Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Oil, Gas, and Energy

Wastewaters co-produced with shale gas drive slight regional salinization of groundwater

Samuel Shaheen, Tao Wen, Zhong Zheng, et al.

Published: 2024-04-04
Subjects: Geochemistry, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Water Resource Management

While unconventional oil and gas development (UOGD) is changing the world economy, processes that are used during UOGD such as high-volume hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”) have been linked with water contamination. Water quality risks include leaks of gas and salty fluids (brines) that are co-produced at wellpads. Identifying the cause of contamination is difficult, however, because UOG wells [...]

Problems with Greenhouse Gas Life Cycle Analyses of U.S. LNG Exports and Locally-Produced Coal

Robert L Kleinberg

Published: 2024-04-01
Subjects: Climate, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Oil, Gas, and Energy

Exports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) from the United States are growing rapidly, and the United States government must balance a multiplicity of interests in deciding to what extent the growth of LNG exports should be further encouraged. Its decisions must be consistent with the Natural Gas Act, which mandates that exports of natural gas be in the public interest. In the current [...]

Satellite-based surveys reveal substantial methane point-source emissions in major oil & gas basins of North America during 2022-2023

Fei Li, Shengxi Bai, Keer Lin, et al.

Published: 2024-02-29
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Remote Sensing

Utilizing imaging spectroscopy technology to identify methane super-emitters plays a vital role in mitigating methane emissions in the Oil & Gas (O&G) sector. While earlier research has uncovered significant point-source methane emissions from O&G production in the US and Canada, which are key regions with large methane emissions, a comprehensive post-COVID-19 survey has been notably [...]

Multi-satellite data depicts record-breaking methane leak from a well blowout

Luis Guanter, Javier Roger, Shubham Sharma, et al.

Published: 2024-02-14
Subjects: Climate, Environmental Monitoring, Oil, Gas, and Energy

Accidental blowouts in oil and gas wells can result in large and prolonged methane emissions, which are often unreported when happening in remote places. The rapid advancement of space-based methods for detecting and quantifying methane plumes provides an essential tool for uncovering these super-emission events. We use a range of methane-sensitive satellites to document a methane leak from a [...]

Climate and Air Quality Impact of Using Ammonia as an Alternative Shipping Fuel

Anthony Y. H. Wong, Noelle Eckley Selin, Sebastian David Eastham, et al.

Published: 2024-02-08
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Oil, Gas, and Energy

As carbon-free fuel, ammonia has been proposed as an alternative fuel to facilitate maritime decarbonization. Deployment of ammonia-powered ships is proposed as soon as 2024. However, emissions of NOx, NH3 and N2O resulting from ammonia combustion could cause impacts on air quality and climate. In this study, we assess whether and under what conditions switching to ammonia fuel might affect [...]

Daily global methane super-emitter detection and source identification with sub-daily tracking

Tobias A. de Jong, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Itziar Irakulis-Loitxate, et al.

Published: 2024-02-01
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Oil, Gas, and Energy

We use the Shortwave Infrared bands of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) satellite instruments to retrieve atmospheric methane enhancements with 750m resolution. We show that the three VIIRS instruments in orbit uniquely enhance the currently-employed capabilities of tracking methane super-emission events. The VIIRS instrument on Suomi-NPP and the TROPOMI instrument on [...]

A Hybrid Pore-Network-Continuum Modeling Framework for Flow and Transport in 3D Digital Images of Porous Media

Li Zhang, Bo Guo, Chaozhong Qin, et al.

Published: 2023-12-19
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Oil, Gas, and Energy

Understanding flow and transport in multiscale porous media is challenging due to the presence of a wide range of pore sizes. Recent imaging advances offer high-resolution characterization of the multiscale pore structures. However, simulating flow and transport in 3D digital images requires models to represent both the resolved and sub-resolution pore structures. Here, we develop a hybrid [...]

LAND-USE REQUIREMENTS OF SOLAR AND WIND POWER

Olga Turkovska, Katharina Gruber, Michael Klingler, et al.

Published: 2023-11-28
Subjects: Natural Resources Management and Policy, Oil, Gas, and Energy

Rising shares of wind power and solar power in energy systems raises concerns over their land-use requirements (LURs) and associated impacts. Although abundant literature is available on LURs of solar and wind power, existing estimates exhibit a large variance, if not even inconsistency. This systematic review therefore evaluates published LURs for these technologies in the English scientific [...]

