Preprints

There are 4690 Preprints listed.

Randomization of the Earth's magnetic field driven by magnetic helicty

Alexander Bershadskii

Published: 2024-05-24
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

It is shown, using results of numerical simulations and geomagnetic observations, that the spatial and temporal randomization of the Earth's global and local magnetic fields is driven by magnetic helicity (ideal magnetohydrodynamic invariant). In the frames of the distributed chaos notion, the magnetic helicity determines the degree of magnetic field randomization and the results of numerical [...]

River Morphology Information System: A Web Cyberinfrastructure for Advancing River Morphology Research

Yusuf Sermet, Chung-Yuan Liang, Sayan Dey, et al.

Published: 2024-05-23
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Databases and Information Systems, Geographic Information Sciences, Software Engineering

The study and management of river systems are increasingly challenged by the complexity and volume of data required to understand and predict river morphology changes. The River Morphology Information System (RIMORPHIS) is introduced as a transformative solution to these challenges, serving as an open-access web-based cyberinfrastructure designed to enable advanced research in river morphology [...]

Predictable recovery rates in near-surface materials after earthquake damage

Luc Illien, Jens Martin Turowski, Christoph Sens-Schönfelder, et al.

Published: 2024-05-23
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Earthquakes introduce transient mechanical damage in the subsurface, which causes postseismic hazards and can take years to recover. This observation has been linked to relaxation, a phenomenon observed in a wide class of materials after straining perturbations, but its duration after earthquake ground shaking has not been constrained. Here, we analyse the effects of two successive large [...]

On the Origin of Holocene Sea-Level Transgressions in Formerly Glaciated Regions

Samuel John Chester, Jacqueline Austermann, William J D'Andrea, et al.

Published: 2024-05-23
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Over glacial cycles, the growing and shrinking of ice sheets has caused relative sea level (RSL) to differ from global mean sea level (GMSL) due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), which depends on the viscoelastic properties of the solid Earth. During the last termination and through the Holocene, GIA-related isostatic uplift caused RSL to fall in regions formerly covered by ice sheets. [...]

Application of the Image Processing Method and the Beer-Lambert Law for Assessing Sea Water Intrusion

Ehsan Kahrizi

Published: 2024-05-22
Subjects: Engineering, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

This paper presents an innovative approach integrating the Image Processing Method and the Beer-Lambert Law to study Sea Water Intrusion in riverine systems. Using an experimental setup, this study characterizes the dynamics between saline and fresh waters, providing detailed spatial and temporal salinity distribution analyses. The Beer-Lambert Law is employed to convert image pixel data to [...]

Spatial Patterns of Urban Heat Islands and Green Space Cooling Effects in the Urban Microclimate of Karachi

Aly Muhammad Gajani

Published: 2024-05-22
Subjects: Climate, Environmental Sciences, Forest Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sustainability

With rapid urbanization and the increasing threats of climate change, metropolitan cities like Karachi, Pakistan, are encountering greater challenges due to the Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon. Understanding the cooling potential of urban green spaces (UGS) is crucial for mitigating heat stress and enhancing urban resilience. This study aims to analyze the thermal dynamics and cooling efficacy [...]

Experimental evaluation of two-layer air bubble curtains to prevent seawater intrusion into rivers

Ehsan Kahrizi, Seyed Ali Akbar Salehi Neyshabouri, Amin Zeynolabedin, et al.

Published: 2024-05-21
Subjects: Engineering

The seawater intrusion (SWI) into rivers can lead to many negative consequences, especially on agricultural activities and live ecosystems in upstream areas of rivers. One solution to prevent SWI is using air bubble curtains (ABCs). The objective of this study is to investigate the optimal location of ABCs and airflows. To this end, several tests with different flow and salinity rates were [...]

Impact Estimation and Product Classification under IMACS

Vincent Dert

Published: 2024-05-21
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The Impact Measurement and Conservation System (IMACS) was developed to calculate environmental and human condition impacts and to apply conservation required to neutralize such impacts for products and services purchased by end-user consumers (1- 6). With its implementation, the IMACS system would allow the fastest return to the best approximation of pre-industrial sustainable conditions. All [...]

Evolution and architecture of an overbank in an ocean-facing canyon-fill.

William James Taylor, David Hodgson, Jeff Peakall, et al.

Published: 2024-05-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Sedimentology

Submarine canyon-fills comprise substantial volumes of thin-bedded successions deposited by sediment gravity flows that are either stripped or overspill from adjacent channels into highly confined, topographically complex overbank settings. Here, we document the Punta Baja Formation, a rare example of an exhumed canyon-confined overbank succession with good 3D constraints from the Mesozoic [...]

At the Sharp End of Fractured Granites: A Critical Geology for Critical Times

Deborah Dixon, Iain Neill, Bailey Lathrop, et al.

Published: 2024-05-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Human Geography, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences

The geosciences have been positioned as integral to a ‘whole society’ transition that includes the decarbonisation of energy systems. Geothermal energy - which relies on a knowledge of the dynamism of rocks in the subsurface including the movement of fluids through fractures, physio-chemical interactions, and thermal gradients – has been offered as a potential route forward. Its realisation [...]

Remote Sensing of Environmental Impacts for IMACS

Vincent Dert

Published: 2024-05-20
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The Impact Measurement and Conservation System (IMACS) was developed to calculate environmental and human condition impacts and to apply conservation required to neutralize such impacts for products and services purchased by end-user consumers (1- 6). With its implementation, the IMACS system would allow the fastest return to the best approximation of pre-industrial sustainable conditions (Global [...]

A model of near-sea ice phytoplankton blooms

Conner W Lester, Till J Wagner, Dylan McNamara

Published: 2024-05-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Arctic spring blooms of phytoplankton mark the annual emergence of the region’s ecosystem from winter dormancy. Satellite observations show that these blooms have increased in size and magnitude in recent years. While this may be expected to be a result of generally warmer conditions, it has been found that near-ice blooms are spatially correlated with cold and fresh surface water [...]

The Overlooked Sub-Grid Air-Sea Flux in Climate Models

Julius Busecke, Dhruv Balwada, Paige Martin`, et al.

Published: 2024-05-18
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Oceanography

Understanding air-sea interaction is crucial for our ability to predict future states of the climate system, and to inform economic and societal decision-making. However, the representation of air-sea interactions in climate models is limited by structural errors associated with model resolution. Coarse-resolution climate models do not resolve small-scale structures in the air-sea state, which, [...]

Unveiling the bioleaching versatility of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

Luca Tonietti, Mattia Esposito, Martina Cascone, et al.

Published: 2024-05-17
Subjects: Life Sciences

Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, a Gram-negative bacterium thriving in extreme acidic conditions, has emerged as a key player in biomining and bioleaching technologies thanks to its unique ability to mobilize, directly or indirectly, a wide spectrum of elements, such as Li, P, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Mo, W, Pb, U, and its role in ferrous iron oxidation, A. ferrooxidans catalyzes the [...]

Unconfined turbidity current interactions with oblique slopes: deflection, reflection and combined-flow behaviours

Ru Wang, Jeff Peakall, David Hodgson, et al.

Published: 2024-05-17
Subjects: Geology

What is the nature of flow reflection, deflection and combined-flow behaviour when gravity flows interact with slopes? In turn, how do these flow dynamics control sedimentation on slopes? Here, these questions are addressed using physical experiments, with low-density unconfined gravity flows interacting with slopes of varying gradients, at a range of flow incidence angles. The present paradigm [...]

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