Filtering by Subject: Soil Science

Modeling sediment compaction beneath ice lenses during frost heave

Aaron Grey Stubblefield, Colin R. Meyer, Alan Rempel, et al.

Published: 2024-07-13
Subjects: Applied Mathematics, Earth Sciences, Glaciology, Hydrology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Soil Science

Frost heave occurs when the ground swells during freezing conditions due to the growth of ice lenses in the subsurface. The mechanics of ice-infiltrated sediment, or frozen fringe, influences the formation and evolution of ice lenses. As the frozen fringe thickens during freezing, progressive unloading can result in dilation of the pore space and the formation of new ice lenses. Compaction can [...]

Uranium-series isotopes as tracers of physical and chemical weathering in glacial sediments from Taylor Valley, Antarctica

Graham Harper Edwards, Gavin Piccione, Terrence Blackburn, et al.

Published: 2024-07-04
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Glaciology, Soil Science

The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica formed by extensive glacial erosion, yet currently exhibit hyperarid polar conditions characterized by limited chemical and physical weathering. Efficient chemical weathering occurs when moisture is available, and polythermal subglacial conditions may accommodate ongoing mechanical weathering and valley incision. Taylor Valley hosts several Pleistocene [...]

Micro-Scale Mapping of Soil Organic Carbon: The Potential of Soft X-Ray Spectromicroscopy

Maoz Dor, Tom Regier, Zachary Arthur, et al.

Published: 2024-07-04
Subjects: Agriculture, Environmental Sciences, Soil Science

Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a crucial role in soil fertility, productivity, and global carbon cycling. However, the mechanisms governing SOC persistence and turnover are not fully understood, hindering effective carbon management strategies. Especially limiting are challenges to visualize and characterize spatial distribution patterns of SOC within the intact soil. This study presents a novel [...]

The potential of terrestrial and aquatic molluscs for the temporal analysis of Deckenschotter deposits and younger Quaternary sediments from the Swiss Plateau

Nigel Thew

Published: 2024-05-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Soil Science, Stratigraphy, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Scaling High-resolution Soil Organic Matter Composition to Improve Predictions of Potential Soil Respiration Across the Continental United States

Cheng Shi, Maruti Mudunuru, Maggie Bowman, et al.

Published: 2024-02-13
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Soil Science

Despite the importance of microbial respiration of soil organic matter (SOM) in regulating carbon flux between soils and atmosphere, soil carbon cycling models remain primarily based on climate and soil properties, leading to large uncertainty in predictions. With data from the 1000 Soils Pilot of the Molecular Observation Network (MONet), we analyzed high resolution water-extractable SOM [...]

Aggregates versus pores? A survey among soil scientists about their perspectives on soil structure

Svenja Roosch

Published: 2024-02-08
Subjects: Soil Science

Despite mostly uniform definitions of soil structure, two perspectives on it have been juxtaposed in the past: the “aggregate perspective” and the “pore perspective”. The debate as represented in the literature appears to be polarised. To test whether this is also the case in the wider soil science community, an online survey was conducted asking about soil [...]

Microbial indicators and detection of Cu-sulfide ore mineralization

Bianca Patrizia Iulianella Phillips, rachel simister, Shane D Rich, et al.

Published: 2024-01-02
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Soil Science

Rapid electrification of society is placing unprecedented demand on critical mineral and metal resources. New strategies and technologies are thus needed to promote mineral discovery in regions where deposits are likely buried deep under soil and glacial till. We show that microbial communities from different soil types change in composition in response to amendment with copper. We also show [...]

High Accuracy Estimation and Validation of InSAR-derived Surface Displacements at Temperate Raised Peatlands

Alexis Hrysiewicz, Jennifer Williamson, Chris D. Evans, et al.

Published: 2023-09-04
Subjects: Geophysics and Seismology, Hydrology, Soil Science

Peatland surface motion derived from satellite-based Interferometry of Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is potentially a proxy for groundwater level variations and greenhouse gas emissions from peat soils. Ground validation of these motions at equivalent temporal resolution and accuracy has proven problematic because of limitations of traditional surveying methods. Since 2019, peat surface motion [...]

