Preprints

There are 3491 Preprints listed.

EZ-InSAR: An Easy-to-use Open-source Toolbox for Mapping Ground Surface Deformation using Satellite Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar

Alexis Hrysiewicz, Xiaowen Wang, Eoghan P. Holohan

Published: 2023-01-11
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Software Engineering

Satellite Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a space-borne geodetic technique that can map ground displacement at millimetre accuracy. Via the new era for InSAR applications provided by the Copernicus Sentinel-1 SAR satellites, several open-source software packages exist for processing the SAR data, obtaining high- quality ground deformation maps but still requires a deep [...]

Identifying the regional emergence of climate patterns in a simulation of stratospheric aerosol injection

Zachary Michael Labe, Elizabeth A Barnes, James W. Hurrell

Published: 2023-01-10
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Stratospheric aerosol injection is a proposed form of solar climate invention (SCI) that could potentially reduce the amount of future warming from externally-forced climate change. However, more research is needed, as there are significant uncertainties surrounding the possible impacts of SCI, including unforeseen effects on regional climate patterns. In this study, we consider a climate model [...]

Drought impacts on the electricity system, emissions, and air quality in the western US

Minghao Qiu, Nathan Ratledge, Ines Azevedo, et al.

Published: 2023-01-10
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences

The western United States has experienced severe drought in recent decades, and climate models project increased drought risk in the future. This increased drying could have important implications for the region's interconnected, hydropower-dependent electricity systems. Using power-plant level generation and emissions data from 2001-2021, we quantify the impacts of drought on the operation of [...]

Constraining the complex refractive index of ambient black carbon particles from their observed distribution of the complex forward-scattering amplitude

Nobuhiro Moteki, Sho Ohata, Atsushi Yoshida, et al.

Published: 2023-01-10
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Black carbon is the largest contributor to global aerosol’s shortwave absorption in the current atmosphere and is one of the important positive climate forcers. The complex refractive index m = mr + imi, the primary determinant of the absorbed and scattered energies of incident radiation per unit volume of particulate material, has not yet been accurately known for atmospheric black carbon [...]

Extension of Methane Emission Rate Distribution for Permian Basin Oil and Gas Production Infrastructure by Aerial LiDAR

William Kunkel, Michael Thorpe, Asa Carre-Burritt, et al.

Published: 2023-01-10
Subjects: Environmental Monitoring, Oil, Gas, and Energy

Aerial LiDAR measurements of methane emissions at 7920 oil and gas production facilities in the Permian Basin yield an emission rate distribution extending to the detection sensitivity of the method, 2 kg/h at 90% probability of detection. The LiDAR measurements are analyzed in combination with the heavy tail portion (> 600 kg/h) of a distribution obtained from an intensive airborne solar [...]

Improving Shoreline Forecasting Models with Multi-Objective Genetic Programming

Mahmoud Al Najar, Rafael Almar, Erwin W. J. Bergsma, et al.

Published: 2023-01-10
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Climate, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Monitoring, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Oceanography, Sedimentology, Statistical Models

Given the current context of climate change and the increasing population densities at coastal zones around the globe, there is an increasing need to be able to predict the development of our coasts. Recent advances in artificial intelligence allow for automatic analysis of observational data. Symbolic Regression (SR) is a type of Machine Learning algorithm that aims to find interpretable [...]

Diffusion of halogens (F, Cl, Br, I) in silicic melt

Yves Feisel, Jonathan M. Castro, Christoph Helo, et al.

Published: 2023-01-10
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Volcanology

Chemical diffusion of the halogens F, Cl, Br, and I in silica-rich natural melts was experimentally investigated by the diffusion couple technique. Experiments were conducted under anhydrous conditions at atmospheric pressure and hydrous conditions (~1.5 wt.% H2O) at 160 MPa, over a temperature range of 750–1000 °C and 1000–1200 °C, respectively. Quenched trachytic melt samples were analyzed [...]

Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis of Bentonite at residual state

Saeed Tourchi, Marco Loche, Gianvito Scaringi

Published: 2023-01-10
Subjects: Engineering

This paper presents experimental and numerical investigations regarding the effect of temperature on the residual strength of Bentonite at slow-to-moderate shearing velocities. In order to understand the trigger mechanism of slow-moving landslides, we investigated the effect of temperature on the shear strength of slip surfaces. We performed ring-shear tests on Bentonite samples at various [...]

Weakening of the Indian Ocean Dipole in the mid-Holocene due to the mean oceanic climatology change

Shanshan Liu, Chaoxia Yuan, Jing-jia Luo, et al.

Published: 2023-01-10
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Meteorology, Oceanography

The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is one of the leading modes of interannual climate variability in the tropical Indian Ocean (IO). Paleoclimate provides real climate scenarios to examine IOD behaviors and the linkage to basic states. Based on 18 models from the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project phase 3 and 4 (PMIP 3/4), the IOD change from the preindustrial period to mid-Holocene is [...]

Real-time shallow landslide hazard assessment on a regional scale

Xiaohui Qi, Joao Mendes, rupert bainbridge, et al.

Published: 2023-01-10
Subjects: Engineering

Shallow landslides are a major natural hazard in the UK, causing more than £10M of economic losses annually and posing clear threats to life. Rainfall is an essential control on shallow landslide risk, but network operators currently use generic ‘on-off’ warnings based on localised rainfall intensity and duration, giving no strategic information about where the hazard is highest or evolving the [...]

An expanded database of Southern Hemisphere surface sediment dinoflagellate cyst assemblages and their oceanographic affinities

Lena Thöle, Peter Dirk Nooteboom, Suning Hou, et al.

Published: 2023-01-07
Subjects: Earth Sciences

Dinoflagellate cyst assemblages present a valuable proxy to infer paleoceanographic conditions, yet factors influencing geographic distributions of species remain largely unknown, especially in the Southern Ocean. Strong lateral transport, sea-ice dynamics and a low and uneven geographic coverage of surface sediment samples have limited the use of dinocyst assemblages as a quantitative proxy for [...]

Are marl-limestone alternations mainly driven by CaCO3 variations at the astronomical timescale? New insights from extraterrestrial 3He

Pierre-Henri BLARD, Baptiste SUCHERAS-MARX, Guillaume SUAN, et al.

Published: 2023-01-07
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Marl-limestone alternations are rhythmical inter-bedded deposits that commonly occur in many sedimentological environments. It is quite well established that these lithological variations originate from astronomically-driven climatic variations paced by the Milankovitch cycles of main periods 19, 23, 41, 100 and 405 ka. However, the sedimentological mechanisms involved are not clear: some models [...]

Shyft and Rasputin: a toolbox for hydrologic simulations on triangular irregular networks

Olga Silantyeva, Ola Skavhaug, Bikas C. Bhattarai, et al.

Published: 2023-01-07
Subjects: Hydrology

Terrain topography controls insolation variations at catchment scale. This effects are known to be important in cold and mountainous regions due to high diurnal and seasonal variability in incoming radiation. However, meteorological data in such areas lacks accuracy due to sparse station network and coarse re-analysis grids. Simulation tools that model hydrologic processes at local scales require [...]

Oracle bone script records explain the impact of climate extremes in ancient China

Siyang Li, Ke Ding, Aijun Ding, et al.

Published: 2023-01-06
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Extreme climatic and weather events have raised increasing concerns in the context of climate change for causing severe disasters worldwide. As for ancient civilizations, however, possible causes of extreme events and their corresponding cultural responses have remained unclear. By quantitatively analyzing the weather information in ~55000 oracle bone script pieces, we constructed three ~200-year [...]

Assessing automated gap imputation of regional scale groundwater level data sets with typical gap patterns

Jānis Bikše, Inga Retike, Ezra Haaf, et al.

Published: 2023-01-04
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Large groundwater level (GWL) data sets are often patchy with hydrographs containing continuous gaps and irregular measurement frequencies. However, most statistical time series analyses require regular observations, thus hydrographs with larger gaps are routinely excluded from further analysis despite the loss of coverage and representativity of an initially large data set. Missing values can be [...]

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