Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Social and Behavioral Sciences

Entry points for accelerating transitions towards a more sustainable future

Enayat Moallemi, Michelle Miller, Katrina Szetey, et al.

Published: 2024-04-13
Subjects: Social and Behavioral Sciences

Accelerated transitions that enable far-reaching and systemic changes to a more sustainable future are urgently needed to ensure inclusive human development and Earth system stability. Different processes for accelerating transitions have been proposed over the past decade. However, evidence-based guidance on of what these processes are across scientific and policy spheres and their specification [...]

A consistent terminology to communicate ground-related uncertainty

Georg H. Erharter, Suzanne Lacasse, Franz Tschuchnigg

Published: 2024-03-26
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Risk Analysis, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Statistics and Probability

Engineering geology is highly affected by uncertainty related to the geology, geotechnical parameters, models used and methods. While the technical aspects of ground-related uncertainty are increasingly investigated, the terminology to communicate uncertainty (i.e. phrases such as “it is very likely that”) has not yet been unified and experts use it however they see fit. The problem arises that [...]

Wildfire smoke exposure and mortality burden in the US under future climate change

Minghao Qiu, Jessica Li, Carlos Gould, et al.

Published: 2024-03-13
Subjects: Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Sciences, Public Health, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Wildfire activity has increased in the US and is projected to accelerate under future climate change. However, our understanding of the impacts of climate change on wildfire smoke and health remains highly uncertain. Here we quantify the mortality burden in the US due to wildfire smoke fine particulate matter (PM2.5) under future climate change. We construct an ensemble of statistical and machine [...]

Roman Ports in the Mediterranean: Geomorphology, Environment and Resilience

Antony G Brown, Kevin Walsh, Daniel Fallu

Published: 2024-02-05
Subjects: Social and Behavioral Sciences

Classical ports in the Mediterranean Sea existed not only in a social, economic and technical contexts but also in a geomorphological context. This geomorphological context, which includes both the harbour landform and the catchment (if any) is a function of the geomorphology of coasts and catchments (including neotectonics) and marine factors (bathymetry, low amplitude tides, surges, tsunamis [...]

Human Civilization will Collapse (High Confidence): A Compendium of Relevant Biophysical, Political, Economic, Military, Health, and Psychological Information

Demetrios Karis

Published: 2024-01-11
Subjects: Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Human civilization will not collapse from the direct effects of climate change, but rather from the secondary effects of crop failures, infectious diseases, and armed conflict. The root cause of the climate crisis is the earth’s energy imbalance: more energy is arriving at the earth from the sun than is being radiated back out into space.  This is occurring because we have been cutting [...]

Transdisciplinary doctoral training to address global sustainability challenges

Zoie Taylor Diana, John Virdin, Michelle Nowlin, et al.

Published: 2023-12-14
Subjects: Education, Engineering, Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Intertwining volcanoes and society in Chile through arts and interdisciplinary connections

Valentina Acuña, Matías Clunes, Sebastián Riffo, et al.

Published: 2023-11-08
Subjects: Geography, Social and Behavioral Sciences

The separation between nature and society, of concern within social science and interdisciplinary discussions, has generated a division that often characterizes the way communities perceive their environment. The arts have played an important role in demonstrating the entanglement of Earth and society through their ability to frame and shape the dynamics of the Earth across sensations. This has [...]

Understanding the role of biodiversity in the climate, food, water, energy, transport and health nexus in Europe

HyeJin Kim, Anita Lazurko, George Linney, et al.

Published: 2023-11-05
Subjects: Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Biodiversity underpins the functioning of ecosystems and the diverse benefits that nature provides to people, yet is being lost at an unprecedented rate. To halt or reverse biodiversity loss, it is critical to understand the complex interdependencies between biodiversity and key drivers and sectors to inform the development of holistic policies and action. We conducted a literature review on the [...]

Forest carbon market-based mechanisms in India: Learnings from global design principles and domestic barriers to implementation

Anirban Roy, Manan Bhan

Published: 2023-11-01
Subjects: Social and Behavioral Sciences

Forest carbon markets (FCMs) have emerged as a significant means to direct resources toward urgent climate action that can mobilize a large set of actors and catalyze funding toward reducing deforestation and promoting sustainable forest management. Here, we conduct a critical qualitative review of global academic and investigative literature to identify ten major sets of design principles that [...]

CASH Paradox, ReWASH, Bronze-2-Gold and JEDI AWAKENS: introduction of new concepts to enhance the sustainability of the water-energy nexus

Gabriel Marinho Silva, Pedro Gustavo Câmara da Silva, Mateo Hernández Sánchez, et al.

Published: 2023-10-04
Subjects: Education, Engineering, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Amidst the escalating impacts of climate change and extreme weather events, participatory decision-making in water management stands out as a sustainable approach for disaster risk reduction. Hydrological disasters, such as floods and droughts, are increasing globally due to anthropogenic activities, necessitating adaptation in water infrastructure. The OECD projects severe water stress for 2.3 [...]

Large-scale green grabbing for wind and solar PV development in Brazil

Michael Klingler, Nadia Ameli, Jamie Rickman, et al.

Published: 2023-08-23
Subjects: Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Human Geography, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Large-scale wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) infrastructures are expanding rapidly in Brazil. These projects can exacerbate struggles for land rooted in weak land governance, with negative impacts for traditional populations due to loss of access to common lands. Here, we trace how green grabbing, i.e. the large-scale appropriation and control of (undesignated) public lands, both formally legal [...]

Adaptation to climate damages is not inevitable

Christopher Callahan

Published: 2023-07-21
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Understanding how climate change will affect human welfare must account for how humans will adapt to the changing environment. Adaptations are often local, unobserved, or will only emerge in the future, posing a challenge for attempts to empirically derive climate damage functions and leading to claims that such empirically based functions overestimate the future economic costs of warming. By [...]

Projecting Future Heat Stress Disparities to 2100 in the Contiguous United States

Kaihui Song, Angel Hsu, Wei Peng, et al.

Published: 2023-07-09
Subjects: Social and Behavioral Sciences

Global warming increases health risks from heat exposure. Historical evidence suggests disproportionate impacts of heat exposure in different regions across socioeconomic groups in the US. However, little is known about the scale of potential disparities and which populations stand to be most vulnerable under different future climate scenarios. Here, we assess county-level heat exposure, measured [...]

Moral Hazards and Geoengineering: Evidence from a Large-Scale Online Experiment

Philipp Schoenegger, Kian Mintz-Woo

Published: 2023-07-08
Subjects: Social and Behavioral Sciences

Geoengineering (especially solar radiation management) may help to reduce the negative outcomes of climate change by minimising or reversing global warming. However, many express the worry that geoengineering may pose a moral hazard, i.e., that information about geoengineering may lead to a reduction in climate change mitigation efforts. In this paper, we report a large-scale pre-registered, [...]

Whispers of the Woodlands: Unveiling the Interplay of Forest Conservation and Livelihood through Community Narratives

Edgar Rendon Eslit

Published: 2023-06-26
Subjects: Social and Behavioral Sciences

Amidst nature's enchanting embrace, forests stand as revered guardians, safeguarding biodiversity and nurturing rural livelihoods. In this journey, a qualitative study takes flight, exploring the cherished perspectives of the community within Iligan City's rustic expanse in Iligan City, Philippines. Its purpose? To unveil the intricate dance between forest conservation efforts and local [...]

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