Toward the understanding of saline water intrusion and nutrient flushing in Lake Nokoué

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Metogbe Belfrid Djihouessi, Rita Houngue, Firmin Adandedji, Luc Sintondji


To understand the salinity dynamic at the outlet of Lake Nokoué and to simulate the nutrient flushing from this lake into the Atlantic Ocean, a 2D hydrodynamic model was designed with Mike 21. The choice of the Mike 21 was motivated by the long practice that decision-makers in Benin have with this software. The Hydrodynamics (HD) module simulated water level variations and flows in response, while the ECO-Lab module has been used for water quality modelling. The data used covered the hydrological period of 2013. The results from the HD simulation indicated that for a flow of 725 m3/s at Bonou on the Ouémé River, a tributary of Lake Nokoué. 70% of the land in the delta of Ouémé, between the Ouémé River and the So River (also a tributary of Lake Nokoué), are flooded against 90% for a river flow of 1100 m3/s. The water level in the delta showed a water increase of 0.6 m, in seven days, for a water flow of 725 m3/s at Bonou and a water increase of 1.3 m, in seven days, for a water flow of 1100 m3/s at Bonou. Water quality simulations indicated that the seawater intrusion from the Atlantic Ocean into Lake Nokoué occurred from the bottom to the surface towards the surface of the lake. During flooding, despite the large inflow of fresh water, more than 60% of the water at the bottom of the lake had concentrations greater than 8. Simulation of the dispersion of nutrient point source pollution indicated that there was an accumulation of pollution at the bottom of the lake during low water periods. This accumulation increases in amplitude as one moves away from the Atlantic Ocean towards the north of the lake. In this period tidal flushing evacuated about 20% of the pollution ejected. In the high water period, about 70% of the pollution ejected in the lake was automatically flushed out in the lake the Atlantic Ocean.



Life Sciences


West Africa, Hydrodynamic simulation, Coastal Lake, Lake Nokoué, Nutrients flushing, Saline water intrusion


Published: 2021-11-03 18:58

Last Updated: 2021-11-03 18:58


CC BY Attribution 4.0 International

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