Filtering by Subject: Geology

geodl: An R package for geospatial deep learning semantic segmentation using torch and terra

Aaron E Maxwell, Sarah Farhadpour, Srinjoy Das

Published: 2024-07-18
Subjects: Geology, Geomorphology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Programming Languages and Compilers

Convolutional neural network (CNN)-based deep learning (DL) methods have transformed the analysis of geospatial, Earth observation, and geophysical data due to their ability to model spatial context information at multiple scales. Such methods are especially applicable to pixel-level classification, or semantic segmentation, tasks. A variety of R packages have been developed for processing and [...]

Volcanic arc structure controlled by liquid focusing from the slab — evidence from boron isotopes and trace elements

Stephen J Turner, Ivan Savov, Tamsin Mather, et al.

Published: 2024-07-16
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

The rates and pathways of material transport from subducting plates to arc volcanoes control the long-term chemical evolution of the atmosphere, continents, and mantle. Arc magma compositions are commonly used as proxies for the state of the slab directly below a volcanic vent, under the assumption of vertical transport from the slab to the surface. Here, we present new boron (B) isotope and [...]

Quantifying relationships between fault parameters and rupture characteristics associated with thrust and reverse fault earthquakes.

Kristen Chiama, William Bednarz, Robb Moss, et al.

Published: 2024-07-12
Subjects: Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Geotechnical Engineering, Risk Analysis, Tectonics and Structure

We investigate the influence of earthquake source characteristics and geological site parameters on fault scarp morphologies for thrust and reverse fault earthquakes using geomechanical models. We performed a total of 3,434 distinct element method (DEM) model experiments to evaluate the impact of the sediment depth, density, homogeneous and heterogeneous sediment strengths, fault dip, and the [...]

Pre-Cordilleran mantle metasomatism preserved in alkali basalts of Isla Isabel, México

Leonie Sieger, Bradley Peters, Andrea Giuliani, et al.

Published: 2024-07-09
Subjects: Geochemistry, Geology

The presence of HIMU (high-238U/204Pb) signatures in ocean island basalts has long been used to argue that ancient oceanic crust has been tectonically recycled into the mantle sources of plume-derived volcanic hotspots such as St. Helena or Mangaia. However, alternative hypotheses regarding the origins of HIMU signatures have also been put forward. This paper addresses the origins of HIMU-like Pb [...]

Shallow storage conditions at Krafla IDDP-1 revealed by rhyolite-MELTS geobarometry, and implications for global shallow magmatism

Lydia Harmon, Guilherme Augusto Rosa Gualda, Blake Wallrich, et al.

Published: 2024-06-24
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Other Earth Sciences, Volcanology

Identifying the storage depths of melt-dominated magma bodies prior to eruption is critical for understanding magma transport, eruption hazards, and magma body longevity. Rhyolite-MELTS has been used effectively to calculate pre-eruptive storage pressures for silicic magma bodies in the upper crust (~100-350 MPa), but its precision and accuracy in very low-pressure systems (<100 MPa) has not [...]

Paleohydrology of North American Catchments and Rivers at the Onset of the Eocene-Oligocene Climate Transition: Reconstructions from Fluvial Strata of the White River Group, Toadstool Geologic Park, Nebraska

Anjali M Fernandes, Michael T Hren, Queenie Chang, et al.

Published: 2024-06-14
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Member of the Brule Formation of the White River Group at Toadstool Geologic Park in Nebraska. Our approach combined descriptive and quantitative methods to reconstruct river flow, sediment transport, channel dynamics, floodplain behavior, and catchment-scale moisture variability and ecosystem function. We found that rivers were ephemeral, with peak flow depths and widths of approximately 2.5 m [...]

A myriad of melt inclusions: a 3D view into the volcanic time capsules of Colli Albani Volcano (Italy)

Corin Jorgenson, Michael Stueckelberger, Giovanni Fevola, et al.

Published: 2024-06-06
Subjects: Geology, Volcanology

Melt inclusions are small parcels of magma trapped in crystals, which hold key information about pre-eruptive magmatic conditions including volatile content and melt chemistry. We focus here on melt inclusions for a nuanced view of the magmatic pre-eruptive state of Colli Albani, a mafic-alkaline ignimbrite forming system in central Italy. Recent years have seen an increased amount of research [...]

