There are 3785 Preprints listed.

Percolation Model for Universal Scaling of Vegetation Net Primary Productivity with Climate Variables

Allen G. Hunt, Muhammad Sahimi, Behzad Ghanbarian, et al.

Published: 2023-05-19
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

We show that a quantitative, physically-based model of water balance, combined with a model for the dependence of net primary productivity (NPP) of vegetation on evapotranspiration E leads to the universal scaling of NPP with the climate variables, namely, precipitation P and potential evapotranspiration Ep. The model for NPP is based on percolation theory. The water balance is derived based on [...]

Limitations in historical satellite archives bias SDG monitoring

Ruben Remelgado, Christopher Conrad, Carsten Meyer

Published: 2023-05-19
Subjects: Environmental Monitoring, Geographic Information Sciences, Physical and Environmental Geography, Remote Sensing, Sustainability

Satellite remote sensing is vital to monitoring, research, and policy addressing sustainability challenges from climate and ecosystem changes to food and water security. Here, Landsat satellite data play a crucial role, given their unique global and long-term historical coverage at high resolution. Yet, severe but mostly disregarded biases in the Landsat data archive threaten the validity of [...]

In-ice measurements of full spectral angular radiance distribution using a 360-degree camera

Raphaël Larouche, Bastian Raulier, Christian Katlein, et al.

Published: 2023-05-18
Subjects: Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Optics, Physics

A better understanding of the radiative transfer of solar visible light within sea ice is crucial to study the Arctic energy balance and marine ecosystems. In this work, we showcase the utilization of a compact, consumer-grade 360-degree camera for measuring the in-ice spectral angular radiance distribution. This novel technique allows for the instantaneous acquisition of all radiometric [...]

The effects of boundary proximity on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and turbulence

Chih-Lun Liu, Bill Smyth, Alexis K. Kaminski

Published: 2023-05-18
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Studies of Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability have typically modelled the initial flow as an isolated shear layer. In geophysical cases, however, the instability often occurs near boundaries and may therefore be influenced by boundary proximity effects. Ensembles of direct numerical simulations are conducted to understand the effect of boundary proximity on the evolution of the instability and [...]

Evaluating the spatial patterns of NOx emissions in polluted areas with TROPOMI NO2

Daniel L Goldberg, Madankui Tao, Gaige Kerr, et al.

Published: 2023-05-18
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Monitoring

Satellite datasets are increasingly used to evaluate NOx emissions inventories. Such studies often require the use of a chemical transport model or a complex statistical framework to account for meteorological factors that can complicate the comparison. Here, we apply a novel method to compare inventory-based emissions directly to Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) NO2 data without a [...]

Unravelling the morphogenesis of coastal terraces at Cape Laundi (Sumba Island, Indonesia): insights from numerical models

Denovan Chauveau, Anne-Morwenn Pastier, Gino de Gelder, et al.

Published: 2023-05-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences

The morphology of coastal sequences provides fundamental observations to unravel past sea level (SL) variations. For that purpose, converting morphometric observations into a SL datum requires understanding their morphogenesis. The long-lasting sequence of coral reef terraces (CRTs) at Cape Laundi (Sumba Island, Indonesia) could serve as a benchmark. Yet, it epitomizes a pitfall that challenges [...]

Harmonizing GCW Cryosphere Vocabularies with ENVO and SWEET: Towards a General Model for Semantic Harmonization

Ruth Duerr, Pier Luigi Buttigieg, Gary Berg-Cross, et al.

Published: 2023-05-17
Subjects: Databases and Information Systems, Geomorphology, Glaciology, Other Earth Sciences

This paper presents the specific process we, as part of the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Semantic Harmonization Cluster, used to harmonize terms from the Global Cryosphere Watch (GCW) compilation of cryospheric terms with the Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) and the Environment Ontology (ENVO). In addition, we summarize a number of leading practices which [...]

