Filtering by Subject: Physics

Three-dimensional mineral dendrites reveal a non-classical crystallization pathway

Zhaoliang Hou, Dawid Woś, Cornelius Tschegg, et al.

Published: 2024-03-04
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Geochemistry, Mineral Physics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics

Manganese (Mn) dendrites are a common type of mineral dendrite that typically forms two-dimensional structures on rock surfaces. Three-dimensional (3D) Mn dendrites in rocks have rarely been reported, hence their growth implications have largely escaped attention. Here, we combine high-resolution X-ray and electron-based data with numerical modelling to give the first detailed description of [...]

Excited state lifetime of electron trapping centres in alkali feldspars

Svenja Riedesel, Mayank Jain

Published: 2023-11-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Mineral Physics, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics

The development of the infrared photoluminescence (IRPL) signal enables the direct non-destructive probing of the trapped electron population in feldspars. Whilst IRPL offers new perspectives for luminescence dating, it also enables detailed, site-selective measurements of the dosimetric defects emitting IRPL at 880 nm (IRPL880) and 955 nm (IRPL955), allowing improved understanding of [...]

Complementary classifications of aeolian dunes based on morphology, dynamics, and fluid mechanics

Sylvain Courrech du Pont, David Michael Rubin, Clément Narteau, et al.

Published: 2023-10-03
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Geomorphology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics, Planetary Geomorphology, Planetary Sciences, Sedimentology

Dunes form where winds blow over a bed of mobile sediment grains – conditions that are common in our solar system. On Earth, dunes abound in arid continental interiors and along sandy coastlines. Dune fields have also been recognized on Venus, Mars, Saturn's moon Titan, and Pluto. In response to the different boundary conditions and other environmental forcings, dunes adopt a rich diversity [...]

In-ice measurements of full spectral angular radiance distribution using a 360-degree camera

Raphaël Larouche, Bastian Raulier, Christian Katlein, et al.

Published: 2023-05-18
Subjects: Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Optics, Physics

A better understanding of the radiative transfer of solar visible light within sea ice is crucial to study the Arctic energy balance and marine ecosystems. In this work, we showcase the utilization of a compact, consumer-grade 360-degree camera for measuring the in-ice spectral angular radiance distribution. This novel technique allows for the instantaneous acquisition of all radiometric [...]

Linear analysis of ice-shelf topography response to basal melting and freezing

Aaron Grey Stubblefield, Colin R. Meyer, Martin Wearing

Published: 2023-04-28
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Dynamic Systems, Earth Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Glaciology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics

Floating ice shelves in Antarctica and Greenland limit land-ice contributions to sea level rise by resisting the flow of grounded ice. Melting at the surface and base of ice shelves can lead to destabilisation by promoting thinning and fracturing. Basal melting often results in channelised features that manifest as surface topography due to buoyancy. The assumption of hydrostatic flotation [...]

Three-dimensional fluid-driven stable frictional ruptures

Alexis Sáez, Brice Lecampion, Pathikrit Bhattacharya, et al.

Published: 2021-09-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics

We investigate the quasi-static growth of a fluid-driven frictional shear crack that propagates in mixed mode (II+III) on a planar fault interface that separates two identical half-spaces of a three-dimensional solid. The fault interface is characterized by a shear strength equal to the product of a constant friction coefficient and the local effective normal stress. Fluid is injected into the [...]

Modeling P waves in seismic noise correlations: Advancing fault monitoring using train traffic sources

Korbinian Sager, Victor C. Tsai, Yixiao Sheng, et al.

Published: 2021-06-19
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physics

The theory of Green's function retrieval essentially requires homogeneously distributed noise sources. Even though these conditions are not fulfilled in nature, low-frequency (<1 Hz) surface waves generated by ocean-crust interactions have been used successfully to image the crust with unprecedented spatial resolution. In contrast to low-frequency surface waves, high-frequency (>1 Hz) body waves [...]

Yield estimation of the 2020 Beirut explosion using open access waveform and remote sensing data

Christoph Pilger, Patrick Hupe, Peter Gaebler, et al.

