There are 3244 Preprints listed.

Effect of mineral heterogeneity on fracture dissolution in carbonate-rich caprocks during subsurface CO2 injection

Mohammad Nooraiepour, Hossein Fazeli, Mohammad Masoudi, et al.

Published: 2022-10-03
Subjects: Environmental Sciences

Chemical interactions between CO2, brine, and caprock-forming minerals might lead to dissolution of the fractures present in the caprock of CO2 storage sites. One factor that can affect the chemically induced fracture alterations is mineral heterogeneity in the caprock. In this study, we investigate the effect of mineral heterogeneity on fracture dissolution of four carbonate-rich caprock [...]

LancasterAQ: A High Resolution Street Level Dataset of Ultrafine Particles

Matt Amos, Douglas Booker, Rachael Duncan, et al.

Published: 2022-10-03
Subjects: Other Earth Sciences

We present a mobile dataset of ultrafine particles (UFPs) in Lancaster, UK, with measurements taken by car and bike over 5 days in May 2022. UFPs are a constituent of air pollution and comprise of particulate matter (PM) less than 0.1μm in diameter. UFPs are unregulated and less measured than larger constituents of PM, despite being harmful to health and an important part of the atmospheric and [...]

Bayesian inference on the initiation phase of the 2014 Iquique, Chile, earthquake

Cedric Twardzik, Zacharie Duputel, Romain Jolivet, et al.

Published: 2022-10-03
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

We investigate the initiation phase of the 2014 Mw8.1 Iquique earthquake in northern Chile. In particular, we focus on the month preceding the mainshock, a time period known to exhibit an intensification of the seismic and aseismic activity in the region. The goal is to estimate the time-evolution and partitioning of seismic and aseismic slip during the preparatory phase of the mainshock. To do [...]

Origin, transport, accumulation of methane in sedimentary basins revisited

Per Arne Bjørkum

Published: 2022-10-02
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The current widely accepted models for generation of methane by thermal cracking of oil and by bacterial fermentation have several serious inconsistencies. Experiments show that high-temperature pyrolysis of liquid (C6+) hydrocarbons does not produce methane even if hydrogen is added to the feed, and condensate, which is generally assumed to be the direct precursor to methane, generally amounts [...]

Loop Current attenuation after the Mid-Pleistocene Transition contributes to Northern hemisphere cooling

Christian Hübscher, Dirk Nürnberg

Published: 2022-10-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

The beginning of the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT) ~920 ka BP marked the expansion of northern hemisphere ice shields and caused a significant climate change in NW Europe. The MPT ended with the establishment of the 100 kyr ice age cyclicity at ~640 ka BP, due to orbital eccentricity changes. Previous studies explained the northern hemisphere cooling by cooling of sea-surface temperatures, [...]

Geochemical mapping by unmixing alluvial sediments: An example from northern Australia

Alex George Lipp, Patrice de Caritat, Gareth G Roberts

Published: 2022-10-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geomorphology, Natural Resource Economics, Sedimentology, Soil Science, Water Resource Management

Alluvial sediments have long been used in geochemical surveys as their compositions are assumed to be representative of areas upstream. Overbank and floodplain sediments, in particular, are increasingly used for regional to continental-scale geochemical mapping. However, during downstream transport, sediments from heterogeneous source regions are carried away from their source regions and mixed. [...]

Modeling Stratospheric Polar Vortex Variation and Identifying Vortex Extremes Using Explainable Machine Learning

Zheng Wu, Tom Beucler, Eniko Szekely, et al.

Published: 2022-10-01
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The winter stratospheric polar vortex (SPV) exhibits considerable variability in magnitude and structure, which can result in extreme SPV events. These extremes can subsequently influence weather in the troposphere from weeks to months and thus are important sources of surface predictability. However, the predictability of the SPV extreme events is limited to 1-2 weeks in state-of-the-art [...]

Global groundwater warming

Susanne A Benz, Dylan J Irvine, Gabriel C Rau, et al.