Evolution and architecture of an overbank in an ocean-facing canyon-fill.

William James Taylor, David Hodgson, Jeff Peakall, et al.

Published: 2024-05-21
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Sedimentology

Submarine canyon-fills comprise substantial volumes of thin-bedded successions deposited by sediment gravity flows that are either stripped or overspill from adjacent channels into highly confined, topographically complex overbank settings. Here, we document the Punta Baja Formation, a rare example of an exhumed canyon-confined overbank succession with good 3D constraints from the Mesozoic [...]

Unconfined turbidity current interactions with oblique slopes: deflection, reflection and combined-flow behaviours

Ru Wang, Jeff Peakall, David Hodgson, et al.

Published: 2024-05-17
Subjects: Geology

What is the nature of flow reflection, deflection and combined-flow behaviour when gravity flows interact with slopes? In turn, how do these flow dynamics control sedimentation on slopes? Here, these questions are addressed using physical experiments, with low-density unconfined gravity flows interacting with slopes of varying gradients, at a range of flow incidence angles. The present paradigm [...]

Bayesian Inversion with TimeOptMCMC

Stephen Richard Meyers

Published: 2024-05-16
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Statistical Methodology, Stratigraphy

TimeOptMCMC (Meyers and Malinverno, 2018) is a Bayesian approach for evaluating cyclostratigraphic records that quantitatively links geologic data with astronomical theory. This manuscript provides an introductory guide for conducting a TimeOptMCMC Bayesian inversion, following the approach of Meyers and Malinverno (2018). The purpose of this guide is to help users identify an appropriate data [...]

Synchrotron radiation reveals transient weakening during mineral phase transformations

Andrew J. Cross, Rellie Goddard, Kathryn M Kumamoto, et al.

Published: 2024-05-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Mineral Physics, Tectonics and Structure

Phase transformations are widely invoked as a source of rheological weakening during subduction, continental collision, mantle convection, and various other geodynamic phenomena. However, the likelihood and magnitude of such weakening in nature remains undetermined. Here, experiments performed on a synchrotron beamline reveal dramatic weakening across the polymorphic quartz↔coesite phase [...]

The fate of bars in braided rivers

Safiya Alpheus, Elizabeth A Hajek

Published: 2024-05-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

Ancient river deposits are important archives of past landscape conditions on planetary surfaces. On Earth, they host valuable groundwater, energy resources, and carbon-storage potential. Reconstructing details of paleochannel forms and movements refines our understanding of the controls on river behavior under different climate, landcover, and tectonic conditions, and improves predictions and [...]

How do ancient mass-transport complexes influence subsequent failure events? A case study from the Kangaroo Syncline, offshore NW Australia

Nan Wu, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, David Hodgson, et al.

Published: 2024-05-03
Subjects: Geology, Geomorphology, Sedimentology

Mass-transport complexes (MTCs) are common features in all continental margins. In some passive margins, accumulations of stacked MTCs indicate repeated slope failure, which raises the question of whether MTC emplacement may influence or even pre-condition, subsequent slope failures. Here, we use 3D seismic reflection data from the Kangaroo Syncline, NW Australia, to investigate how pre-existing [...]

The potential of terrestrial and aquatic molluscs for the temporal analysis of Deckenschotter deposits and younger Quaternary sediments from the Swiss Plateau

Nigel Thew

Published: 2024-05-02
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Soil Science, Stratigraphy, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

Post-collisional reorganisation of the Eastern Alps in 4D: Crust and mantle structure

Peter McPhee, Mark R. Handy

Published: 2024-04-22
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology

The Eastern Alps were affected by a profound post-collisional tectonic reorganisation in Neogene time, featuring indentation by the Adriatic upper plate, rapid uplift and filling of the eastern Molasse Basin, rapid exhumation and eastward orogen-parallel transport of Tertiary metamorphic units in the orogenic core, and a shift from northward thrust propagation in the European plate to southward [...]


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