The Lock-Down Effects of COVID-19 on the Air Pollution Indices in Iran and Its Neighbors

This is a Preprint and has not been peer reviewed. The published version of this Preprint is available: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40808-022-01528-x. This is version 1 of this Preprint.

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Authors

Mohammad Fayaz

Abstract

Introduction
The Covid-19 restrictions have a lot of various peripheral negative and positive effects like economic shocks and decreasing air pollution, respectively. Many studies showed NO2 reduction in most parts of the world.
Method
Iran and its land and maritime neighbors have about 7.4% of the world population and 6.3% and 5.8% of World COVID-19 cases and deaths, respectively. The air pollution indices of them such as CH4 (Methane), CO_1 (CO), H2O (Water), HCHO (Tropospheric Atmospheric Formaldehyde), NO2 (Nitrogen oxides), O3 (ozone), SO2 (Sulfur Dioxide), UVAI_AAI (UV Aerosol Index (UVAI) / Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI)) are studied from the First quarter of 2019 to the fourth quarter of 2021 with Copernicus Sentinel 5 Precursor (S5P) satellite dataset from Google Earth Engine. The outliers are detected based on the depth functions. We use a two-sample t-test, Wilcoxon test, and interval-wise testing for functional data to control the family-wise error rate.
Result
The adjusted p-value comparison between Q2 of 2019 and Q2 of 2020 in NO2 for almost all countries is statistically significant except Iraq, UAE, Bahrain, Qatar, and Kuwait. But the CO and HCHO are not statistically significant in any country. Although CH4, O3, and UVAI_AAI are statistically significant for some countries. In the Q2 comparison for NO2 between 2020 and 2021, only Iran, Armenia, Turkey, UAE, and Saudi Arabia are statistically significant. But Ch4 is statistically significant for all countries except Azerbaijan.
Conclusion
The comparison with and without adjusted p-values declares the decreases in some air pollution in these countries.

DOI

https://doi.org/10.31223/X5CK8Q

Subjects

Applied Statistics, Environmental Public Health, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Near and Middle Eastern Studies, Other Statistics and Probability, Statistical Methodology, Statistical Models

Keywords

COVID-19, Air Quality, NO2, Aerosol Index, Functional Data Analysis., air quality, NO2, Aerosol Index, Functional Data Analysis

Dates

Published: 2022-07-02 13:04

Last Updated: 2022-07-02 20:04

License

CC BY Attribution 4.0 International

Additional Metadata

Conflict of interest statement:
None

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