Published: 2022-10-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Aquifers contain the largest store of unfrozen freshwater, making groundwater critical for life on Earth. Groundwater temperatures infl uence stream thermal regimes, groundwater-dependent ecosystems, aquatic biogeochemical processes, water quality, and the geothermal potential. Yet little is known about how groundwater responds to surface warming across spatial and temporal scales. We simulate [...]

Impact of stress regime change on the permeability of a naturally fractured carbonate buildup (Latemar, The Dolomites, Northern Italy)

Onyedika Anthony Igbokwe, Jithender J. Timothy, Ashwani Kumar, et al.

Published: 2022-09-30
Subjects: Earth Sciences

Changing stress regimes control fracture network geometry and influence porosity and permeability in carbonate reservoirs. We investigate the impact of stress-regime change on fracture network permeability utilizing outcrop data analysis and a displacement-based linear elastic finite element method. The model is based on fracture networks, specifically, fracture sub-structures. The Latemar, [...]

Characteristics of Dust Storms Generated by Trapped Waves in the Lee of Mountains

Amato Tomas Evan, William Porter, Rachel Clemsha, et al.

Published: 2022-09-29
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Meteorology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

Dust storms are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere, yet the physical processes underlying dust emission and subsequent transport are not always understood, in-part due to the wide variety of meteorological processes that can generate high winds and dust. Here we use in-situ measurements and numerical modeling to demonstrate that vertically trapped atmospheric waves generated by air flowing over [...]

The Asymmetric Distribution of Rainfall Frequency and Amounts in India

Yash Gupta, Manabendra Saharia, Bhupendranath Goswami

Published: 2022-09-29
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering

Studies of rainfall are usually based on the total amount precipitating throughout a certain period. Compared to rain rates associated with extreme events, the rain rates associated with periods when most of the rainfall occur are not studied extensively. In this study, the characteristics of daily precipitation in India are explored using two metrics - rain frequency peak (the most frequent [...]

A critical review of the sedimentary record of the `Millennium Eruption' of Changbaishan/Paektu-san volcano

Qingyuan Yang, Susanna F Jenkins, Geoffrey A Lerner, et al.

Published: 2022-09-29
Subjects: Education

The `Millennium Eruption’ of Changbaishan/Paektu-san Volcano, situated today on border between the People's Republic of China and Democratic People's Republic of Korea, ranks as one of the largest eruptions of the Common Era. Dated to 946 CE, its tephra deposits represent a critical marker spanning terrestrial and marine archives, as well as the glacial record of Greenland. Its geographically [...]

Comparative study of alteration sequences in pegmatitic aluminium phosphates

Cassian P. F. Pirard

Published: 2022-09-29
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Mineral Physics, Other Earth Sciences

Aluminium phosphates are mineral phases commonly occurring in rare-element pegmatites that record initial magmatic crystallization, metasomatic and hydrothermal replacements and precipitation and low-temperature alteration. Here we perform a comparative mineralogical study between several localities to assess similarities and variations in these parageneses and establish a general alteration [...]

Tsunami Early Warning from Global Navigation Satellite System Data using Convolutional Neural Networks

Donsub Rim, Robert Baraldi, Christopher M Liu, et al.

Published: 2022-09-29
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Hydrology, Oceanography

We investigate the potential of using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations to directly forecast full tsunami waveforms in real time. We train convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to use less than 9 minutes of GNSS data to forecast the full tsunami waveforms over 6 hours at select locations, and obtain accurate forecasts on a test dataset. Our training and test data consists of [...]

Post-salt magmatism in the Campos Basin, offshore SE Brazil: style, distribution, and relationship to salt tectonics

Francyne Bochi do Amarante, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, Leonardo Muniz Pichel

Published: 2022-09-28
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Substantial magmatism occurred during the development of the marginal basins of the central and southern South Atlantic. Situated on the Brazilian side of the central segment, the Campos and Santos basin represent a transitional margin, located between the magma-rich margin in the north and the magma-poor margin in the south. In addition to magmatism associated with the initiation of continental [...]


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