Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Tectonics and Structure

Brittle origin of off-fault fractures during the 2019 Ridgecrest earthquake sequence

Enrico Milanese, Camilla Cattania

Published: 2024-03-14
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

According to the classical Mohr-Coulomb-Anderson theory, faults form at an angle from the largest regional compressive stress that is approximately 30° for most rocks. However, real settings are more complex and faults often present orientations inconsistent with the angles predicted by the classical theory applied to the present-day regional stress field. The Ridgecrest region hosts a young [...]

The role of salt diapirism in controlling the sedimentology and distribution of deep-water deposits, Pierce Field, East Central Graben, North Sea

Clara Abu, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson

Published: 2024-03-04
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Other Earth Sciences, Sedimentology, Tectonics and Structure

Passively rising diapirs control flank deformation (i.e., within 1 km of the salt-sediment interface) and resultant stratigraphic architecture of syn-kinematic units. Growth strata associated with deformation at the flanks of passive diapirs are known as halokinetic sequences. Very few studies have conducted an integrated analysis of composite halokinetic sequences, CHS (stacked halokinetic [...]

Reconstructing Quaternary sea-level through bayesian inversion of staircase coastal landscapes

Gino de Gelder, Navid Hedjazian, Laurent Husson, et al.

Published: 2024-02-10
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Tectonics and Structure

Quantifying Quaternary sea-level changes and hydroclimatic conditions is an important challenge given their intricate relation with paleo-climate, ice-sheets and geodynamics. The world’s coastlines provide an enormous geomorphologic archive, from which forward landscape evolution modelling studies have shown their potential to unravel paleo sea-levels, albeit at the cost of assumptions to the [...]

Quaternary and Pliocene sea-level changes at Camarones, central Patagonia, Argentina

Karla Rubio-Sandoval, Deirdre D. Ryan, Sebastian Richiano, et al.

Published: 2024-01-20
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

Geological indicators of past relative sea level changes are fundamental to reconstruct the extent of former ice sheet during past interglacials, which are considered analogs for future climate conditions. Four interglacials, dating from Holocene to Pliocene, have left sea-level imprints in the proximity of the coastal town of Camarones in Central Patagonia, Argentina. Sea-level index points were [...]

Transient aseismic vertical deformation across the Pisia-Skinos normal fault (Gulf of Corinth, Greece)

Zoe K Mildon, Manuel-lukas Diercks, Gerald P Roberts, et al.

Published: 2024-01-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

Geodetically-derived deformation rates are sometimes used to infer seismic hazard, implicitly assuming that short-term (annual-decadal) deformation is representative of longer-term deformation. This is despite geological observations indicating that deformation/slip rates are variable over a range of timescales. Using geodetic data from 2016-2021, we observe an up to 7-fold increase in vertical [...]

Dynamic evolution of competing same-dip double subduction: New perspectives of the Neo-Tethyan plate tectonics

Arnab Roy, Nibir Mandal, Jeroen van Hunen

Published: 2024-01-15
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

Same-dip double-subduction (SDDS) systems are widely reported from present as well as past complex convergent plate tectonic configurations. However, the dynamics of their evolution is poorly understood, which is crucial to conceptualize anomalous subducting slab kinematics and associated observed geological phenomena, such as irregular trench migration rates, high convergence velocities, and [...]

Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous orogenesis in the Klamath Mountains Province (northern California-southern Oregon) occurred by tectonic switching: Insights from Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology of the Condrey Mountain schist

Alan D. Chapman, Jennifer Grischuk, Meghan Klapper, et al.

Published: 2024-01-11
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

The Klamath Mountains province (KMP) of northern California and southern Oregon consists of generally east-dipping terranes assembled via Paleozoic to Mesozoic subduction along the western margin of North America. The KMP more than doubled in mass from Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous time, due to alternating episodes of extension (e.g, rifting and formation of the Josephine ophiolite) and [...]

Sensitivity Analysis of Global Kinematics on Mantle Structure Using Automatically Generated Adjoint Thermochemical Convection Codes

Nicolas Coltice, Simon Blessing, Ralph Giering, et al.

