Preprints

There are 4677 Preprints listed.

Digitising sandbox experiments using open-source Structure-from-Motion/photogrammetry/Digital Image Correlation package MicMac

Olivier Galland, Luc Girod, Sonja Greiner, et al.

Published: 2024-04-15
Subjects: Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Structure-from-Motion and photogrammetry have been implemented in sandbox models to monitor deformation of their surface. Various software packages are available, either open-source of commercial. Some commercial packages are intuitive press-button equipment; these can be very practical to use, but they can be very expensive and unaffordable for most academic laboratories. Another option is [...]

Evolution and architecture of an exhumed ocean-facing coarse-grained submarine canyon fill, Baja California, Mexico

Max Bouwmeester, Ian Kane, David Hodgson, et al.

Published: 2024-04-15
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

Present day submarine canyons are active conduits for large volumes of sediment, carbon, and pollutants from continents to oceans. However, the evolution of submarine canyons over geological timescales remains poorly understood due to their erosional nature and low preservation potential. The Late Cretaceous Punta Baja Formation represents a well-preserved submarine canyon-fill on a [...]

Rapid earthquake-tsunami modeling: The multi-event, multi-segment complexity of the 2024 Mw 7.5 Noto Peninsula Earthquake governs tsunami generation

Fabian Kutschera, Zhe Jia, Bar Oryan, et al.

Published: 2024-04-13
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology

The January 1st, 2024, moment magnitude (Mw) 7.5 Noto Peninsula earthquake ruptured in complex ways, challenging timely analysis of the tsunami generation. We present rapid and accurate tsunami models informed by a 6-subevent centroid moment tensor (CMT) model that we obtain by inverting teleseismic and strong motion data and validation against geodetic observations. We identify two distinct [...]

Linking the oxygen-17 compositions of water and carbonate reference materials using infrared absorption spectroscopy of carbon dioxide

Justin Chaillot, Samir Kassi, Thibault Clauzel, et al.

Published: 2024-04-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Joint measurements of the 18O/16O and 17O/16O ratios of carbonate minerals and waters are increasingly used to investigate various geochemical, physical and biological processes. Diverse analytical methods, each of them technically challenging in one way or another, have been developed or refined in recent years to measure oxygen-17 anomalies (Δ17O) with instrumental precisions of 10 ppm or [...]

Can multi-scale thermal infrared imaging help validate and monitor water stress in alluvial forests?

Julien Godfroy, Pauline Malherbe, Flavie Gerle, et al.

Published: 2024-04-13
Subjects: Geomorphology, Physical and Environmental Geography, Remote Sensing, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Alluvial forests are fragile and sensitive to drought induced by climate change and exacerbated by altered flow regimes. Our ability to detect and map their sensitivity to drought is therefore crucial to evaluate the effects of climate change and adjust management practices. In such a context, we explore the potential of multi-scale thermal infrared imagery (TIR) to diagnose the sensitivity of [...]

Entry points for accelerating transitions towards a more sustainable future

Enayat Moallemi, Michelle Miller, Katrina Szetey, et al.

Published: 2024-04-13
Subjects: Social and Behavioral Sciences

Accelerated transitions that enable far-reaching and systemic changes to a more sustainable future are urgently needed to ensure inclusive human development and Earth system stability. Different processes for accelerating transitions have been proposed over the past decade. However, evidence-based guidance on of what these processes are across scientific and policy spheres and their specification [...]

A hybrid approach to enhance streamflow simulation in data-constrained Himalayan basins: Combining the Glacio-Hydrological Degree-Day Model and Recurrent Neural Networks

Dinesh Joshi, Rijan Bhakta Kayastha, Kundan Lal Shrestha, et al.

Published: 2024-04-12
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The Glacio-hydrological Degree-day Model (GDM) is a distributed model but prone to uncertainties due to its conceptual nature, parameter estimation, and limited data in the Himalayan basins. To enhance accuracy without sacrificing interpretability, we propose a hybrid model, GDM-RNNs, combining GDM with Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs). Three RNN types (Simple RNN, GRU, LSTM) are integrated with [...]

Part 1: Anthropocene Series/Epoch: stratigraphic context and justification of rank The Anthropocene Epoch and Crawfordian Age: proposals by the Anthropocene Working Group

Colin Neil Waters, Simon Turner, Zhisheng An, et al.

