Filtering by Subject: Social and Behavioral Sciences

Embracing uncertainty: foundations of a learning system for food systems transformation

Kai Mausch, Andy Hall, Caroline Hambloch, et al.

Published: 2024-06-21
Subjects: Social and Behavioral Sciences

We propose a transformative learning system based on a review of uncertainty emerging from system complexity. The framework is built on locally led action and embedded in a learning system that aiming at transforming the food systems. It is widely agreed that food systems need transformative change to meet societal goals. However, despite this agreement, the implementation of a systems [...]

Large indirect economic impacts of tropical cyclones shaped by disaster response

Christopher Callahan, Jane Baldwin, Renzhi Jing, et al.

Published: 2024-05-30
Subjects: Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Tropical cyclones (TCs) have direct economic impacts, destroying property, crops, and infrastructure. However, the sign and magnitude of their indirect impacts via longer-term changes in economic output remain unclear. Here we use data on TC winds and county-level income in the U.S. to quantify the indirect impacts of TCs on incomes in the years following a TC. We find a nonlinear response of [...]

At the Sharp End of Fractured Granites: A Critical Geology for Critical Times

Deborah Dixon, Iain Neill, Bailey Lathrop, et al.

Published: 2024-05-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Human Geography, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences

The geosciences have been positioned as integral to a ‘whole society’ transition that includes the decarbonisation of energy systems. Geothermal energy - which relies on a knowledge of the dynamism of rocks in the subsurface including the movement of fluids through fractures, physio-chemical interactions, and thermal gradients – has been offered as a potential route forward. Its realisation [...]

GeoAI and the Future of Spatial Analytics

Wenwen Li, Samantha T. Arundel

Published: 2024-05-01
Subjects: Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Geography, Library and Information Science, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences

This chapter discusses the challenges of traditional spatial analytical methods in their limited capacity to handle big and messy data, as well as mining unknown or latent patterns. It then introduces a new form of spatial analytics – geospatial artificial intelligence (GeoAI) - and describes the advantages of this new strategy in big data analytics and data-driven discovery. Finally, a [...]

Nurturing a new industry rooted in geoscience: stakeholder insights on minewater thermal in Scotland.

Katherine Beth Deeming, Jen Dickie, Jen Roberts, et al.

Published: 2024-04-30
Subjects: Engineering, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Heat decarbonisation is crucial for climate action and to transition towards a sustainable society. Abandoned, flooded mines can be used to provide low-carbon heating and cooling for buildings or as thermal energy storage for district heating networks. Despite the plentiful potential resource that legacy mining infrastructure offers, the current utilisation of minewater thermal resources in the [...]

Innovative Approaches to Bushfire Management and Recovery

Milad Esmzadeh

Published: 2024-04-20
Subjects: Engineering, Environmental Studies, Social and Behavioral Sciences

In recent years, Australia has faced severe bushfires that have highlighted the need for innovative management and recovery strategies. The catastrophic 2019–2020 bushfire season, one of the most devastating on record, burned over 10.7 million hectares, destroyed approximately 3,000 homes, and resulted in the loss of at least 28 lives and over 500 million wildlife casualties. These events [...]

Entry points for accelerating transitions towards a more sustainable future

Enayat Moallemi, Michelle Miller, Katrina Szetey, et al.

Published: 2024-04-13
Subjects: Social and Behavioral Sciences

Accelerated transitions that enable far-reaching and systemic changes to a more sustainable future are urgently needed to ensure inclusive human development and Earth system stability. Different processes for accelerating transitions have been proposed over the past decade. However, evidence-based guidance on of what these processes are across scientific and policy spheres and their specification [...]

A consistent terminology to communicate ground-related uncertainty

Georg H. Erharter, Suzanne Lacasse, Franz Tschuchnigg

Published: 2024-03-26
Subjects: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Risk Analysis, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Statistics and Probability

Engineering geology is highly affected by uncertainty related to the geology, geotechnical parameters, models used and methods. While the technical aspects of ground-related uncertainty are increasingly investigated, the terminology to communicate uncertainty (i.e. phrases such as “it is very likely that”) has not yet been unified and experts use it however they see fit. The problem [...]

Wildfire smoke exposure and mortality burden in the US under future climate change

Minghao Qiu, Jessica Li, Carlos Gould, et al.

Published: 2024-03-12
Subjects: Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Sciences, Public Health, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Wildfire activity has increased in the US and is projected to accelerate under future climate change. However, our understanding of the impacts of climate change on wildfire smoke and health remains highly uncertain. Here we quantify the mortality burden in the US due to wildfire smoke fine particulate matter (PM2.5) under future climate change. We construct an ensemble of statistical and machine [...]

Roman Ports in the Mediterranean: Geomorphology, Environment and Resilience

Antony G Brown, Kevin Walsh, Daniel Fallu

Published: 2024-02-05
Subjects: Social and Behavioral Sciences

Classical ports in the Mediterranean Sea existed not only in a social, economic and technical contexts but also in a geomorphological context. This geomorphological context, which includes both the harbour landform and the catchment (if any) is a function of the geomorphology of coasts and catchments (including neotectonics) and marine factors (bathymetry, low amplitude tides, surges, tsunamis [...]

Human Civilization will Collapse (High Confidence): A Compendium of Relevant Biophysical, Political, Economic, Military, Health, and Psychological Information on Climate Change

Demetrios Karis

Published: 2024-01-11
Subjects: Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Human civilization will not collapse from the direct effects of climate change, but rather from the secondary effects of crop failures, infectious diseases, and armed conflict. The root cause of the climate crisis is the earth’s energy imbalance: more energy is arriving at the earth from the sun than is being radiated back out into space.  This is occurring because we have been cutting down [...]

Transdisciplinary doctoral training to address global sustainability challenges

Zoie Taylor Diana, John Virdin, Michelle Nowlin, et al.

Published: 2023-12-14
Subjects: Education, Engineering, Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Intertwining volcanoes and society in Chile through arts and interdisciplinary connections

Valentina Acuña, Matías Clunes, Sebastián Riffo, et al.

Published: 2023-11-08
Subjects: Geography, Social and Behavioral Sciences

The separation between nature and society, of concern within social science and interdisciplinary discussions, has generated a division that often characterizes the way communities perceive their environment. The arts have played an important role in demonstrating the entanglement of Earth and society through their ability to frame and shape the dynamics of the Earth across sensations. This has [...]

Understanding the role of biodiversity in the climate, food, water, energy, transport and health nexus in Europe

HyeJin Kim, Anita Lazurko, George Linney, et al.

Published: 2023-11-04
Subjects: Life Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

Biodiversity underpins the functioning of ecosystems and the diverse benefits that nature provides to people, yet is being lost at an unprecedented rate. To halt or reverse biodiversity loss, it is critical to understand the complex interdependencies between biodiversity and key drivers and sectors to inform the development of holistic policies and action. We conducted a literature review on the [...]

Forest carbon market-based mechanisms in India: Learnings from global design principles and domestic barriers to implementation

Anirban Roy, Manan Bhan

Published: 2023-10-31
Subjects: Social and Behavioral Sciences

Forest carbon markets (FCMs) have emerged as a significant means to direct resources toward urgent climate action that can mobilize a large set of actors and catalyze funding toward reducing deforestation and promoting sustainable forest management. Here, we conduct a critical qualitative review of global academic and investigative literature to identify ten major sets of design principles that [...]


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