Filtering by Subject: Geology

Modeling Earthquake-induced Landslide initiation using the Fibre Bundle Model

Yuanjing Chen, Bastian Van den Bout, Luigi Lombardo, et al.

Published: 2022-12-05
Subjects: Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Hydrology

Co-seismic landslides are triggered by strong ground shaking in mountainous areas, resulting in threats to human activity and infrastructure. Methods for physically-based modelling of co-seismic landslide triggering play an important role in disaster prevention and mitigation. Current approaches, however, focus on direct and full failure of sloping rocks and soils, and do not cover the dynamics [...]

An interconnected palaeo-subglacial lake system in the central Barents Sea

Mariana Esteves, Denise Christina Rüther, Monica C.W. Winsborrow, et al.

Published: 2022-12-03
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Glaciology, Sedimentology

Drainage of meltwater beneath an ice sheet influences ice-flow dynamics. To better predict ice sheet behaviour, it is crucial to understand subglacial hydrological processes. Subglacial lakes are important components of the subglacial hydrological system, with many observed and predicted at the beds of contemporary and palaeo-ice sheets. The technical and logistical challenges of studying [...]

Barometers behaving badly: Assessing the influence of analytical and experimental uncertainty on clinopyroxene thermobarometry calculations at crustal conditions

Penny E Wieser, Adam JR Kent, Christy Till, et al.

Published: 2022-12-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Mineral Physics, Volcanology

The composition of clinopyroxene and Clinopyroxene-Liquid (Cpx-Liq) pairs are frequently used to calculate crystallization/equilibration pressures in igneous systems. While canonical uncertainties are often assigned to calculated pressures based on fits to calibration or test datasets, the sources of these uncertainties (and thus ways to reduce them) have not been rigorously assessed. We show [...]

Evolution of intraplate magmatism atop a mantle plume: geochemical and chronological analysis of Shawahit Basalt, Harrat Rahat, Saudi Arabia

Gareth G Roberts, Patrick Ball

Published: 2022-11-15
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology

Harrat Rahat is the largest volcanic  eld in Saudi Arabia and has been active from ~10 Ma to the present day. Due to its close proximity to important population centres, Harrat Rahat's recent eruptions, the Medinah lava flows (< 1.7 Ma), have been extensively studied to identify volcanic risk. However, the evolution of Harrat Rahat's most extensive and oldest lava flows, known collectively as the [...]

The unknown fate of macroplastic in mountain rivers

Maciej Liro, Tim van Emmerik, Anna Zielonka, et al.

Published: 2022-11-09
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology, Life Sciences, Natural Resources and Conservation, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Sustainability, Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology, Water Resource Management

Mountain rivers are typically seen as relatively pristine ecosystems, supporting numerous goods (e.g., water resources) for human populations living not only in the mountain regions but also downstream from them. Recent evidence suggests, however, that mountain river valleys in populated areas can be substantially polluted by macroplastic (plastic item > 5 mm). It is, however, unknown how [...]

The missing carbon budget puzzle piece: shallow-water hydrothermal vents contribution to global CO2 fluxes

Alessia Bastianoni, Martina Cascone, Joost M de Moor, et al.

Published: 2022-11-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Planetary Biogeochemistry, Volcanology

The release of CO2 gases from volcanoes and their secondary geothermal manifestations are an important contributor to the global carbon budget. While degassing from mid ocean ridges is relatively well-constrained, the contribution of shallow submarine volcanic degassing to the atmosphere is less clear. Shallow-water hydrothermal vents are common seafloor features present at depths shallower than [...]

Kinematic and rheological controls on rift-related fault evolution

Sophie Pan, John Naliboff, Rebecca E. Bell, et al.

Published: 2022-11-07
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Tectonics and Structure

Continental extension is primarily accommodated by the evolution of normal fault networks. Rifts are shaped by complex tectonic processes and it has historically been difficult to determine the key rift controls using only observations from natural rifts. Here, we use 3D thermo-mechanical, high-resolution (<650 m) forward models of continental extension to investigate how fault network patterns [...]

