Preprints

There are 2627 Preprints listed.

Collapse wedges in periglacial eolian sands imply Late Pleistocene paleoseismic activity of the Vienna Basin Transfer Fault (western Slovakia)

Michal Šujan, Samuel Rybár, Edit Thamó-Bozsó, et al.

Published: 2021-11-04
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Seismic hazard assessment is an important issue in geological research. Paleoseismological studies of the depositional record contribute significantly to our knowledge of earthquake recurrence over geological time, the distribution of seismically triggered deformations being an area of research that sheds light on temporal patterns of seismic activity. This paper describes soft sediment [...]

Regional analysis of climate projections using Bias Corrected spatial disaggregated super-resolution convolutional neural networks

AKASH AWASTHI

Published: 2021-11-04
Subjects: Engineering, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Climate change is very crucial for ecological systems and society. But Global climate models run at coarse spatial resolution which is difficult to do regional analysis. Regional-scale projections can be obtained by a technique called statistical downscaling which uses past data to find out the high resolution and low-resolution mapping. There are many methods for statistical downscaling of [...]

Toward the understanding of saline water intrusion and nutrient flushing in Lake Nokoué

Metogbe Belfrid Djihouessi, Rita Houngue, Firmin Adandedji, et al.

Published: 2021-11-04
Subjects: Life Sciences

To understand the salinity dynamic at the outlet of Lake Nokoué and to simulate the nutrient flushing from this lake into the Atlantic Ocean, a 2D hydrodynamic model was designed with Mike 21. The choice of the Mike 21 was motivated by the long practice that decision-makers in Benin have with this software. The Hydrodynamics (HD) module simulated water level variations and flows in response, [...]

Introducing StreamProfilerApp, a web application for near-global, exploratory, longitudinal river profile analysis

Gregory Ruetenik

Published: 2021-11-03
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Education

Stream profile analysis has been used extensively in the earth sciences. In the past, exploration of stream profiles has required downloading and processing Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) for specific areas, which limits the scope of exploratory analysis. Presented here is a web application designed to analyze stream profiles at 90m resolution at a near-global scale. Based on the Hydrosheds [...]

Persistent shallow micro-seismicity at Llaima volcano, Chile, with implications for long-term monitoring

Oliver Lamb, Jonathan M Lees, Luis Franco Marin, et al.

Published: 2021-11-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Identifying the source mechanisms of low-frequency earthquakes at ice-covered volcanoes can be challenging due to overlapping characteristics of glacially and magmatically derived seismicity. Here we present an analysis of two months of seismic data from Llaima volcano, Chile, recorded by the permanent monitoring network in 2019. We find over 2,000 repeating low-frequency events split across 82 [...]

On the impact of Urbanisation on CO2 Emissions

Muhammad Luqman, Peter Rayner, Kevin Robert Gurney

Published: 2021-11-01
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

We use a globally consistent, time-resolved data set of CO2 emission proxies to quantify urban CO2 emissions in 91 cities. We decompose emission trends into contributions from changes in urban extent, population density and per capita emissions. We find that urban CO2 emissions are increasing everywhere but that the dominant contributors differ according to development level. A cluster analysis [...]

From offshore to onshore probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment via efficient Monte-Carlo sampling

Gareth Davies, Rikki Weber, Kaya Wilson, et al.

Published: 2021-11-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Other Earth Sciences

Offshore Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessments (offshore PTHAs) provide large-scale analyses of earthquake-tsunami frequencies and uncertainties in the deep ocean, but do not provide high-resolution onshore tsunami hazard information as required for many risk-management applications. To understand the implications of an offshore PTHA for the onshore hazard at any site, in principle the tsunami [...]

Hemispheric geochemical dichotomy of the mantle is a legacy of austral supercontinent assembly and deep subduction of continental crust

Matthew Gerard Jackson, Francis A Macdonald

Published: 2021-11-01
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Oceanic hotspots with extreme enriched mantle radiogenic isotopic signatures—including high 87Sr/86Sr and low 143Nd/144Nd indicative of ancient subduction of continental crust—are restricted to the southern hemispheric mantle. However, the mechanisms responsible for concentrating subducted continental crust in the austral mantle are unknown. We show subduction of sediments and subduction eroded [...]