Published: 2024-04-12
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The Anthropocene Working Group (AWG) has concluded that the Anthropocene represents geological reality and should be linked with the plethora of stratigraphic proxies that initiate or show marked perturbations at around the 1950s, and should be defined using a Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP). We propose formalizing the Anthropocene as series/epoch, terminating the Holocene [...]

Part 2: Descriptions of the proposed Crawford Lake GSSP and supporting SABSs. The Anthropocene Epoch and Crawfordian Age: proposals by the Anthropocene Working Group

Colin Neil Waters, Simon Turner, Zhisheng An, et al.

Published: 2024-04-12
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

This part of the Anthropocene Working Group (AWG) submission proposes that the base of the Anthropocene should be defined as series/epoch, terminating the Holocene Series/Epoch with a single Crawfordian stage/age using a Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) in an annually varved Crawford Lake core, Ontario, Canada, defined at 17.5 cm in core CRA23-BC-1F-B at the base of the dark [...]

Late Holocene relative sea-level records from coral microatolls in Singapore

Fangyi Tan, Benjamin Horton, Ke Lin, et al.

Published: 2024-04-11
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Late Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) data are important to understand the drivers of RSL change, but there is a lack of precise RSL records from the Sunda Shelf. Here, we produced a Late Holocene RSL reconstruction from coral microatolls in Singapore, demonstrating for the first time the utility of Diploastrea heliopora microatolls as sea-level indicators. We produced 12 sea-level index points [...]

Urbanization vs climate drivers: investigating changes in fluvial floods in Poland

Nelson Venegas Cordero, Luis Mediero, Mikolaj Piniewski

Published: 2024-04-11
Subjects: Hydrology

Fluvial floods are one of the most severe natural hazards. Changes in flood behaviour result from an interplay of climatic and human factors. Urbanization, with increasing land imperviousness, is the most critical human factor. This study investigates the effect of urbanization vs climate drivers on river floods in Poland, using the paired catchment approach. We used daily river flow data from [...]

Field survey of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) usage for overcoming water scarcity on small islands in Indonesia

Amanatullah Savitri, Kazuyoshi Souma, Hiroshi Ishidaira, et al.

Published: 2024-04-11
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering

The dry season impacts clean water availability in Indonesia, particularly on small islands; however, there are few comprehensive studies of water availability on small islands. The aim of this study was to assess clean water sources and the obstacles to accessing clean water on small islands. We used a combination of structured questionnaires and interviews along with direct observations on two [...]

The role of thermal notch erosion in forcing localised calving failure and short-term increases in velocity at a lake-terminating glacier in southeast Iceland

Nathaniel Ross Baurley, Jane K Hart

Published: 2024-04-10
Subjects: Glaciology

We utilised repeat high-resolution UAV-SfM surveys, alongside terrestrial photography acquired in-situ, to investigate, for the first time, how localised calving failure can drive short-term increases in velocity at a lake-terminating glacier. This data was acquired over five days in early July 2019, and across 11 days in July 2021, to provide insights into a suite of processes that have been [...]

Pleistocene shifts in Great Basin hydroclimate seasonality govern the formation of lithium-rich paleolake deposits

Tripti Bhattacharya, Peter Brennan, Daniel Enrique Ibarra, et al.

Published: 2024-04-10
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Hydrology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Paleobiology, Sedimentology

Southwestern North America is currently experiencing a multidecadal megadrought, with severe consequences for water resources. However, significant uncertainty remains about how precipitation will change in the 21st century in this semi-arid region. Paleoclimatic records are essential for both contextualizing current change, and for helping constrain the sensitivity of regional hydroclimate to [...]

Scaling traffic variables from sensors sample to the entire city at high spatiotemporal resolution with machine learning: applications to the Paris megacity

Xavier Bonnemaizon, Philippe Ciais, Chuanlong Zhou, et al.

Published: 2024-04-10
Subjects: Transportation Engineering

Road transportation accounts for up to 35% of carbon dioxide and 49% of nitrogen oxides emissions in the Paris region. In an effort to mitigate those emissions, local authorities have implemented a climate plan that includes measures such as converting car lanes into cycle paths and enforcing strict low emission zones. Moreover, the COVID-19 crisis has had a notable impact on citizens' behavior [...]

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