Tectonic controls on geomorphology and spatial distribution of monogenetic volcanoes in the Central Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes (Argentina)

This is a Preprint and has not been peer reviewed. The published version of this Preprint is available: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2022.108130. This is version 2 of this Preprint.

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Authors

Fernanda Silva Santos, Carlos Augusto Sommer , Mauricio Barcelos Haag , Walter Ariel Báez, Alberto Tomás Caselli , Alejandro David Báez

Abstract

Monogenetic volcanoes are among the most common volcanic landforms on Earth. The morphology and distribution of small volcanoes can provide important information about eruption dynamics and tectonics. The Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes (CSVZ) comprises one of the most active magmatic regions on Earth. Characterized by the presence of polygenetic volcanoes and calderas in a complex tectonic setting, this region also hosts hundreds of small, back-arc monogenetic volcanoes. In this contribution, we apply a Geographic Information System (GIS) that combines imagery data and digital elevation models to establish the first comprehensive dataset of monogenetic volcanoes in the CSVZ (38° to 40° S), exploring their eruption dynamics and relationship to tectonic and structural processes. Combining spatial analysis and geomorphological observations, we identify the presence of 356 monogenetic volcanoes distributed into nine clusters, now grouped in the Zapala Volcanic Field (ZVF). The ZVF is marked by the predominance of cinder cones (80%) followed by phreatomagmatic volcanoes (20%), suggesting some influence of external water in the eruption dynamics. Generally, monogenetic vents present a clear association with local and regional lineaments, suggesting a strong structural control on the occurrence of the monogenetic deposits. The higher vent densities are observed in the southern Loncopué Though, an important extensional feature related to tearing of the subducted Nazca plate underneath the South American Plate. Morphometric parameters of cinder cones indicate variable stress orientations in the CSVZ that possibly result from the oblique tectonics in the region. From north to south, the maximum principal stress rotates from NE-SW to E-W and becomes progressively less constrained as it distances from the current magmatic arc. Based on the relative ages, we map the evolution of monogenetic volcanism through time. Our results suggest a waning in the monogenetic activity in ZVF over time. When compared to monogenetic fields in the Central Andes, the ZVF is marked by higher vent densities and number of phreatomagmatic landforms, with the absence of lava domes. This ultimately reflects the contrasting crustal structure and climate conditions of these two regions.

DOI

https://doi.org/10.31223/X5BS73

Subjects

Geology, Geomorphology, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Keywords

Monogenetic volcanism, Southern Volcanic Zone, Andes, spatial analysis, Geographic Information System

Dates

Published: 2021-12-16 21:17

Last Updated: 2022-02-04 00:21

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License

CC BY Attribution 4.0 International

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Conflict of interest statement:
None

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Comments

Comment #55 Szabolcs Kósik @ 2021-12-19 11:10

Let me suggest one my paper which I think quite relevant to your manuscript: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00445-020-01392-6