave receiver functions (SRFs). The good agreement between the Moho depth obtained from our SRFs and published P-wave receiver function (PRF) [...]

Mechanical Stratigraphy Controls Normal Fault Growth and Dimensions, Outer Kwanza Basin, Offshore Angola

David Redpath, Christopher A-L Jackson, Rebecca E. Bell

Published: 2021-03-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Fault growth and dimensions are controlled by mechanical stratigraphy on seismic scales. Here we present a detailed analysis of largely blind faults and their kinematics Offshore, Angola; where, salt bodies and mass-transport complexes (MTC) act as mechanically restricting elements to an array of extensional faults. Our study presents mechanically restricted faults whose data fall within the [...]

A Global Set of Subduction Zone Earthquake Scenarios and Recurrence Intervals Inferred From Geodetically Constrained Block Models of Interseismic Coupling Distributions

Shannon E Graham, John P Loveless, Brendan J Meade

Published: 2021-03-19
Subjects: Earth Sciences

The past 100 years have seen the occurrence of five $\MW\geq9$ earthquakes and 94 $\MW\geq8$ earthquakes. Here we assess the potential for future great earthquakes using inferences of interseismic subduction zone coupling from a global block model incorporating both tectonic plate motions and earthquake cycle effects. Interseismic earthquake cycle effects are represented using a first-order [...]


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