Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Longitudinal Data Analysis and Time Series

A Mathematical Theory of Historical Greenhouse Gas Emissions with Rigorous Insights

Rizal Purnawan

Published: 2024-02-25
Subjects: Analysis, Environmental Monitoring, Longitudinal Data Analysis and Time Series, Numerical Analysis and Computation

In this paper, we analyze historical greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide, leveraging a dataset provided by (Gütschow and Pflüger, 2023). Employing mathematical modeling, a formal theory is developed, describing the growth trajectories of GHG emissions over time. The theory introduces several key concepts including continuous emission process (CEP), discrete emission process (DEP), [...]

Pygoda: a graphical interface to efficiently visualise and explore large sets of geolocated time series

Yann Ziegler, Jonathan L. Bamber

Published: 2023-10-24
Subjects: Categorical Data Analysis, Climate, Computer Sciences, Databases and Information Systems, Earth Sciences, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Fresh Water Studies, Geographic Information Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Graphics and Human Computer Interfaces, Hydrology, Longitudinal Data Analysis and Time Series, Meteorology, Other Earth Sciences, Other Statistics and Probability, Spatial Science

Modern-day data sets in geosciences may comprise hundreds or thousands of geolocated time series. Despite all the automated tools and new algorithms now available to process and prepare those data before using them in research projects, it can be useful or even necessary to visualise and investigate them manually. Whether it be for data quality assessment, for the preparation of a training data [...]

Spatiotemporal Variation in Cave Percolation Waters: A Functional Approach

Rebecca Grace Chapman, Andy Baker, Liza Kathleen McDonough, et al.

Published: 2023-06-27
Subjects: Hydrology, Longitudinal Data Analysis and Time Series

Understanding the mechanisms controlling spatial heterogeneity of drip water percolation into caves is essential for interpreting karst aquifer recharge and speleothem isotopic and geochemical records for paleoclimate analyses. Here we present the first analysis of drip rate variability using a novel time-varying Functional Principal Component Analysis (FPCA), validated against drip water stable [...]

Carbon Utilization and Storage through Rehabilitation of Groundwater Wells

Vivek Vidyadhar Patil, Gabriella Basso, Steven Catania, et al.

Published: 2023-05-20
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Climate, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Hydrology, Longitudinal Data Analysis and Time Series, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Statistical Methodology, Statistical Models, Statistics and Probability

According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the United Nations (UN), rise in atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) due to anthropogenic factors is considered as the primary driver for global climate change. With almost every major corporation around the world working towards their “net-zero goals”, it is becoming increasingly important to have more [...]

Efficient Estimation of Climate State and Its Uncertainty Using Kalman Filtering with Application to Policy Thresholds and Volcanism

John Matthew Nicklas, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Charles E Lawrence

Published: 2022-10-18
Subjects: Longitudinal Data Analysis and Time Series, Non-linear Dynamics, Planetary Sciences, Statistical Models

We present the Energy Balance Model – Kalman Filter (EBM-KF), a hybrid model projecting and assimilating the global mean surface temperature (GMST) and ocean heat content anomaly (OHCA). It combines an annual energy balance model (difference equations) with 17 parameters drawn from the literature and a statistical Extended Kalman Filter assimilating GMST and OHCA, either observed timeseries or [...]

Place-level urban-rural indices for the United States from 1930 to 2018

Johannes H. Uhl, Lori M. Hunter, Stefan Leyk, et al.

Published: 2022-02-28
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Human Geography, Longitudinal Data Analysis and Time Series, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Spatial Science

Rural-urban classifications are essential for analyzing geographic, demographic, environmental, and social processes across the rural-urban continuum. Most existing classifications are, however, only available at relatively aggregated spatial scales, such as at the county scale in the United States. The absence of rurality or urbanness measures at high spatial resolution poses significant [...]

WlCount: Geological lamination detection and counting using an image analysis approach

Fabio Oriani, Pauline C Treble, Andy Baker, et al.

