GARPOS: analysis software for the GNSS-A seafloor positioning with simultaneous estimation of sound speed structure

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Shun-ichi Watanabe, Tadashi Ishikawa, Yusuke Yokota, Yuto Nakamura


Global Navigation Satellite System – Acoustic ranging combined seafloor geodetic technique (GNSS-A) has extended the geodetic observation network into the ocean. The key issue for analyzing the GNSS-A data is how to correct the effect of sound speed variation in the seawater. We constructed a generalized observation equation and developed a method to directly extract the gradient sound speed structure by introducing appropriate statistical properties in the observation equation, especially the data correlation term. In the proposed scheme, we calculate the posterior probability based on the empirical Bayes approach using the Akaike’s Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC) for model selection. This approach enabled us to suppress the overfitting of sound speed variables and thus to extract simpler sound speed field and stable seafloor positions from the GNSS-A dataset. The proposed procedure is implemented in the Python-based software “GARPOS” (GNSS-Acoustic Ranging combined POsitioning Solver).



Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics


GNSS-A, GNSS-A methodology, GNSS-A oceanography, seafloor geodesy, sound speed structure


Published: 2020-08-21 18:34

Last Updated: 2020-11-06 07:27

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CC BY Attribution 4.0 International

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