Experimental multiblast craters and ejecta — seismo-acoustics, jet characteristics, craters,   and ejecta deposits and implications for volcanic explosions

This is a Preprint and has not been peer reviewed. The published version of this Preprint is available: https://doi.org/10.1029/2022JB023952. This is version 2 of this Preprint.

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Authors

Ingo Sonder , Alison H. Graettinger, Tracianne B. Neilsen, Robin S. Matoza, Jacopo Taddeucci, Julie Oppenheimer, Einat Lev, Kae Tsunematsu, Greg P. Waite, Greg A. Valentine

Abstract

Blasting experiments were performed that investigate multiple explosions that occur in quick succession in unconsolidated ground and their effects on host material and
atmosphere. Such processes are known to occur during phreatomagmatic eruptions at various depths, lateral locations, and energies. The experiments follow a multi-instrument approach in order to observe phenomena in the atmosphere and in the ground, and measure the respective energy partitioning. The experiments show significant coupling of atmospheric (acoustic)- and ground (seismic) signal over a large range of (scaled) distances (30–330 m, 1–10 mJ^{-1/3}). The distribution of ejected material strongly depends on the sequence of how the explosions occur. The
overall crater sizes are in the expected range of a maximum size for many explosions and a minimum for one explosion at a given lateral location. As previous research showed before, peak atmospheric over-pressure decays exponentially with scaled depth. An exponential decay rate of d_0 = 6.47x10^{-4} mJ^{-1/3} was measured. At a scaled explosion depth of 4x10^{-3} mJ^{-1/3} ca. 1% of the blast energy is responsible for the formation of the atmospheric pressure pulse; at a
more shallow scaled depth of 2.75x10^{-3} mJ^{-1/3} this ratio lies at ca. 5.5–7.5%. A
first order consideration of seismic energy estimates the sum of radiated airborne and seismic energy to be up to 20% of blast energy. Finally, the transient cavity formation during a blast leads to an effectively reduced explosion depth that was determined. Depth reductions of up to 65% were measured.

DOI

https://doi.org/10.31223/X55W4F

Subjects

Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Keywords

Explosion, Blast, Multi-blast Crater, Blast Energy, Scaled Depth, Crater Size, Blast, Multi-Blast Crater, Blast Energy, Scaled Depth, Crater Size

Dates

Published: 2022-01-08 16:04

Last Updated: 2022-07-18 16:12

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License

CC BY Attribution 4.0 International

Additional Metadata

Conflict of interest statement:
No conflicts of interest to state.

Data Availability (Reason not available):
n.a.

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