Preprints

There are 4741 Preprints listed.

Modeling sediment compaction beneath ice lenses during frost heave

Aaron Grey Stubblefield, Colin R. Meyer, Alan Rempel, et al.

Published: 2024-07-13
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Earth Sciences, Glaciology, Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Soil Science

Frost heave occurs when the ground swells during freezing conditions due to the growth of ice lenses in the subsurface. The mechanics of ice-infiltrated sediment, or frozen fringe, influences the formation and evolution of ice lenses. As the frozen fringe thickens during freezing, progressive unloading can result in dilation of the pore space and the formation of new ice lenses. Compaction can [...]

Rupture directivity from energy envelope deconvolution: theory and application to 69 Ridgecrest M 3.5–5.5 earthquakes

Zhe Jia, Peter M. Shearer, Wenyuan Fan

Published: 2024-07-13
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology

Earthquake rupture directivity impacts ground motions and provides important insights on fault zone properties and earthquake physics. However, measuring directivity of small earthquakes is challenging due to their compact rupture sizes and complex path and site effects at high frequencies. Here, we develop a new approach that deconvolves energy envelopes of the S-coda waves to remove path and [...]

Seamounts control subducted carbonate recycling in Central America – evidence from stable Sr isotopes

Alexander Joseph Hammerstrom, Rita Parai, Richard Carlson, et al.

Published: 2024-07-12
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Accurate estimates of carbon recycling efficiency at subduction zones are crucial for understanding the long-term evolution of the planet’s climate. Estimating subducting carbon recycling efficiency is difficult, however, due to magmatic degassing deep within the crust. Stable strontium (δ88Sr) isotopes have the potential to serve as an additional proxy for carbonate recycling due to carbonate’s [...]

Interdiffusion of major elements at 1 atmosphere between natural shoshonitic and rhyolitic melts

Diego González-García, Francesco Pasqualino Vetere, Harald Behrens, et al.

Published: 2024-07-12
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Volcanology

The diffusive mass exchange of eight major elements (Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, Na, and K) between natural, nominally dry shoshonitic and rhyolitic melts was studied at atmospheric pressure and temperatures between 1230 and 1413 °C using the diffusion couple method. For six elements, effective binary diffusion coefficients were calculated by means of a concentration-dependent method to obtain an [...]

Constraining Earth Properties using Deterministic Backus-Gilbert Inferences

Adrian Marin Mag, Christophe Zaroli, Paula Koelemeijer

Published: 2024-07-12
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology

Seismic tomography is routinely used to image the Earth’s interior using seismic data. However, in practice, data limitations lead to discretised inversions or the use of regularisations, which complicates tomographic model interpretations. In contrast, Backus-Gilbert methods make it possible to infer properties of the true Earth, providing useful insights into the internal structure of our [...]

Quantifying relationships between fault parameters and rupture characteristics associated with thrust and reverse fault earthquakes.

Kristen Chiama, William Bednarz, Robb Moss, et al.

Published: 2024-07-12
Subjects: Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Geotechnical Engineering, Risk Analysis, Tectonics and Structure

We investigate the influence of earthquake source characteristics and geological site parameters on fault scarp morphologies for thrust and reverse fault earthquakes using geomechanical models. We performed a total of 3,434 distinct element method (DEM) model experiments to evaluate the impact of the sediment depth, density, homogeneous and heterogeneous sediment strengths, fault dip, and the [...]

Timescale-dependent response of vegetation to climate change

David Fastovich, Stephen Meyers, Erin E Saupe, et al.

Published: 2024-07-12
Subjects: Earth Sciences

Climate and ecosystems exhibit dynamic behavior across various timescales, but existing studies often focus on singular timescales when examining ecosystem responses to climate. Here we develop a conceptual and analytical framework using spectral analysis that examines a continuum of timescales, from hundreds to hundreds of thousands of years. By comparing power spectra of vegetation turnover and [...]

