The weather does not support farmers: an exploratory qualitative study in Kavre district, Nepal.

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Ishwar Tiwari , Denise Spitzer , Stephen Hodgins, Meghnath Dhimal , Shelby Yamamoto 


Kavre district, Nepal, is highly vulnerable to climate change impacts, including increases in erratic rainfall, drought, floods, and landslides. As gender roles, culture, age, physical and physiological characteristics increase, mainly Nepalese women's and children's, health risks associated with climate change and air pollution, listening to and learning from women is critical. This study explores women's perspectives and lived experiences concerning climate change, consequent adverse impacts on agriculture and health, and ongoing adaptation and mitigation strategies. Assessing perspectives and lived experiences related to climate change can offer opportunities to explore understanding, local beliefs, experiences with adverse impacts and adaptation. We used a descriptive qualitative approach. An equal number of focus group discussions (FGDs, n=8) and key-informant interviews (KIIs, n=8) were conducted. Purposive and snowball sampling were used to recruit participants. Four research assistants with public health backgrounds and climate change training were employed to assist with this work. All interviews were conducted in the Nepali language using an interview guide. All KIIs and FGDs were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim in Nepali. Data were analyzed in NVivo 1.7 using content analysis. Forty-two of the 48 participants identified as women. The largest proportion of participants was aged greater than or equal to 50 years (18/48), had no formal education (21/48), and were either older women (>55 years) (13/48) or mothers of children younger than five (11/48). Three main topical areas emerged from the FGDs and KIIs: (i) the winds of change, (ii) the unpredictability of weather, and (iii) acting locally. The study provides insights into how women and children in rural communities in a Nepali hill district experience, adapt and mitigate climate change impacts. These findings can help inform the development of interventions to better address women's and children's needs and concerns, essential to promoting well-being and reducing impacts exacerbated by climate change.



Public Health


Lived Experience, climate change, Health, women, children, Nepal


Published: 2023-06-22 17:46


CC BY Attribution 4.0 International

Additional Metadata

Data Availability (Reason not available):
The qualitative data can be provided to the journal upon request.

Conflict of interest statement:
No authors has any competing interest.