From Zero to Hero: How to make the Carbon Management Challenge an ambitious lever in the climate fight

Stuart Jenkins, Ingrid Sundvor, Myles Robert Allen

Published: 2023-11-28
Subjects: Climate, Oil, Gas, and Energy

The Carbon Management Challenge (CMC) has set a goal of reaching a minimum of 1 billion tonnes per year of geological carbon dioxide storage by 2030. While in line geological storage required in the International Energy Agency’s Net Zero pathway, there is concern this may be a distraction from the imperative of reducing fossil fuel emissions. Here we show that, if presented in terms of an [...]

Quantifying the intersecting threats of wildfire and oil and gas development in the western United States

David J.X. Gonzalez, Rachel Morello-Frosch, Zehua Liu, et al.

Published: 2023-11-15
Subjects: Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Oil, Gas, and Energy

The recent increases in wildfire activity in the western United States has coincided with the proliferation of oil and gas development and substantial population growth in the wildland-urban interface. Drilling and operating oil and gas wells is already associated with emissions of harmful pollutants and higher risks of adverse health outcomes for nearby residents. Perturbation from [...]

Spaceborne assessment of the Soviet Union's role in the 1990s methane slowdown

Tai-Long He, Ryan J. Boyd, Daniel J. Varon, et al.

Published: 2023-10-04
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Methane is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas, amounting to 60% of the radiative forcing from CO2 since pre-industrial times based on emitted compound. Global atmospheric methane concentrations rose by 10-15 ppb/yr in the 1980s before abruptly slowing to 2-8 ppb/yr in the early 1990s. This period in the 1990s is known as the ``methane slowdown'' and has been attributed to the [...]

Soil geochemistry of hydrogen and other gases along the San Andreas Fault

Yashee Mathur, Victor Awosiji, Tapan Mukerji, et al.

Published: 2023-07-23
Subjects: Environmental Chemistry, Geochemistry, Geology, Multivariate Analysis, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Soil Science

Natural hydrogen has generated great interest as a potential clean and renewable energy source. To understand the occurrence of natural hydrogen, 103 1-m deep soil gas samples were acquired near the San Andreas Fault at Jasper Ridge and Portola Valley, California, USA. The gas samples were analyzed for hydrogen, helium, carbon dioxide, light hydrocarbons, and fixed gas concentrations. Statistical [...]

Standardized Benchmark of Historical Compound Wind and Solar Energy Droughts Across the Continental United States

Cameron Bracken, Nathalie Voisin, Casey Burleyson, et al.

Published: 2023-06-23
Subjects: Meteorology, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Statistical Methodology, Sustainability

As we move towards a decarbonized grid, reliance on weather-dependent energy increases as does exposure to prolonged natural resource shortages known as energy droughts. Compound energy droughts occur when two or more predominant renewable energy sources simultaneously are in drought conditions. In this study we present a methodology and dataset for examining compound wind and solar energy [...]

Comprehensive evaluation of aircraft-based methane sensing for greenhouse gas mitigation

Sahar Head El Abbadi, Zhenlin Chen, Philippine M. Burdeau, et al.

Published: 2023-06-22
Subjects: Engineering, Environmental Monitoring, Oil, Gas, and Energy

Methane is a major contributor to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Identifying large sources of methane, particularly from the oil and gas sector, will be essential for mitigating climate change. Aircraft-based methane sensing platforms can rapidly detect and quantify methane point-source emissions across large geographic regions, playing an increasingly important role in industrial [...]

Carbon Utilization and Storage through Rehabilitation of Groundwater Wells

Vivek Vidyadhar Patil, Gabriella Basso, Steven Catania, et al.

Published: 2023-05-21
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Climate, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Hydrology, Longitudinal Data Analysis and Time Series, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Statistical Methodology, Statistical Models, Statistics and Probability

According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the United Nations (UN), rise in atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) due to anthropogenic factors is considered as the primary driver for global climate change. With almost every major corporation around the world working towards their “net-zero goals”, it is becoming increasingly important to have more [...]

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