Modeling and SAR Imaging of the Sea Surface: a Review of the State-of-the-Art with Simulations

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Authors

Igor Rizaev, Oktay Karakus, John Hogan, Alin Achim

Abstract

Among other remote sensing technologies, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has become firmly established in the practice of oceanographic research. Despite solid experience in this field, comprehensive knowledge and interpretation of ocean/sea and vessel wave signatures on radar images are still very challenging. This is not only due to the complex mechanisms involved in the SAR imaging of moving waves: Many technical parameters and scanning conditions vary for different SAR platforms, which also imposes some restrictions on the cross-analysis of their respective images. Numerical simulation of SAR images, on the other hand, allows the analysis of many radar imaging parameters including environmental, ship, or platform related. In this paper, we present a universal simulation framework for SAR imagery of the sea surface, which includes the superposition of sea-ship waves. This paper is the first attempt to cover exhaustively all SAR imaging effects for the sea waves and ship wakes scene. The study is based on well proven concepts: the linear theory of sea surface modeling, Michell thin-ship theory for Kelvin wake modeling, and ocean SAR imaging theory. We demonstrate the role of two main factors that affect imaging of both types of waves: (i) SAR parameters and (ii) Hydrodynamic related parameters such as wind state and Froude number. The SAR parameters include frequency (X, C, and L-band), signal polarization (VV, HH), mean incidence angle, image resolution (2.5, 5 and 10 m), variation by scanning platform (airborne or spaceborne) of the range-to-velocity (R/V) ratio, and velocity bunching with associated shifting, smearing and azimuthal cutoff effects. We perform modeling for five wave frequency spectra and four ship models. We also compare spectra in two aspects: with Cox and Munk's probability density function (PDF), and with a novel proposed evaluation of ship wake detectability. The simulation results agree well with SAR imaging theory. The study gives a fuller understanding of radar imaging mechanisms for sea waves and ship wakes.

DOI

https://doi.org/10.31223/X5SP5B

Subjects

Oceanography

Keywords

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR), SAR imagery simulation, sea wave spectrum, Kelvin ship wake, velocity bunching., SAR imagery simulation, sea wave spectrum, Kelvin ship wake, velocity bunching

Dates

Published: 2021-02-10 12:02

Last Updated: 2021-02-10 15:02

License

CC BY Attribution 4.0 International

Additional Metadata

Conflict of interest statement:
None

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