Preprints

There are 4741 Preprints listed.

Simulated sea surface temperatures around New Zealand from 1982-2015 compared to three ground truth datasets

Jonny Williams

Published: 2024-04-23
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

In this brief note, I show the extent of global warming, as exemplified by sea surface temperature - SST - around New Zealand from 1982-2015. We use 16 members of the UKESM historical simulations from the sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel On Climate Change. These model data are compared to ground truth data from three observational datasets. All data is plotted with respect [...]

Post-collisional reorganisation of the Eastern Alps in 4D: Crust and mantle structure

Peter McPhee, Mark R. Handy

Published: 2024-04-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology

The Eastern Alps were affected by a profound post-collisional tectonic reorganisation in Neogene time, featuring indentation by the Adriatic upper plate, rapid uplift and filling of the eastern Molasse Basin, rapid exhumation and eastward orogen-parallel transport of Tertiary metamorphic units in the orogenic core, and a shift from northward thrust propagation in the European plate to southward [...]

Limited long-term cooling effects of flood basalt emplacements

Jack Longman, Benjamin Mills, Andrew Merdith

Published: 2024-04-22
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Volcanology

The emplacement of large igneous provinces (LIPs) is known to have been a driver of climate change in Earth’s past, particularly during the breakup of Pangaea. However, the balance between climate warming through CO2 emission and climate cooling through increased weathering is poorly understood. To better understand the role of LIP emplacement on long-term climate change, we utilize a coupled [...]

Carbon isotope fractionation between CO2 and carbon in silicate melts at high temperature

Hyun Joo Lee, Yves Moussallam, Cyril Aubaud, et al.

Published: 2024-04-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences

The isotopic fractionation of carbon between CO2 gas and silicate melts is a crucial parameter to understand the carbon cycle at the planetary scale that requires accurate quantification. In this study, we conducted experiments to determine the carbon isotope fractionation between CO2 gas and carbon dissolved in silicate melt at 350-420 MPa and 1160-1225°C, across a range of melt compositions. A [...]

Sill propagation and climbing in layered crystalline host-rocks: Examples from saucer-shaped sills of the Faroe Islands

Jogvan Hansen

Published: 2024-04-20
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Mafic sills/dolerites, commonly occurring in layered sedimentary and crystalline settings worldwide, may occur as sub-lateral sheets or as saucer-shaped bodies. Values and distributions of Young’s Modulus within their ambient host-rocks determine their mode of emplacement. Current models on development of saucer-shaped sills depict either melt propagation from single sources along [...]

Innovative Approaches to Bushfire Management and Recovery

Milad Esmzadeh

Published: 2024-04-20
Subjects: Engineering, Environmental Studies, Social and Behavioral Sciences

In recent years, Australia has faced severe bushfires that have highlighted the need for innovative management and recovery strategies. The catastrophic 2019–2020 bushfire season, one of the most devastating on record, burned over 10.7 million hectares, destroyed approximately 3,000 homes, and resulted in the loss of at least 28 lives and over 500 million wildlife casualties. These events [...]

Degree of sector zoning in clinopyroxene records dynamic magma recharge and ascent

Alice Macdonald, Teresa Ubide, Silvio Mollo

Published: 2024-04-19
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

WaterLog: A New Spectral Index for Mapping Aquatic Surfaces in Urban Contexts

Eduardo Felix Justiniano, Edimilson Rodrigues Santos Junior, Breno Malheiros de Melo, et al.

Published: 2024-04-19
Subjects: Remote Sensing

This paper proposes a new spectral index called waterLog, aiming to enhance the delineation and performance of water body mapping in urban areas using satellite imagery. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed index, we compare its performance in water surfaces (WSs) in different cities in South America with the results obtained by other well-known water indices in the literature (namely, [...]

Estimating the mass eruption rate of volcanic eruptions from the plume height using Bayesian regression with historical data: the MERPH model

Mark James Woodhouse

Published: 2024-04-18
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Statistical Models, Statistics and Probability, Volcanology

The mass eruption rate (MER) of an explosive volcanic eruption is a commonly used quantifier of the magnitude of the eruption, and estimating it is importance in managing volcanic hazards. The physical connection between the MER and the rise height of the eruption column results in a scaling relationship between these quantities, allowing one to be inferred from the other. Eruption source [...]

Chemical potentials in non-hydrostatically stressed anisotropic phases

Robert Myhill

Published: 2024-04-18
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

This paper presents expressions for chemical potentials in non-hydrostatically stressed anisotropic phases. Chemical potentials are here defined as the change in Helmholtz energy on adding a single chemical component to a material while locally preserving total volume, temperature and the shape of the domain. The paper demonstrates that an entire class of chemical potentials can be defined given [...]

A model of elastic softening and second order phase transitions in anisotropic phases, with application to stishovite and post-stishovite

Robert Myhill

Published: 2024-04-18
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

This paper presents a Landau framework for describing instantaneous and time-dependent elastic softening in anisotropic solid solutions. As with previous Landau models, the framework minimizes a thermodynamic potential by varying isochemical parameters (q) that describe changes in structural, ordering or electronic spin state. Unlike previous models, no coupling terms are used; strain is not a [...]

An anisotropic equation of state for solid solutions, with application to plagioclase

Robert Myhill

Published: 2024-04-18
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

This paper presents a framework for building anisotropic equations of state for solid solutions. The framework satisfies the connections between elastic and thermodynamic properties required by Maxwell’s reciprocal relations. It builds on a recent anisotropic equation of state for pure phases under small deviatoric stresses, adding a dependence on a vector n, whose components ni contain the [...]

Global patterns of commodity-driven deforestation and associated carbon emissions

Chandrakant Singh, U. Martin Persson

Published: 2024-04-18
Subjects: Environmental Monitoring, Natural Resource Economics, Statistical Models, Sustainability

Achieving global climate and biodiversity targets and ensuring future food security will require halting agriculture-driven deforestation. Accurate data on the commodities driving deforestation across time and space is crucial for informing policy development, implementation and evaluation. However, such information is currently hampered by limited and heterogeneous data availability (in both [...]

An agent-based modeling approach to household adaptation for flooding and coastal erosion at Channel-Port aux Basque

Edmund Yirenkyi

Published: 2024-04-18
Subjects: Environmental Studies

Climate change poses a significant threat to coastal communities, particularly those reliant on coastal infrastructure. Rising sea levels and increasingly severe weather events endanger coastlines across Canada, a nation with over 243,000 km of coastline. Indigenous communities, with their long history of coastal resource utilization, are especially vulnerable. This study investigates the social, [...]

Narrow, fast, and "cool" mantle plumes caused by strain-weakening rheology in Earth's lower mantle

Anna Gülcher, Gregor Golabek, Marcel Thielmann, et al.

Published: 2024-04-18
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The rheological properties of Earth's lower mantle are key for mantle dynamics and planetary evolution. The main rock-forming minerals in the lower mantle are bridgmanite (Br) and smaller amounts of ferropericlase (Fp). Previous work has suggested that the large differences in viscosity between these minerals greatly affect the bulk rock rheology. The resulting effective rheology becomes highly [...]

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