Published: 2020-12-22
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Earth Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics, Statistics and Probability

We report on a multi-technique analysis using publicly available data for investigating the huge, accidental explosion that struck the city of Beirut, Lebanon, on August 4, 2020. Its devastating shock wave led to thousands of injured with more than two hundred fatalities and caused immense damage to buildings and infrastructure. Our combined analysis of seismological, hydroacoustic, infrasonic [...]

Anatomy of Strike Slip Fault Tsunami-genesis

Ahmed Elbanna, Mohamed Abdelmeguid, Xiao Ma, et al.

Published: 2020-12-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Engineering, Fluid Dynamics, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics

Tsunami generation from earthquake induced seafloor deformations has long been recognized as a major hazard to coastal areas. Strike-slip faulting has generally been believed as insufficient for triggering large tsunamis, except through the generation of submarine landslides. Herein, we demonstrate that ground motions due to strike-slip earthquakes can contribute to the emergence of large [...]

Extreme curvature of shallow magma pathways controlled by competing stresses

Timothy Davis, Marco Bagnardi, Paul Lundgren, et al.

Published: 2020-10-30
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Physics

Eruptions at shield volcanoes often occur from radially aligned linear fissures fed by blade-like magma-filled cracks (dykes). The fissures of the 2018 Sierra Negra eruption were scattered on the flank of the volcano. Space-borne radar interferometric data (InSAR) revealed that, unexpectedly, part of the eruption was fed by a 15 km long, tortuous and flat-lying crack (sill). Here we develop a [...]

An analytical solution to the Navier–Stokes equation for incompressible flow around a solid sphere

Ahmad Talaei, Timothy J. Garrett

Published: 2020-08-25
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Fluid Dynamics, Mechanical Engineering, Other Mechanical Engineering, Partial Differential Equations, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics, Special Functions

This paper is concerned with obtaining a formulation for the flow past a sphere in a viscous and incompressible fluid, building upon previously obtained well-known solutions that were limited to small Reynolds numbers. Using a method based on a summation of separation of variables, we develop a general analytical solution to the Navier--Stokes equation for the special case of axially symmetric [...]

Isotropic and Azimuthally Anisotropic Rayleigh Wave Dispersion Across the Juan de Fuca and Gorda Plates and U.S. Cascadia from Earthquake Data and Ambient Noise Two- and Three-Station Interferometry

Shane Zhang, Hongda Wang, Mengyu Wu, et al.

Published: 2020-08-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics

We use data from the Cascadia Initiative (CI) amphibious array and the USArray Transportable Array to construct and compare Rayleigh wave isotropic and azimuthally anisotropic phase speed maps across the Juan de Fuca and Gorda Plates extending onto the continental north- western United States. Results from both earthquakes (28–80 s) as well as ambient noise two- and three-station interferometry [...]

Sedimentary structures discriminations with hyperspectral imaging on sediment cores

Kévin Jacq, Rapuc William, Benoit Alexandre, et al.

Published: 2020-07-17
Subjects: Analytical Chemistry, Chemistry, Earth Sciences, Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Multivariate Analysis, Optics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics, Sedimentology, Statistical Models, Statistics and Probability

Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a non-destructive high-resolution sensor, which is currently under significant development to analyze geological areas with remote devices or natural samples in a laboratory. In both cases, the hyperspectral image provides several sedimentary structures that need to be separated to temporally and spatially describe the sample. Sediment sequences are composed of [...]

Rapid heat discharge during deep-sea eruptions generates megaplumes and disperses tephra

Samuel S Pegler, David Ferguson

Published: 2020-07-16
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Geology, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics, Volcanology

Deep-marine volcanism drives Earth’s most energetic transfers of heat and mass between the crust and the oceans. Seafloor magmatic activity has been correlated in time with the appearance of massive enigmatic plumes of hydrothermal fluid, known as megaplumes, yet little is known of the primary source and intensity of the hydrothermal energy release that occurs during [...]

Fracture mechanics of rate-and-state faults and fluid injection induced slip

Dmitry Garagash

Published: 2020-07-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physics

Propagation of a slip transient on a fault with rate-and-state dependent friction resembles a fracture which near tip region is characterized by large departure of the slip velocity and fault strength from the steady-state sliding. We develop a near tip solution to describe this unsteady dynamics, and obtain the fracture energy Gc, dissipated in overcoming strength-excursion away from [...]


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