Constraints on the behaviour and content of volatiles in Galápagos magmas from melt inclusions and nominally anhydrous minerals

Matthew Lloyd Morgan Gleeson, Sally Gibson, Michael Stock

Published: 2021-10-30
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Despite their relatively low concentration in most oceanic basalts, volatile species (e.g. H2O, CO2 and S) have a disproportionately large influence on a wide range of mantle and magmatic processes. However, constraining the concentration of H2O (and other volatiles) in basaltic magmas is not straightforward as submarine glass analyses are influenced by assimilation of hydrothermal brines, and [...]

Airborne laser scanning proxies of canopy light transmission in forests

Adam Michael Erickson, Nicholas Coops

Published: 2021-10-29
Subjects: Biodiversity, Biogeochemistry, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Sciences, Forest Sciences, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Plant Sciences, Software Engineering, Statistics and Probability

Reliable estimates of canopy light transmission are critical to understanding the structure and function of vegetation communities but are difficult and costly to attain by traditional field inventory methods. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) data uniquely provide multi-angular vertically resolved representation of canopy geometry across large geographic areas. While previous studies have proposed [...]

Bridging knowledge gaps with hybrid machine-learning forest ecosystem models (ML-FEMs): inferential simulation of past understory light regimes

Adam Michael Erickson, Craig Nistchke

Published: 2021-10-29
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Biodiversity, Biogeochemistry, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Forest Sciences, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Plant Sciences

Soil moisture is a key limiting factor of plant productivity in boreal and montane regions, producing additional climate feedbacks through evaporation, regeneration, mortality, and respiration. Understory solar irradiation – the primary driver of surface temperature and evaporative demand – remains poorly represented in vegetation models due to a lack of 3-D canopy geometry. Existing models are [...]

Simulated decline of a northern forest due to anthropogenic controls on the regeneration-mortality balance

Adam Michael Erickson, Craig Nistchke, Gordon Stenhouse

Published: 2021-10-29
Subjects: Biodiversity, Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Sciences, Forest Sciences, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Plant Sciences

The population structure of forests is shaped by balancing the opposing forces of regeneration and mortality, each of which influence C turnover rates and are sensitive to climate. Regeneration underlies the migrational potential of forests to climatic change and remains underserved in modeling studies. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that warming may reduce tree regeneration rates while [...]

Emergence of anthropogenic fire regimes in the southern boreal of Canada

Adam Michael Erickson

Published: 2021-10-29
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Sciences, Forest Sciences, Life Sciences, Plant Sciences

While radiative forcing and thus land surface temperatures have been shown to positively correlate with fire severity, precipitation, and lightning strike frequency, the effects of human activity on fire regimes remain difficult to disentangle from geophysical drivers given co-variation between these factors. Here, I analyze fire regimes in the 1919-2012 period across Canada and compare national [...]

Fast anisotropic Mg and H diffusion in wet forsterite

Joshua Martin Richard Muir, Feiwu Zhang, Andrew Walker

Published: 2021-10-29
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Mg diffusion, which is important for properties of forsterite such as conductivity and deformation, is a strong function of water content. The mechanism behind this effect, however, has not been fully elucidated. In this study we use Density Functional Theory to predict the diffusivity of 〖(2H)〗_Mg^X and we find that they are around 1000 times slower than H-free Mg vacancies V_Mg^''. In most [...]

Potency density tensor inversion of complex body waveforms with time-adaptive smoothing constraint

SHINJI YAMASHITA, Yagi Yuji, Ryo Okuwaki, et al.

Published: 2021-10-29
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Large earthquakes are often accompanied by complex fault rupture, but it has been difficult to reliably estimate such a complex rupture process with conventional waveform analysis tools due to modelling errors originated from limited accuracy of the fault geometry. Recently, a potency density tensor inversion method has been developed to solve this problem; allowing any types of faulting [...]

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