Published: 2021-11-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Longitudinal Data Analysis and Time Series, Speleology, Stratigraphy

The manual identification and count of laminae in layered textures is a common practice in the study of geological records, which can be time consuming and carry large uncertainty for dense or disturbed lamina textures. We present here a novel image analysis approach to detect and count laminae in geoscientific imagery, called WlCount. Based on Dynamic Time Warping and Wavelet analysis, WlCount [...]

Nonlinear time series analysis of palaeoclimate proxy records

Norbert Marwan, Jonathan F. Donges, Reik V. Donner, et al.

Published: 2021-11-08
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Climate, Dynamic Systems, Earth Sciences, Geology, Longitudinal Data Analysis and Time Series, Multivariate Analysis, Non-linear Dynamics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics

Identifying and characterising dynamical regime shifts, critical transitions or potential tipping points in palaeoclimate time series is relevant for improving the understanding of often highly nonlinear Earth system dynamics. Beyond linear changes in time series properties such as mean, variance, or trend, these nonlinear regime shifts can manifest as changes in signal predictability, [...]

Reconstruction of satellite time series with a dynamic smoother

Jordan Graesser, Radost Stanimirova, Mark A Friedl

Published: 2021-08-20
Subjects: Environmental Monitoring, Longitudinal Data Analysis and Time Series

Time series reconstruction methods---used to generate gap-free time series of satellite observations---were historically designed for sensors with frequent image acquisitions. Since 2008, interest in leveraging time series methods has shifted from sensors such as AVHRR and MODIS to Landsat because of free, higher-resolution data availability and improved access to high-performance compute [...]

Evaluating Short-Term Spatio-Temporal Tropospheric Variability in Multi-Temporal SAR Interferograms Using LES Models

Fengming Hu, Ramon Hanssen, Pier Siebesma, et al.

Published: 2021-07-13
Subjects: Aerospace Engineering, Atmospheric Sciences, Computational Engineering, Earth Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Longitudinal Data Analysis and Time Series, Meteorology, Multivariate Analysis, Signal Processing

Atmospheric delay has a significant impact on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry, inducing spatial phase errors and decorrelation in extreme weather condition. For Low Earth Orbit (LEO) SAR missions, the atmosphere can be considered as being spatio-temporally frozen due to the short integration time. Geosynchronous (GEO) SAR missions, however, have short revisit times and extensive [...]

On the statistical learning analysis of rain gauge data over the Natuna Islands

Sandy Hardian Susanto Herho, Faiz Rohman Fajary, Dasapta Erwin Irawan

Published: 2021-06-08
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Atmospheric Sciences, Longitudinal Data Analysis and Time Series, Meteorology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Statistics and Probability

This article presents state-of-the-art statistical learning methods for analyzing rain gauge data over the Natuna Islands. By using shape preserving piecewise cubic interpolation, we managed to interpolate 671 null values from the daily precipitation data. Dominant periodicity analysis of daily precipitation signals using Lomb-Scargle Power Spectral Density shows annual, intraseasonal, and [...]

An uncertainty-focused database approach to extract spatiotemporal trends from qualitative and discontinuous lake-status histories

Gijs De Cort, Manuel Chevalier, Sallie L. Burrough, et al.

Published: 2021-03-01
Subjects: Climate, Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Longitudinal Data Analysis and Time Series, Other Earth Sciences, Sedimentology, Statistical Methodology, Stratigraphy

Changes in lake status are often interpreted as palaeoclimate indicators due to their dependence on precipitation and evaporation. The Global Lake Status Database (GLSDB) has since long provided a standardised synopsis of qualitative lake status over the last 30,000 14C years. Potential sources of uncertainty however are not recorded in the GLSDB. Here we present an updated and improved [...]

Global assessment and mapping of changes in mesoscale landscapes: 1992–2015

Jakub Nowosad, Tomasz Stepinski, Pawel Netzel

Published: 2018-02-15
Subjects: Categorical Data Analysis, Computer Sciences, Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Longitudinal Data Analysis and Time Series, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Spatial Science, Statistics and Probability

Monitoring global land cover changes is important because of concerns about their impact on environment and climate. The release by the European Space Agency (ESA) of a set of worldwide annual land cover maps covering the 1992–2015 period makes possible a quantitative assessment of land change on the global scale. While ESA land cover mapping effort was motivated by the need to better [...]

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