Tectonics is a hologram

Nicolas Coltice

Published: 2022-11-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

A hologram is an image in which each area contains almost all the information about the entire system. It is a metaphor commonly used for complex systems in which the whole is bigger than the sum of the parts because of self-organization. And also the whole is smaller than the sum of the parts, since the collective organization limits the behavior of dynamic features. The tectonic evolution of [...]

A review of structural inheritance in rift basin formation

Anindita Samsu, Steven Micklethwaite, Jack Williams, et al.

Published: 2022-11-05
Subjects: Geology, Tectonics and Structure

In the context of rift basin formation, structural inheritance describes the influence of pre-existing basement structures on new, rift-related structures, including faults. Examples of basin features influenced by inheritance include rift localisation and segmentation at the plate scale, as well as variations in the geometries, orientations, and kinematics of individual rift-related faults. [...]

Impact of Deccan Volcanism on Reorganization of the Indian plate kinematics

Amarjeet Ramesh Bhagat, S J Sangode, Ashish Dongre

Published: 2022-10-29
Subjects: Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

Western Indian Ocean basin shows one of the most complex signatures of the ocean floor anomalies by juxtaposition of the rapidly evolving, multiple spreading ridges, subduction systems and microcontinental slivers. This study based on ocean floor magnetic anomalies, gravity gradient map, tomographic profiles and geometrical kinematic models reports a significant westward drift of the Central [...]

Phanerozoic cooling events in the continental rims of the Central Atlantic Ocean.

Rémi Charton, Rémi Leprêtre

Published: 2022-10-28
Subjects: Geology, Geomorphology, Sedimentology, Tectonics and Structure

In this review, we have digitized and georeferenced over 7000 Low-Temperature Thermochronology (LTT) data points and 750 Time-Temperature Modelling (TTM) results from 252 published works. The study area includes the continental crusts adjacent to the rifted margins (~Late Triassic to Early Jurassic) of the Central Atlantic Ocean and its direct neighbours. Our main intention is to map out the [...]

Comparing detrital age spectra, and other geological distributions, using the Wasserstein distance

Alex George Lipp, Pieter Vermeesch

Published: 2022-10-26
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Geomorphology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

Distributional data such as detrital age populations or grain size distributions are common in the geological sciences. As analytical techniques become more sophisticated, increasingly large amounts of distributional data are being gathered. These advances require quantitative and objective methods, such as multidimensional scaling (MDS), to analyse large numbers of samples. Crucial to such [...]

palaeoverse: a community-driven R package to support palaeobiological analysis

Lewis Alan Jones, William Gearty, Bethany J. Allen, et al.

Published: 2022-10-26
Subjects: Geology, Paleobiology, Paleontology

1. The open-source programming language ‘R’ has become a standard tool in the palaeobiologist’s toolkit. Its popularity within the palaeobiology community continues to grow, with published articles increasingly citing the usage of R and R packages. However, there are currently a lack of agreed standards for data preparation and available frameworks to support implementation of such standards. [...]

Experimental comparisons of carbonate-associated sulfate extraction methods

Zheyu Tian, Graham Anthony Shields, Ying Zhou

Published: 2022-10-26
Subjects: Biogeochemistry, Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Carbonate-associated sulfate (CAS) refers to trace amounts of sulfate incorporated into carbonate minerals during precipitation. CAS has been the most commonly used approach to recover the paleo-seawater sulfate sulfur isotope composition (δ34Ssw) as carbonate rocks are more common and occur in less restricted marine environments than alternative sulfate-bearing minerals (such as gypsum and [...]

GANSim-surrogate: An integrated framework for conditional geomodelling and uncertainty analysis

Suihong Song, Dongxiao Zhang, Tapan Mukerji, et al.

Published: 2022-10-24
Subjects: Computational Engineering, Earth Sciences, Environmental Engineering, Fluid Dynamics, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Hydrology, Sedimentology

We propose a deep-learning framework (GANSim-surrogate) for conditioning subsurface geomodel realizations to static data and dynamic flow data. The static data includes well facies data, interpreted facies probability maps, and non-spatial global features, while dynamic data can include well data such as pressures and flow rates. The framework consists of a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) [...]


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