Filtering by Subject: Geology

Discovery of a 15-kilometer-wide impact crater candidate in western Saudi Arabia

Abdulrahman Toonsi

Published: 2023-05-31
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Geology

There are few reports on impact craters in Saudi Arabia. This paper aims to fill a gap in the literature in this area. Using satellite imaging, a circular structure with a diameter of approximately 15 kilometers was detected on the edge of Harrat Rahat volcanic field in western Saudi Arabia. Fieldwork showed that the circular structure is a newly-discovered impact crater candidate, this theory is [...]

Comment on ‘The magmatic architecture and evolution of the Chang’e-5 lunar basalts’ Penny E. Wieser1, Christy Till2, Adam Kent3, Matthew Gleeson1

Penny E Wieser, Christy Till, Adam Kent, et al.

Published: 2023-05-31
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

Luo et al.1 present exciting new data on lunar basalt samples erupted at ~2 Ga, and brought to Earth by the Chang’e-5 (CE-5) mission. These samples offer important new opportunities to understand lunar magmatic systems. Luo et al.1 use Clinopyroxene-Liquid (Cpx-Liq) thermobarometry and pMELTS modelling of mineral compositions to determine the pressures (P) and temperatures (T) of magma storage on [...]

Formulating and Solving the Data-Consistent Geophysical Inverse Problem for Subsurface Modeling Applications

Alex Miltenberger, Lijing Wang, Tapan Mukerji, et al.

Published: 2023-05-27
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Probability

Today, most probabilistic geophysical inverse problems are formulated using one of two methods: (1) conditional probability and Bayes’ Theorem, or (2) Tarantola’s theory of intersecting probability densities. More recently, a third inverse problem formulation based on pushforward probability measures was proposed, termed “data-consistent inversion”. Many practical problems can be cast into any of [...]

Geophysical and Geochemical Constraints on Magma Storage Depths along the Cascade Arc: Knowns and Unknowns

Penny E Wieser, Adam Kent, Christy Till, et al.

Published: 2023-05-03
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

The iconic volcanoes of the Cascade arc stretch from Lassen Volcanic Center in northern California, through Oregon and Washington, to the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt in British Columbia. Recent studies have reviewed differences in the distribution and eruptive volumes of vents, as well as variations in geochemical compositions and heat flux along strike (amongst other characteristics). We investigate [...]

In-situ frictional behavior of subducting sediment in the shallow Nankai Trough

Hanaya Okuda, Manami Kitamura, Miki Takahashi, et al.

Published: 2023-04-22
Subjects: Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Sedimentology, Tectonics and Structure

The transition from smectite to illite at around the depth with temperature of ~150 °C has long been hypothesized as one of controlling factors of the updip limit depth of the seismogenic zone of subduction zones. Although illite has a higher friction coefficient than smectite, previous friction experiments have little reported that the smectite-illite transition accompanies the transition from [...]

Assessing the potential of low transmissivity aquifers for ATES systems: a case study in Flanders (Belgium)

Luka Tas, David Simpson, Thomas Hermans

Published: 2023-04-21
Subjects: Geology, Sustainability, Water Resource Management

The Member States of the European Union pledged to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80-95% by 2050. Shallow geothermal systems might substantially contribute by providing heating and cooling in a sustainable way through seasonally storing heat and cold in the shallow ground (<200m). When the minimum yield to install a cost-effective aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system cannot be met, [...]

A key role for diffusion creep in eclogites: Omphacite deformation in the Zermatt-Saas Unit, Italian Alps

David Daniel McNamara, John Wheeler, Mark Pearce, et al.

Published: 2023-04-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Mineral Physics, Tectonics and Structure

Eclogites are important components of subduction-collision zones, with the mineral omphacite acting as the supporting framework mineral that accommodates the majority of any accumulated strain. As such it is important to determine which deformation mechanisms operate in omphacite during and after its formation to understand the rheology of deforming subducted crust. Such information is key to [...]

