Ocean tide loading and relative GNSS in the British Isles

This is a Preprint and has not been peer reviewed. The published version of this Preprint is available: https://doi.org/10.1179/003962610X12572516251844.

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Authors

Peter John Clarke , Nigel Penna

Abstract

Ocean tide loading (OTL) affects all parts of the British Isles to varying degree, causing peak-to-peak vertical displacements of up to 13 cm in South-West England over semi-diurnal and diurnal timescales. Lateral displacements are typically around one-third of the magnitude of vertical displacements at a point, so are also considerable for carrier phase GNSS surveying. Using a recent numerical ocean tide model, we predict that widespread residual displacements up to ~1 cm remain in kinematic or short-occupation static relative GNSS positions computed with respect to the nearest continuously operating reference station. Even if OTL is not modelled explicitly, these errors will be mitigated by network GNSS to an extent dependent on the number and location of reference stations used, and the adjustment or error interpolation scheme adopted in the processing. For a selection of error interpolation algorithms, we predict that throughout most inland regions of Great Britain and Ireland, network processing reduces the residual OTL error to within the expected kinematic GNSS system noise. However, pockets of OTL error exceeding 1 cm may remain, especially in coastal locations and in South-West Ireland, South Wales, South-West England, and the islands off the west coast of Scotland. Residual OTL error at semi-diurnal periods dominates that at diurnal periods. We derive a simple heuristic for estimating the magnitude of this error from a sample of observations at a locality, valid within a short window of the spring/neap tidal cycle, and show how the residual error may, if necessary, be mitigated by a suitable averaging scheme.

DOI

https://doi.org/10.31223/osf.io/qdr83

Subjects

Civil and Environmental Engineering, Earth Sciences, Engineering, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Civil and Environmental Engineering, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Other Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Keywords

Global Positioning System (GPS), Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS), Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), Great Britain, Network real-time kinematics (RTK) positioning, Periodic errors

Dates

Published: 2017-11-13 16:14

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License

CC BY Attribution 4.0 International

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