Preprints

There are 1901 Preprints listed.

Global rates of soil production independent of soil depth

Emma Jayne Harrison, Jane Willenbring, Gilles Brocard

Published: 2021-01-02
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Accelerated rates of soil erosion threaten the stability of ecosystems1, nutrient cycles2, and global food supplies3 if the processes that produce soil cannot keep pace. Over millennial timescales, the rate of soil production is thought to keep pace with the rate of surface erosion through negative feedbacks between soil thickness and the rate at which soil is produced from the underlying mineral [...]

Identifying shale sweet spots by 3D microseismic imaging

Congcong Yuan, Xiong Zhang, Jie Zhang

Published: 2021-01-02
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Several studies suggest that shale sweet spots are likely associated with low Poisson’s ratio in the shale layer. Compared with conventional geophysical techniques with active seismic data, it is straightforward and cost effective to delineate the distribution of 3D Poisson’s ratio using microseismic data. In this study, we develop a method for determining microseismic event locations, 3D P-wave [...]

Vertical slowness constrained joint VTI parameters and event locations inversion for microseismic monitoring

Congcong Yuan, Song Han, Jie Zhang

Published: 2020-12-31
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The construction of accurate anisotropic velocity models for the monitoring region plays a very important role in microseismic monitoring. Due to ignorance of anisotropy, serious distortions may happen in the results of microseismic location and interpretation. Several effective methods have been developed to invert for VTI parameters and event locations using microseismic traveltime, while the [...]

Automatic microseismic stacking location with a multi-cross-correlation imaging condition

Congcong Yuan, Wei Zhang, Jie Zhang

Published: 2020-12-31
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Source scanning algorithm (SSA) has been recognized as a valid technique to automatically detect and locate passive seismic events. The imaging condition of this algorithm is the linear stack of the amplitudes along the traveltime curve from trial locations. However, the linear stacking condition may cause the location uncertainty due to the polarity reversal and low signal-to-noise ratio of the [...]

A study of nowcast of Indian Monsoon Rainfall over Mumbai using Rainymotion

Kunal Anil Rustagi, Vipul Gote, Mahesh Mote, Jayesh Kothawade, Varsha Patil

Published: 2020-12-31
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Meteorology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing

Since ages, we know that rainfall is a very important factor in deciding the fate of a country. In an agrarian country like India where more than 70% of rural households are dependent on agriculture, agriculture contributes to nearly 17% GDP of the country and is directly dependent on rainfall. Excessive rainfall can lead to floods, landslides, soil erosion and no rainfall can lead to [...]

Samples, Symmetries and Extensions: Exploring Parameter Space in Nonlinear Problems

Andrew Curtis

Published: 2020-12-31
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Many scientific and technological advances require the values of a set of parameters to be constrained or estimated using recorded data. It is often possible to model data that would be recorded for particular parameter values using a computable and in general nonlinear function, where its inverse is unknown and does not exist as a unique-valued mapping. The space of parameter values must then be [...]

NIRvP: a robust structural proxy for sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis across scales

Benjamin Dechant, Youngryel Ryu, Grayson Badgley, Philipp Köhler, Uwe Rascher, Mirco Migliavacca, Yongguang Zhang, Giulia Tagliabue, Kaiyu Guan, Micol Rossini, Yves Goulas, Yelu Zeng, Christian Frankenberg, Joseph A. Berry

Published: 2020-12-31
Subjects: Agriculture, Biology, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Plant Sciences

Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) is a promising new tool for remotely estimating photosynthesis. However, the degree to which incoming sunlight and the structure of the canopy rather than leaf physiology contribute to SIF variations is still not well characterized. Here we demonstrate that the canopy structure-related near-infrared reflectance of vegetation multiplied by incoming [...]

Bayesian Seismic Tomography using Normalizing Flows

Xuebin Zhao, Andrew Curtis, Xin Zhang

Published: 2020-12-28
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

We test a fully non-linear method to solve seismic tomographic problems using data consisting of observed travel times of first-arriving waves. We use variational inference to calculate the posterior probability distribution which describes the solution to the Bayesian tomographic inverse problem. The variational method is an efficient alternate to Monte Carlo methods, which seeks the best [...]

Half a century of glacier mass balance at Cordilleras Blanca and Huaytapallana, Peruvian Andes

David Clark, Nicholas Barrand

Published: 2020-12-23
Subjects: Glaciology

The glaciers of the tropical Andes have been observed to be losing mass for much of the last century. These changes are both driven by, and an indicator of global climate change. These glaciers are important as they represent a crucial water source for downstream communities, supplying agriculture, urban usage, industry, mining and hydropower. This study aims to quantify glacial mass loss for the [...]

