Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Stratigraphy

Structure and Morphology of an Active Conjugate Relay Zone, Messina Strait, Southern Italy

Rebecca Dorsey, Sergio Longhitano, Domenico Chiarella

Published: 2023-03-10
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

The Messina Strait is a narrow fault-bounded marine basin that separates the Calabrian peninsula from Sicily in southern Italy. It sits in a seismically active region where normal fault scarps and raised Quaternary marine terraces record ongoing extension driven by southeastward rollback of the Calabrian subduction zone. A review of published studies and new data shows that normal faults in the [...]

Steady decline in mean annual air temperatures in the first 30 ka after the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary

Lauren O'Connor, Emily Dearing Crampton-Flood, Rhodri Jerrett, et al.

Published: 2023-03-06
Subjects: Climate, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Stratigraphy

The Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary marks one of the five major mass extinctions of the Phanerozoic. How the climate system responded to a bolide impact and extensive volcanism at this time over different timescales is highly debated. Here we use the distribution of branched tetraether lipids (brGDGT) from fossil peats at two sites in Saskatchewan, Canada (paleolatitude ~55°N), to generate a [...]

Exceptional preservation of three-dimensional dunes on an ancient deep-marine seafloor: implications for sedimentary processes and depositional environments

Euan Soutter, Ander Martinez-Donate, Ian Kane, et al.

Published: 2023-01-19
Subjects: Geology, Stratigraphy

Depositional and erosional bedforms can be used to reconstruct sedimentary processes and aid paleoenvironmental interpretations. Using exhumed deep-marine strata in the Eocene Aínsa Basin, Spain, we document a 3-dimensional package of dunes; a relatively rarely identified bedform in deep-marine environments. Our analysis shows that the dunes have curvilinear crests in planform, with smaller [...]

Are marl-limestone alternations mainly driven by CaCO3 variations at the astronomical timescale? New insights from extraterrestrial 3He

Pierre-Henri BLARD, Baptiste SUCHERAS-MARX, Guillaume SUAN, et al.

Published: 2023-01-07
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Marl-limestone alternations are rhythmical inter-bedded deposits that commonly occur in many sedimentological environments. It is quite well established that these lithological variations originate from astronomically-driven climatic variations paced by the Milankovitch cycles of main periods 19, 23, 41, 100 and 405 ka. However, the sedimentological mechanisms involved are not clear: some models [...]

Use of remote-sensing to quantify the distribution of progradation/erosion along a forced-regressive modern coastline: driving factors and impact on the stratigraphic record

Valentin Zuchuat, Miquel Poyatos-Moré, Bjorn Nyberg, et al.

Published: 2022-12-13
Subjects: Geomorphology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

The long-term development of ancient and modern coastal distributary distributive fluvial systems (DFSs) during periods of relative sea-level highstand or fall usually drives net-progradation of shorelines. Such systems often develop in periods of relative sea-level highstand or fall and typically record annual to millennial-scale deviations in coastal trajectories. A new continental dataset [...]

Correlation of geological complexes of the Khan-Tengri Mountain massif

Alexander Mikolaichuk, Farid Apayarov, Dmitry Gordeev

Published: 2022-12-09
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

Researchers of the border regions of Xinjiang and the Central Asian countries are actively discussing two alternative models for the relationships between the main structural units of the Tianshan mountains. Most researchers believe that the Kyrgyz Middle Tianshan wedges out to the east along the Atbashi-Inylchek-Nalati marginal fault. According to the second hypothesis, the structures of the [...]

Evolution of intraplate magmatism atop a mantle plume: geochemical and chronological analysis of Shawahit Basalt, Harrat Rahat, Saudi Arabia

Gareth G Roberts, Patrick Ball

Published: 2022-11-15
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Harrat Rahat is the largest volcanic  eld in Saudi Arabia and has been active from ~10 Ma to the present day. Due to its close proximity to important population centres, Harrat Rahat's recent eruptions, the Medinah lava flows (< 1.7 Ma), have been extensively studied to identify volcanic risk. However, the evolution of Harrat Rahat's most extensive and oldest lava flows, known collectively as the [...]

