Preprints

There are 4741 Preprints listed.

Ringing mountain ranges: Teleseismic signature of the interaction of high-frequency wavefields with near-source topography at the Degelen nuclear test site

Marta Pienkowska, Stuart E. J. Nippress, David Bowers, et al.

Published: 2024-05-26
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology

Over the last decade there has been an international effort to find methods to recover and digitize recordings from historical earthquakes and explosions that occurred during the 1950’s through to the 1980’s. Making these recordings accessible in digital format offers opportunities to study what signatures are encoded in the data, and to apply state-of-the-art techniques and methods to historical [...]

Local water year values for the conterminous United States

Xinyu Sun, Kendra Spence Cheruvelil

Published: 2024-05-24
Subjects: Fresh Water Studies, Water Resource Management

Quantifying and predicting precipitation and its influence on ecosystems is challenged by the asynchrony between precipitation and water fluxes. To account for this asynchrony, scientists and managers use “water year” to estimate precipitation and its impacts on water flow and ecosystems. However, traditional water year definitions either do not consider areal variation in climate and hydrology [...]

A Comprehensive Evaluation of Multimodal Large Language Models in Hydrological Applications

Likith Kadiyala, Omer Mermer, Dinesh Jackson Samuel, et al.

Published: 2024-05-24
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Environmental Monitoring, Hydrology

Large Language Models (LLMs) combined with visual foundation models have demonstrated remarkable advancements, achieving a level of intelligence comparable to human capabilities. In this study, we conduct an analysis of the latest Multimodal LLMs (MLLMs), specifically Multimodal-GPT, GPT-4 Vision, Gemini and LLaVa, focusing on their application in the hydrology domain. The hydrology domain holds [...]

Rising temperatures drive lower summer minimum flows across hydrologically diverse catchments

Sacha W Ruzzante, Tom Gleeson

Published: 2024-05-24
Subjects: Hydrology, Water Resource Management

Excessively low stream flows harm ecosystems and societies, so two key goals of low-flow hydrology are to understand their drivers and to predict their severity and frequency. We show that simple linear regressions can accomplish both goals across diverse catchments. We analyse 230 unregulated moderate to high relief catchments across rainfall-dominated, hybrid, snowmelt-dominated, and glacial [...]

Can We Reverse Global Warming?

Vincent Dert

Published: 2024-05-24
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Without mitigation, Climate Change is expected to costs large amounts of money, cause vast amounts of human suffering and death and threatens the survival of countless species. Rising global temperatures alone are expected to cause a drop in GDP of 30 – 70% for many countries with already high temperatures. In combination with other factors (population growth, increasing water stress, coastal [...]

Savings and Avoided Costs of Living Carbon Negative

Vincent Dert

Published: 2024-05-24
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

In order to prevent the biodiversity losses anticipated under business-as-usual (BAU) conditions, and to prevent the associated enormous financial and human losses, the world has to transition to carbon negative economies, where for decades more CO2 will be sequestered than emitted. To abate and possibly reverse global warming, we need to both transition from fossil fuels to renewables (mainly [...]

Randomization of the Earth's magnetic field driven by magnetic helicty

Alexander Bershadskii

Published: 2024-05-24
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

It is shown, using results of numerical simulations and geomagnetic observations, that the spatial and temporal randomization of the Earth's global and local magnetic fields is driven by magnetic helicity (a magnetohydrodynamic invariant). In the frames of the distributed chaos notion, the magnetic helicity determines the degree of magnetic field randomization and the results of numerical [...]

River Morphology Information System: A Web Cyberinfrastructure for Advancing River Morphology Research

Yusuf Sermet, Chung-Yuan Liang, Sayan Dey, et al.

Published: 2024-05-23
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Databases and Information Systems, Geographic Information Sciences, Software Engineering

The study and management of river systems are increasingly challenged by the complexity and volume of data required to understand and predict river morphology changes. The River Morphology Information System (RIMORPHIS) is introduced as a transformative solution to these challenges, serving as an open-access web-based cyberinfrastructure designed to enable advanced research in river morphology [...]

Predictable recovery rates in near-surface materials after earthquake damage

Luc Illien, Jens Martin Turowski, Christoph Sens-Schönfelder, et al.

Published: 2024-05-23
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Earthquakes introduce transient mechanical damage in the subsurface, which causes postseismic hazards and can take years to recover. This observation has been linked to relaxation, a phenomenon observed in a wide class of materials after straining perturbations, but its duration after earthquake ground shaking has not been constrained. Here, we analyse the effects of two successive large [...]

On the Origin of Holocene Sea-Level Transgressions in Formerly Glaciated Regions

Samuel John Chester, Jacqueline Austermann, William J D'Andrea, et al.

Published: 2024-05-23
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Over glacial cycles, the growing and shrinking of ice sheets has caused relative sea level (RSL) to differ from global mean sea level (GMSL) due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), which depends on the viscoelastic properties of the solid Earth. During the last termination and through the Holocene, GIA-related isostatic uplift caused RSL to fall in regions formerly covered by ice sheets. [...]

Application of the Image Processing Method and the Beer-Lambert Law for Assessing Sea Water Intrusion

Ehsan Kahrizi

Published: 2024-05-22
Subjects: Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

This paper presents an innovative approach integrating the Image Processing Method and the Beer-Lambert Law to study Sea Water Intrusion in riverine systems. Using an experimental setup, this study characterizes the dynamics between saline and fresh waters, providing detailed spatial and temporal salinity distribution analyses. The Beer-Lambert Law is employed to convert image pixel data to [...]

Spatial Patterns of Urban Heat Islands and Green Space Cooling Effects in the Urban Microclimate of Karachi

Aly Muhammad Gajani

Published: 2024-05-22
Subjects: Climate, Environmental Sciences, Forest Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sustainability

With rapid urbanization and the increasing threats of climate change, metropolitan cities like Karachi, Pakistan, are encountering greater challenges due to the Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon. Understanding the cooling potential of urban green spaces (UGS) is crucial for mitigating heat stress and enhancing urban resilience. This study aims to analyze the thermal dynamics and cooling efficacy [...]

Experimental evaluation of two-layer air bubble curtains to prevent seawater intrusion into rivers

Ehsan Kahrizi, Seyed Ali Akbar Salehi Neyshabouri, Amin Zeynolabedin, et al.

Published: 2024-05-21
Subjects: Engineering

The seawater intrusion (SWI) into rivers can lead to many negative consequences, especially on agricultural activities and live ecosystems in upstream areas of rivers. One solution to prevent SWI is using air bubble curtains (ABCs). The objective of this study is to investigate the optimal location of ABCs and airflows. To this end, several tests with different flow and salinity rates were [...]

Impact Estimation and Product Classification under IMACS

Vincent Dert

Published: 2024-05-21
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The Impact Measurement and Conservation System (IMACS) was developed to calculate environmental and human condition impacts and to apply conservation required to neutralize such impacts for products and services purchased by end-user consumers (1- 6). With its implementation, the IMACS system would allow the fastest return to the best approximation of pre-industrial sustainable conditions. All [...]

Evolution and architecture of an overbank in an ocean-facing canyon-fill.

William James Taylor, David Hodgson, Jeff Peakall, et al.

Published: 2024-05-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Sedimentology

Submarine canyon-fills comprise substantial volumes of thin-bedded successions deposited by sediment gravity flows that are either stripped or overspill from adjacent channels into highly confined, topographically complex overbank settings. Here, we document the Punta Baja Formation, a rare example of an exhumed canyon-confined overbank succession with good 3D constraints from the Mesozoic [...]

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