Preprints

There are 2174 Preprints listed.

The Sediment Budget Estimator (SBE): a process-model for the stochastic estimation of fluxes and budgets of sediment through submarine channel systems.

Joris T. Eggenhuisen, Mike Tilston, Christopher Stevenson, Steve Hubbard, Matthieu Cartigny, Maarten Heijnen, Jan de Leeuw, Florian Pohl, Yvonne Spychala

Published: 2021-04-09
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Turbidity currents transport vast amounts of sediment through submarine channels onto deep-marine basin floor fans. There is a lack of quantitative tools for the reconstruction of the sediment budget of these systems. The aim of this paper is to construct a simple and user-friendly model that can estimate turbidity-current structure and sediment budget based on observable submarine channel [...]

Impact of trench retreat rate on initiating focused back-arc extension within a mobile overriding plate

Zhibin Lei, J. Huw Davies

Published: 2021-04-09
Subjects: Earth Sciences

Rapid trench retreat, or slab roll-back, is often observed in subduction zones where active and focused back-arc extension develops. However, the correlation between trench retreat rate and back-arc extension has not been rigorously tested. Here we study the correlation by investigating a series of 2-D thermo-mechanical and internally driven numerical models with a mobile overriding plate in [...]

Why is the Hurricane Season So Sharp?

Wenchang Yang, Tsung-Lin Hsieh, Gabriel Vecchi

Published: 2021-04-09
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Meteorology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Understanding tropical cyclone (TC) climatology is a problem of profound societal significance and deep scientific interest. The annual cycle is the biggest radiatively-forced signal in TC variability, presenting a key test of our understanding and modeling of TC activity. TCs over the North Atlantic (NA) basin, which are usually called hurricanes, have a sharp peak in the annual cycle, with more [...]

Rectangular drainage pattern evolution controlled by pipe cave collapse along clastic dikes, the Dead Sea Basin, Israel

Liran Goren, Matanya Hamawi, Amit Mushkin, Tsafrir Levi

Published: 2021-04-09
Subjects: Geomorphology, Tectonics and Structure

BENTHIC NUTRIENT FLUXES ACROSS A PRODUCTIVE SHELF ADJACENT TO AN OLIGOTROPHIC BASIN: CASE OF THE NORTHEASTERN MEDITERRANEAN SEA

Ismail Akcay, Suleyman Tugrul, Mustafa Yücel

Published: 2021-04-08
Subjects: Environmental Chemistry, Oceanography

The coastal ecosystem of the Northeastern (NE) Mediterranean has been affected by nutrient inputs originated from regional rivers and wastewater discharges leading to development of eutrophication. Atmospheric nutrient inputs have also remarkable contribution to marine nutrient pool in the NE Mediterranean, especially in dry periods. Sediment porewater nutrient fluxes into the deep waters are [...]

Paleoclimate Changes in the Pacific Northwest Over the Past 36,000 Years from Clumped Isotope Measurements and Isotope-Enabled Model Analysis

Ricardo Lopez-Maldonado, Jesse Bateman, Andre Ellis, Nicholas E. Bader, Pedro Ramirez, Alexandrea Arnold, Osinachi Ajoku, Hung-I Lee, Gregory Jesmok, Deepshikha Upadhyay, Bryce Mitsunaga, Ben Elliott, Clay Tabor, Aradhna Tripati

Published: 2021-04-07
Subjects: Climate, Geochemistry, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Soil Science

Since the last glacial period, North America has experienced dramatic changes in regional climate, including the collapse of ice sheets and changes in effective precipitation. We use clumped isotopes and analysis of transient climate simulations to provide constraints on hydroclimate changes in the Pacific Northwest. The coldest soil temperatures (~10.5 ±1.°C to 14.9 ±1.2°C) occurred [...]

Orbital, the Box - An interactive educational tool for in-depth understanding of astronomical climate forcing.

Bryan C. Lougheed

Published: 2021-04-07
Subjects: Adult and Continuing Education, Astrophysics and Astronomy, Climate, Earth Sciences, Education, Educational Methods, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Higher Education, Instructional Media Design, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, The Sun and the Solar System

“Orbital, the Box” provides an interactive tool with graphical user interface (GUI) for stimulating active, visual learning for understanding of astronomical climate forcing. This cross-platform tool can be run locally on a personal computer using a standard web browser environment with no need for plugins, thus maximising accessibility for students and teachers alike. The tool facilitates in the [...]

