Modeling deltaic lobe-building cycles and channel avulsions for the Yellow River delta, China

This is a Preprint and has not been peer reviewed. The published version of this Preprint is available: https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JF005220.

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Authors

Andrew J. Moodie , Jeffrey Nittrouer, Hongbo Ma, Brandee Carlson , Austin Chadwick, Michael P. Lamb, Gary Parker

Abstract

River deltas grow by repeating cycles of lobe development punctuated by channel avulsions, so that over time, lobes amalgamate to produce a composite landform. Existing models have shown that backwater hydrodynamics are important in avulsion dynamics, but the effect of lobe progradation on avulsion frequency and location has yet to be explored. Herein, a quasi-2D numerical model incorporating channel avulsion and lobe development cycles is developed. The model is validated by the well-constrained case of a prograding lobe on the Yellow River delta, China. It is determined that with lobe progradation, avulsion frequency decreases and avulsion length increases, relative to conditions where a delta lobe does not prograde. Lobe progradation lowers the channel bed gradient, which results in channel aggradation over the delta topset that is focused farther upstream, shifting the avulsion location upstream. Furthermore, the frequency and location of channel avulsions are sensitive to the threshold in channel-bed superelevation that triggers an avulsion. For example, avulsions occur less frequently with a larger superelevation threshold, resulting in greater lobe progradation and avulsions that occur farther upstream. When the delta lobe length prior to avulsion is a moderate fraction of the backwater length (0.3--0.5L_b), the interplay between variable water discharge and lobe progradation together set the avulsion location, and a model capturing both processes is necessary to predict avulsion timing and location. While this study is validated by data from the Yellow River delta, the numerical framework is rooted in physical relationships and can therefore be extended to other deltaic systems.

DOI

https://doi.org/10.31223/osf.io/y62sv

Subjects

Earth Sciences, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Keywords

Delta, avulsion

Dates

Published: 2019-09-10 15:27

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License

GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) 2.1

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