Fluid inclusions technique for porphyry deposit exploration: The Rosario porphyry Cu-Mo deposit

Sebastian Avalos, Nicolas Avalos

Published: 2023-05-16
Subjects: Mining Engineering

Porphyry ore deposits are the largest source of copper, molybdenum, gold, and silver in the world. Various exploration techniques have been developed due to their importance as a source of metals. A special focus has been devoted to understanding the processes of hydrothermal fluids as mineralization drivers. Fluid inclusions provide direct information about the fluids involved in the [...]

A Deep Learning-enabled Approach for Plagioclase Textural Studies

Norbert Toth, John Maclennan

Published: 2023-05-16
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Textural information, such as crystal size distributions (CSDs) or crystal aspect ratios are powerful tools in igneous petrography for interrogating the thermal history of rocks. They facilitate the investigation of crystal nucleation, growth and mixing as well as the cooling rate of the rock. However, they require large volumes of crystal segmentations and measurements that are often obtained [...]

Emplacement and associated sedimentary record of the Jurassic submarine salt allochthon of the Wurzeralm (Eastern Alps, Austria)

Maditha Kurz, Oscar Fernandez, Lino Eggerth, et al.

Published: 2023-05-16
Subjects: Tectonics and Structure

A fossil salt sheet emplaced in the Jurassic in submarine conditions is described in the Eastern Alps of Austria, providing unique insights into the emplacement of similar submarine structures and their potential control on depositional systems. The salt sheet is a plug-fed extrusion emplaced due to squeezing of a salt diapir under compression. The preserved mylonitic shear fabric in the [...]

Ecological Flows in Southern Europe: status and trends in non-perennial rivers

Marianna Leone, Francesco Gentile, Antonio Lo Porto, et al.

Published: 2023-05-16
Subjects: Biodiversity, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Studies, Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Sustainability, Water Resource Management

The concept of environmental flows (E-Flows) describes the streamflow that is necessary to maintain river ecosystems. Although a large number of methods have been developed, a delay was recorded in implementing E–Flows in non-perennial rivers. The general aim of the paper was to analyse the criticalities and the current state of implementation of the E-Flows in non-perennial rivers of southern [...]

Oxidoreductases and metal cofactors in the functioning of Earth

Bruno Hay Mele, Maria Monticelli, Serena Leone, et al.

Published: 2023-05-15
Subjects: Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology, Biogeochemistry, Biology, Microbiology

Life sustains itself using energy generated by thermodynamic disequilibria, commonly existing as redox disequilibria. Metals are significant players in controlling redox reactions, as they are essential components of the engine that life uses to tap into the thermodynamic disequilibria necessary for metabolism. The number of proteins that evolved to catalyze redox reactions is extraordinary, as [...]

Solving a seismic mystery with a diver’s camera: A case of shallow water T -waves in the Persian Gulf

Amir Salaree, Zack J. Spica, Yihe Huang

Published: 2023-05-15
Subjects: Earth Sciences

Sparse offshore coverage of seismic networks has hindered detailed studies of submarine earthquakes and their associated seismic hazard. We present results of our analysis of a diver’s recording of acoustic signals from an ML=5.6 earthquake in the Persian Gulf. We model the signals as a set of several shallow water T phases the frequency and group velocity of which are determined by bathymetry. [...]

Dynamic hydrological niche segregation: how plants compete for water in a semiarid ecosystem

Ying Zhao, Li Wang, Kwok Chun, et al.

Published: 2023-05-14
Subjects: Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Hydrological niche segregation (HNS), which refers to differences in root water uptake depth and physiological traits among coexisting species, remains poorly understood especially with respect to moisture changes and diverse water use strategies. This is particularly the case in regions with a seasonally dry climate where plants must constantly adapt to water stress. Over a 2-year period, we [...]

A Stability Analysis of Neural Networks and Its Application to Tsunami Early Warning

Donsub Rim, Sanah Suri, Sanghyun Hong, et al.

Published: 2023-05-14
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology, Hydrology, Numerical Analysis and Computation

Neural networks (NNs) enable precise modeling of complicated geophysical phenomena but are sensitive to small input changes. In this work, we present a new method for analyzing this instability in NNs. We focus our analysis on adversarial examples, test-time inputs with carefully-crafted human-imperceptible perturbations that expose the worst-case instability in a model's predictions. Our [...]


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