Climate as a Stratigraphic Tool for Basin Margin Deposition in Intracontinental Basins

Amy Gough, Stuart M Clarke, Philip C Richards

Published: 2020-12-23
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

In intracontinental basins stratigraphic packages are not as predictable as those deposited in marine settings, namely due to a lack over an overriding control on deposition. Deposition in intracontinental basins is controlled by tectonics, climatic variations, and sediment supply. Complexity is added as deposition is affected by both autocyclic localised variations (e.g., lobe switching) and [...]

Combination of GNSS orbits using variance component estimation

Gustavo Bento Mansur, Pierre Sakic, Andreas Brack, Benjamin Männel, Harald Schuh

Published: 2020-12-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Other Earth Sciences

Over the past years, the International GNSS Service (IGS) has been putting efforts into extending its service towards the Multi-GNSS Experiment and Pilot Project (MGEX). Several MGEX Analysis Centers (ACs) contribute by providing solutions containing not only GPS and GLONASS but also Galileo, BeiDou, and QZSS. The MGEX orbit and clock combination is a product that is still not consolidated inside [...]

Tectono-stratigraphic development of a salt-influenced rift margin; Halten Terrace, offshore Mid-Norway

Gavin Elliott, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, Robert Leslie Gawthorpe, Paul Wilson, Ian Roger Sharp, Lisa Michelsen

Published: 2020-12-22
Subjects: Geology, Other Earth Sciences, Sedimentology, Tectonics and Structure

In salt-influenced rift basins the presence of a pre-rift salt layer will control the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the rift due to the decoupling of the sub- and suprasalt faults leading to temporal and spatial variations in structural style. Lateral variations in rift flank structure will control the dispersal and volumes of sediment deposited in rifts and along rifted margins, which in [...]

Soil erosion modelling: A global review and statistical analysis

Pasquale Borrelli, Christine Alewell, Pablo Alvarez, Jamil Alexandre Ayach Anache, Jantiene Baartman, Cristiano Ballabio, Nejc Bezak, Marcella Biddoccu, Artemi Cerdà, Devraj Chalise, Songchao Chen, Walter Chen, Anna Maria De Girolamo, Gizaw Desta Gessesse, Detlef Deumlich, Nazzareno Diodato, Nikolaos Efthimiou, Gunay Erpul, Peter Fiener, Michele Freppaz, Francesco Gentile, Andreas Gericke, Nigussie Haregeweyn, Bifeng Hu, Amelie Jeanneau, Konstantinos Kaffas, Mahboobeh Kiani-Harchegani, Ivan Lizaga Villuendas, Changjia Li, Luigi Lombardo, Manuel López-Vicente, Manuel Esteban Lucas-Borja, Michael Märker, Chiyuan Miao, Matjaž Mikoš, Sirio Modugno, Markus Möller, Victoria Naipal, Mark Nearing, Stephen Owusu, Dinesh Panday, Edouard Patault, Cristian Valeriu Patriche, Laura Poggio, Raquel Portes, Laura Quijano, Mohammad Reza Rahdari, Mohammed Renima, Giovanni Francesco Ricci, Jesús Rodrigo-Comino, Sergio Saia, Aliakbar Nazari Samani, Calogero Schillaci, Vasileios Syrris, Hyuck Soo Kim, Diogo Noses Spinola, Paulo Tarso Oliveira, Hongfen Teng, Resham Thapa, Konstantinos Vantas, Diana Vieira, Jae E. Yang, Shuiqing Yin, Demetrio Antonio Zema, Guangju Zhao, Panos Panagos

Published: 2020-12-22
Subjects: Soil Science

To gain a better understanding of the global application of soil erosion prediction models, we comprehensively reviewed relevant peer-reviewed research literature on soil-erosion modelling 1994-2017. Our aim was to identify (i) processes and models most frequently addressed in the literature, (ii) regions within which models are primarily applied, (iii) what regions remain unaddressed and why, [...]

Yield estimation of the 2020 Beirut explosion using open access waveform and remote sensing data

Christoph Pilger, Patrick Hupe, Peter Gaebler, Andre Kalia, Felix Schneider, Andreas Steinberg, Sudhaus Henriette, Lars Ceranna

Published: 2020-12-22
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Earth Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics, Statistics and Probability

We report on a multi-technique analysis using publicly available data for investigating the huge, accidental explosion that struck the city of Beirut, Lebanon, on August 4, 2020. Its devastating shock wave led to thousands of injured with more than two hundred fatalities and caused immense damage to buildings and infrastructure. Our combined analysis of seismological, hydroacoustic, infrasonic [...]

Climate change induced effects or maldevelopment: small islands and conflicting attribution of root causes

C. Gabriel David, Arne Hennig, Beate M. W. Ratter, Volker Roeber, ‎ Zahid, Torsten Schlurmann

Published: 2020-12-21
Subjects: Engineering, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Adapting to sea level rise, climate change, and associated effects is especially challenging in sensitive small-island environments where false adaptation can lead to adverse impacts on natural and societal dynamics. Framing and interest play a decisive role for the successful implementation of any adaptation measures. An interdisciplinary perspective on the interaction of natural dynamics, [...]

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