Skilful probabilistic predictions of UK floods months ahead using machine learning models trained on multimodel ensemble climate forecasts

Simon Moulds, Louise Slater, Louise Arnal, et al.

Published: 2024-07-12
Subjects: Climate, Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Seasonal streamflow forecasts are an important component of flood risk management. Hybrid forecasting methods that predict seasonal streamflow using machine learning models driven by climate model outputs are currently underexplored, yet have some important advantages over traditional approaches using hydrological models. Here we develop a hybrid subseasonal to seasonal streamflow forecasting [...]

Fast and full characterization of large earthquakes from prompt elastogravity signals

Kévin Juhel, Quentin Bletery, Andrea Licciardi, et al.

Published: 2024-07-11
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology

Prompt ElastoGravity Signals (PEGS) are light-speed gravity-induced signals recorded by seismometers before the arrival of seismic waves. They have raised interest for early warning applications but their weak amplitudes, close to the background seismic noise even for large earthquakes, have questioned PEGS actual potential for operational use. A deep-learning model has recently demonstrated its [...]

Global distribution and governing dynamics of submesoscale density fronts

Caitlin Whalen, Kyla Drushka

Published: 2024-07-11
Subjects: Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

Interplay of slow-slip faults beneath Mexico City induces intense seismicity over months

Manuel Aguilar-Velázquez, Paulina Miranda-García, Víctor M. Cruz-Atienza, et al.

Published: 2024-07-10
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

In February 2023, a long seismic sequence began in western Mexico City causing widespread panic and some damage to housing infrastructure. On May 11 and December 14, two Mw3.2 mainshocks occurred at less than 700 m depth. Unprecedented satellite interferograms captured tectonic deformations in the two epicentral zones during the days surrounding the earthquakes. Data analysis revealed extended [...]

Climate equivalence metrics for airline contrail mitigation

Henri Cornec, Zachary Wendling, Marc Shapiro, et al.

Published: 2024-07-10
Subjects: Climate, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Studies, Sustainability

The aviation sector faces a significant challenge in mitigating climate change due to the dual impact of CO2 emissions and contrail formation. Contrails, which form under specific atmospheric conditions, contribute to global warming. Mitigating contrails, however, can require flight path diversions, leading to increased fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. This study evaluates various climate [...]

Pre-Cordilleran mantle metasomatism preserved in alkali basalts of Isla Isabel, México

Leonie Sieger, Bradley Peters, Andrea Giuliani, et al.

Published: 2024-07-09
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geology

The presence of HIMU (high-238U/204Pb) signatures in ocean island basalts has long been used to argue that ancient oceanic crust has been tectonically recycled into the mantle sources of plume-derived volcanic hotspots such as St. Helena or Mangaia. However, alternative hypotheses regarding the origins of HIMU signatures have also been put forward. This paper addresses the origins of HIMU-like Pb [...]

A non-equilibrium slurry model for planetary cores with application to Earth’s F-layer

Andrew Walker, Chris Davies, Alfred Wilson, et al.

Published: 2024-07-09
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Geophysics and Seismology, Mineral Physics

Slurry regions may exist in the cores of several terrestrial bodies and are expected to influence the dynamics of deep planetary interiors and the viability of maintaining global magnetic fields. Here we develop a two-component slurry model of the lowermost outer core of the Earth (the F-layer). In contrast to most previous models of slurries in planetary cores, we explicitly model the physics [...]

Satellite survey sheds new light on global solid waste methane emissions

Matthieu Dogniaux, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Marianne Girard, et al.

Published: 2024-07-09
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Environmental Sciences

Anthropogenic methane emissions are the second most important contributor to climate change, and their rapid reductions could help decrease near-term warming. Solid waste emits methane through the decay of organic material, which amounts to about 10% of total anthropogenic methane emissions. Satellite instruments enable monitoring of strong methane hotspots, including many strongly emitting urban [...]

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