Near-real-time and state-level monitoring of U.S. CO2 emissions

Chaopeng Hong, Philippe Ciais, Zhu Liu, Olivier Boucher, Wenli Zhao, Pierre Gentine, Yilong Wang, Zhu Deng, Steven J. Davis

Published: 2021-04-07
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

As the ambition and urgency of climate mitigation efforts across the U.S. increase, annual estimates of national CO2 emissions provide only vague and outdated information about changes and progress. Using near-real-time activity data compiled from numerous sources, here we present and analyze daily, state-level estimates of fossil fuel CO2 emissions from January 2019 through December 2020. Our [...]

The concavity of modern submarine canyon longitudinal profiles

Euan Soutter, Ian Kane, David Mark Hodgson, Stephen S. Flint

Published: 2021-04-07
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology

Submarine canyons incise into continental shelves and slopes, and are important conduits for the transport of sediment, nutrients, organic carbon and pollutants from continents to oceans. Submarine canyons bear morphological similarities to subaerial valleys, such as their longitudinal (long) profiles. Long profiles record the interaction between erosion and uplift, making their shape, or [...]

Transmissivity and groundwater flow exert a strong influence on drainage density

Elco Luijendijk

Published: 2021-04-07
Subjects: Geomorphology, Hydrology

The extent to which groundwater flow affects drainage density and erosion has long been debated, but is still uncertain. Here, I present a new hybrid analytical and numerical model that simulates groundwater flow, overland flow, hillslope erosion and stream incision. The model is used to explore the relation between groundwater flow and the incision and persistence of streams for a set of [...]

Precious and Critical Metal-Bearing Assemblages in the Ann Mason Copper Porphyry Deposit, Yerington, Nevada

Hannah M Aird, Ceara Purcell, Nancy De Witt, James Matthews, Twyla Capurro, Justin Claiborne, Jocelyn Bermudez, Zachary Meisel

Published: 2021-04-07
Subjects: Geology

Porphyry deposits are an important source of copper and their value may be upgraded by minor contents of precious metals, if they are extractable. The mechanisms for enrichment of precious and base metals in these systems are not well understood. This study investigates the deportment of trace metals in the Ann Mason porphyry deposit, including gold, silver, palladium, mercury, lead and bismuth. [...]

Seasonal changes of iceberg distribution and surface area in the Amundsen Sea Embayment

Aleksandra K. Mazur, Anna K. Wåhlin, Sebastiaan Swart

Published: 2021-04-06
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

Icebergs have a significant influence on local and potentially global climate by altering ocean and sea ice environments. An object-based method for automatic iceberg detection has been applied to 2442 SAR images acquired during all seasons between 2006-2012 in the Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE), Antarctica. During this period a total count of icebergs and their surface area were calculated in [...]

Long-term hydrometeorological time-series analysis over the central highlands of West Papua

Sandy Hardian Susanto Herho

Published: 2021-04-06
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

This article presents a novel data-driven approach for studying long-term temporal rainfall pattern over the central highlands of West Papua, Indonesia. Using wavelet transforms we found indications of negative temporal relationship of El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and 12-month Standarized Precipitation Index (SPI-12). Based on this causal relationship, we perform dynamic causality [...]

Coulomb Threshold Rate-and-State Model for Fault Reactivation: Application to induced seismicity at Groningen

Elias Rafn Heimisson, Jonathan D Smith, Jean-Philippe Avouac, Stephen Bourne

Published: 2021-04-06
Subjects: Environmental Monitoring, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

A number of recent modeling studies of induced seismicity have used the rate-and-state friction model of Dieterich (1994) to account for the fact that earthquake nucleation is not instantaneous. Notably, the model assumes a population of seismic sources accelerating towards instability with a distribution of intial slip speeds such that they would produce earthquakes steadily in absence of any [...]

Dilatancy and compaction of a rate-and-state fault in a poroelastic medium: Linearized stability analysis

Elias Rafn Heimisson, John Rudnicki, Nadia Lapusta

Published: 2021-04-06
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

Faults in the crust at seismogenic depths are embedded in a fluid-saturated, elastic, porous material. Slip on such faults may induce transient pore pressure changes through dilatancy or compaction of the gouge or host rock. However, the poroelastic nature of the crust and the full coupling of inelastic gouge processes and the host rock have been largely neglected in previous analyses. Here, we [...]

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