The unknown fate of macroplastic in mountain rivers

Maciej Liro, Tim van Emmerik, Anna Zielonka, et al.

Published: 2022-11-09
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Life Sciences, Natural Resources and Conservation, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Sustainability, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology, Water Resource Management

Mountain rivers are typically seen as relatively pristine ecosystems, supporting numerous goods (e.g., water resources) for human populations living not only in the mountain regions but also downstream from them. Recent evidence suggests, however, that mountain river valleys in populated areas can be substantially polluted by macroplastic (plastic item > 5 mm). It is, however, unknown how [...]

Comparing detrital age spectra, and other geological distributions, using the Wasserstein distance

Alex George Lipp, Pieter Vermeesch

Published: 2022-10-26
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

Distributional data such as detrital age populations or grain size distributions are common in the geological sciences. As analytical techniques become more sophisticated, increasingly large amounts of distributional data are being gathered. These advances require quantitative and objective methods, such as multidimensional scaling (MDS), to analyse large numbers of samples. Crucial to such [...]

North Atlantic Drift Sediments Constrain Eocene Tidal Dissipation and the Evolution of the Earth-Moon System

David De Vleeschouwer, Donald Penman, Simon D'haenens, et al.

Published: 2022-09-15
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Cyclostratigraphy and astrochronology are now at the forefront of geologic timekeeping. While this technique heavily relies on the accuracy of astronomical calculations, solar system chaos limits how far back astronomical calculations can be performed with confidence. High-resolution paleoclimate records with Milankovitch imprints now allow reversing the traditional cyclostratigraphic approach: [...]

Down-delta hydraulic geometry and its application to the rock record

Octria Adi Prasojo, Trevor B Hoey, Richard David Williams, et al.

Published: 2022-08-31
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Paleodischarge estimation is largely undertaken within fluvial settings, and there are limited paleodischarge estimates specifically from delta deposits, despite their significance globally. Making water paleodischarge estimates for deltas using catchment-based approaches developed using data from fluvial settings requires estimation of parameters from the rock record (e.g. paleotemperature, [...]

Practical sampling criteria for using delta channel width to estimate paleodischarge in the rock record

Octria Adi Prasojo, Anna van Yperen, Trevor B Hoey, et al.

Published: 2022-08-31
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Quantifying paleodischarge from geological field observations have been for decades, and remains, a key research challenge. Several paleodischarge scaling relationships have been developed for fluvial environments, such as BQART, Fulcrum and regional hydraulic geometry or for river deltas by precluding the role of wave and tide. In deltas where marine (wave, tide) energy causes bidirectional [...]

Automated stratigraphic correlation and model building using chronostratigraphic principles

Zoltan Sylvester

Published: 2022-08-07
Subjects: Sedimentology, Software Engineering, Stratigraphy

Stratigraphic correlation of geophysical well logs is one of the most important - and most time-consuming - tasks that applied geoscientists perform on a daily basis. Using the dynamic time warping (DTW) algorithm, automated correlation of two wells is a fairly simple task; DTW can also be used to correlate a large number of wells along a single path. However, errors accumulate along a path and [...]

Formation and reorganization timescales of aeolian landscapes

Andrew Gunn

Published: 2022-07-29
Subjects: Climate, Geomorphology, Stratigraphy

Landscapes created through sediment transport are shaped by the interaction of flow and form. In landscapes where wind is the agent of geomorphic work, this is clear at the small-scale; equilibrium dune morphology is linked to the wind climate and the supply of sediment. At larger scales, this linkage becomes ambiguous because the form of giant dunes and dune fields integrate long histories of [...]

Mud redeposition during river incision as a factor affecting authigenic 10Be/9Be dating: Early Pleistocene large mammal fossil-bearing site Nová Vieska, eastern Danube Basin

Michal Šujan, Régis Braucher, Andrej Chyba, et al.

Published: 2022-07-29
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

This study examines the suitability of the authigenic 10Be/9Be dating method to the dating of the deposits of an incising river, taking as an example the Nová Vieska river terrace, which accumulated during the neotectonic inversion of the Danube Basin (western Slovakia). The succession was formed by a wandering river with minor preservation of proximal floodplain muds. The frequent occurrence of [...]

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