Beyond microbial carbon use efficiency

Ke-Qing Xiao, Chao Liang, Zimeng Wang, et al.

Published: 2023-08-16
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Ecology Life Sciences, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Soil Science

Microbial carbon use efficiency (CUE) is defined as the proportion of microbial biomass growth C versus substrate C uptake, and thus provides a useful measure of microbially driven accumulation and loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) 1. In a recent study published in Nature 2, the authors use a data-driven machine learning approach to conclude that CUE promotes global SOC storage based on a [...]

Eocene (50-55 Ma) greenhouse climate recorded in nonmarine rocks of San Diego, CA, USA

Adrian Broz, Devin Pritchard-Peterson, Sarah Schneider, et al.

Published: 2023-08-08
Subjects: Chemistry, Climate, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Soil Science, Stratigraphy

Nonmarine rocks in sea cliffs of southern California store a detailed record of weathering under tropical conditions millions of years ago, where today the climate is much drier and cooler. This work examines early Eocene (~50-55 million-year-old) deeply weathered paleosols (ancient, buried soils) exposed in marine terraces of northern San Diego County, California, and uses their geochemistry and [...]

Estimating the silica content and loss-on-ignition in the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes datasets: a recursive inversion approach

Patrice de Caritat, Eric Grunsky, David B Smith

Published: 2023-07-28
Subjects: Geochemistry, Natural Resources and Conservation, Soil Science

A novel method of estimating the silica (SiO2) and loss-on-ignition (LOI) concentrations for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes (NASGL) project datasets is proposed. Combining the precision of the geochemical determinations with the completeness of the mineralogical NASGL data, we suggest a ‘reverse normative’ or inversion approach to calculate first the minimum SiO2, water (H2O) and [...]

Soil geochemistry of hydrogen and other gases along the San Andreas Fault

Yashee Mathur, Victor Awosiji, Tapan Mukerji, et al.

Published: 2023-07-23
Subjects: Environmental Chemistry, Geochemistry, Geology, Multivariate Analysis, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Soil Science

Natural hydrogen has generated great interest as a potential clean and renewable energy source. To understand the occurrence of natural hydrogen, 103 1-m deep soil gas samples were acquired near the San Andreas Fault at Jasper Ridge and Portola Valley, California, USA. The gas samples were analyzed for hydrogen, helium, carbon dioxide, light hydrocarbons, and fixed gas concentrations. Statistical [...]

An Artificial Neural Network to Estimate the Foliar and Ground Cover Input Variables of the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model

Mahmoud Saeedimoghaddam, Grey Nearing, David C. Goodrich, et al.

Published: 2023-07-12
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Environmental Monitoring, Hydrology, Natural Resources and Conservation, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Soil Science

Models like the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM) are useful for estimating soil erosion, however, they rely on input parameters that are sometimes difficult or expensive to measure. Specifically, RHEM requires information about foliar and ground cover fractions that generally must be measured in situ, which makes it difficult to use models like RHEM to produce erosion or soil risk [...]

Functional organic matter components in mangrove soils revealed by density fractionation

Kota Hamada, Toshiyuki Ohtsuka, Nobuhide Fujitake, et al.

Published: 2023-07-04
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Geochemistry, Soil Science

The mechanisms underlying stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM) in coastal ecosystems, including mangrove forests, are poorly understood, limiting our ability to predict the consequences of disturbances. Here, we introduce density fractionation to mangrove soils to identify the distribution and properties of the functional components of SOM with regard to degradation state, stability, and [...]

A Climate Counternarrative: Dubious Carbon Accounting is Making a Canopy Problem Look Like an Energy Problem (for Consent and Profit)

Denis de Bernardy

Published: 2023-05-12
Subjects: Agriculture, Climate, Forest Sciences, Soil Science

The modern rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide is man-made but driven by land stewardship changes rather than industrial activities like fossil fuels. Carbon cycle research fails to adequately convey surface-level interactions like plants soaking up carbon dioxide emitted near them. Clear-cutting a forest, for instance, produces a large plume of biogenic carbon dioxide that wind can carry away, [...]


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