Rifting a crustal mosaic – The influence of basement rheology and lithology on rift physiography in the Great South Basin, New Zealand

Thomas Brian Phillips, Ken McCaffrey

Published: 2023-04-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Tectonics and Structure

The make-up of continental crust reflects its past tectonic history, containing a multitude of different lithological units and pre-existing structures that vary in strength with crustal properties typically varying across short distances. These variations exist across a range of scales and exert a great control over multiple aspects of rift physiography, including rift structural style, fault [...]

SilicH2O: a graphical user interface for processing silicate glass Raman spectra and quantifying H2O

Thomas Daniel van Gerve, Olivier Namur

Published: 2023-04-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Volcanology

H2O contents of magmas strongly impact the explosivity of volcanic eruptions, as well as their rheological properties and crystallisation behaviour. Accurate analyses of H2O in magmatic liquids are therefore vital for our understanding of the dynamics of magmatic processes and eruptions. Raman spectroscopy provides an accessible, affordable and high spatial resolution technique for [...]

Consolidated Geothermal Database UK (CGD-UK): A digital open license database for temperature and thermal conductivity in the UK.

Alex Dickinson, Mark Ireland

Published: 2023-04-09
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Natural Resource Economics, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Tectonics and Structure

Variations in subsurface heat flow within the upper crust control the distribution of geothermal resources. Development of a robust understanding of these variations requires reliable measurements of temperature and thermal conductivity. To date, measurements of temperature and conductivity onshore the UK have been unavailable in an accessible, clearly structured digital format. Here, we rectify [...]

DiadFit: An Open-SourcePython3 Tool for Peak fitting of Raman Data from silicate melts and CO2 fluids

Penny E Wieser, Charlotte L DeVitre

Published: 2023-04-04
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Mineral Physics, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Volcanology

We present a new Open-Source Python3 tool, DiadFit, for efficient processing of Raman spectroscopy data associated with silicate melts and CO2 fluids. DiadFit can fit Fermi diads, hot bands, 13C peaks, and Ne lines using various background and peak shapes. Thus, it is highly suited for workflows involving melt inclusion vapour bubbles and fluid inclusions (FI). We include generic peak fitting [...]

Complex seabed geomorphology shaped by various oceanographic processes: a case study from the Gippsland Basin, offshore south-eastern Australia

Nan Wu, Yakup Niyazi, Michael Steventon, et al.

Published: 2023-04-04
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Sedimentology

The Gippsland Basin is located in the south-eastern continental margin of Australia and hosts a variety of important marine resources (i.e. hydrocarbons, offshore wind, biological diversity, and fishing resources). Recent high-resolution seabed mapping reveals a complex seabed morphology in the Gippsland Basin, containing scarps, cyclic steps, channels, canyons, gullies, and giant submarine [...]

Structure and Morphology of an Active Conjugate Relay Zone, Messina Strait, Southern Italy

Rebecca Dorsey, Sergio Longhitano, Domenico Chiarella

Published: 2023-03-11
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

The Messina Strait is a narrow fault-bounded marine basin that separates the Calabrian peninsula from Sicily in southern Italy. It sits in a seismically active region where normal fault scarps and raised Quaternary marine terraces record ongoing extension driven by southeastward rollback of the Calabrian subduction zone. A review of published studies and new data shows that normal faults in the [...]

An interview with ChatGPT: discussing artificial intelligence in teaching, research, and practice

Gianvito Scaringi, Marco Loche

Published: 2023-02-15
Subjects: Engineering Education, Geology, Geotechnical Engineering, Higher Education

This paper examines the potential of using the AI language model ChatGPT in the field of engineering geology. The authors, an engineering geologist and a university teacher, conduct a series of conversations with ChatGPT to explore its capabilities in assisting with research and learning, and its potential implications for scientific publications. The paper also considers the future of human-AI [...]

Global accessibility of groundwater remains highly uncertain

Robert Reinecke, Sebastian Gnann, Lina Stein, et al.

Published: 2023-02-11
Subjects: Geology, Hydrology, Sustainability, Water Resource Management

Groundwater is essential for maintaining healthy ecosystems and securing human access to freshwater. Here we show that current estimates of global groundwater accessibility by ecosystems and humans are highly uncertain. To quantify this uncertainty, we define three categories of accessibility and investigate four global groundwater models. Averaged across these models, we estimate that 23% [most [...]


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