Published: 2023-12-11
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Tectonics and Structure

Within the past 30 years, numerical models of mantle convection have been able to predict observations on Earth and planets, and among them tectonics. The possibility of building inverse problems in global geodynamics became concrete, and often involve the development of adjoint codes. Such tools provide efficient ways to estimate sensitivities of misfit functions relative to control parameters, [...]

Petrological Evolution and Mass Redistribution in Basaltic Fault Zones: An Example from the Faroe Islands, North Atlantic Igneous Province

Bob Bamberg, Marc Reichow, Richard Walker, et al.

Published: 2023-11-06
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Tectonics and Structure

Fault rock petrology exerts an important control on the permeability structure and mechanical properties of fault zones. Slip-related deformation on upper-crustal faults in basaltic rocks is closely associated with fluid-rock interaction, altering the distribution of physical properties within the fault. Here we present quantitative descriptions of the geochemical and petrological evolution of [...]

Quantifying fault interpretation uncertainties and their impact on fault seal and seismic hazard analysis

Billy Andrews, Zoe K Mildon, Christopher Aiden-Lee Jackson, et al.

Published: 2023-10-31
Subjects: Geology, Tectonics and Structure

Fault-horizon cut-off data extracted from seismic reflection datasets are used to study the geometry, displacement distribution, and growth history of normal faults. Our study assesses the influence of three fault interpretation factors (repeatability, measurement obliquity, and cut-off type) on derived fault properties. We investigate uncertainties in throw, heave, displacement, and dip, [...]

Coral geochemical response to uplift in the aftermath of the 2005 Nias-Simeulue earthquake

Sindia M. Sosdian, Michael Gagan, Danny H. Natawidjaja, et al.

Published: 2023-10-07
Subjects: Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Geochemistry, Geomorphology, Natural Resources and Conservation, Tectonics and Structure

On 28 March 2005, the Indonesian islands of Nias and Simeulue experienced a powerful Mw 8.6 earthquake and widespread co-seismic uplift and subsidence. In areas of coastal uplift (up to ~2.8 m), fringing reef coral communities were killed by exposure, while deeper corals that survived were subjected to habitats with altered runoff, sediment and nutrient regimes. Here we present time-series [...]

The Role of Continental Heterogeneity on the Evolution of Continental Margin Topography at Subduction Zones

Antoniette Greta Grima, Thorsten W. Becker

Published: 2023-09-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

The nature of the overriding plate plays a major role in shaping subduction zone processes. In particular, the highly heterogeneous continental lithosphere modulates intra-plate tectonics and the surface evolution of our planet. However, the role of continental heterogeneity is relatively under-explored for the dynamics of subduction models. We investigate the influence of rheological and density [...]

Impact of rift history on the structural style of intracontinental rift-inversion orogens

Dylan Alexander Vasey, John Naliboff, Eric S. Cowgill, et al.

Published: 2023-08-23
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Tectonics and Structure

Although many collisional orogens form after subduction of oceanic lithosphere between two continents, some orogens result from strain localization within a continent via inversion of structures inherited from continental rifting. Intracontinental rift-inversion orogens exhibit a range of structural styles, but the underlying causes of such variability have not been extensively explored. Here, we [...]

Generation of evolving plate boundaries and toroidal flow from visco-plastic damage-rheology mantle convection and continents

Thorsten W. Becker, Lukas Fuchs

Published: 2023-08-17
Subjects: Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

Earth's style of planetary heat transport is characterized by plate tectonics which requires rock strength to be reduced plastically in order to break an otherwise stagnant lithospheric lid, and for rocks to have a memory of past deformation to account for strain localization and the hysteresis implied by geological sutures. Here, we explore $\sim$10$^7$ Rayleigh number, visco-plastic, [...]

Timing and Evolution of Structures within the Southeastern Greater Caucasus and Kura Fold-Thrust Belt from Multiproxy Sediment Provenance Records

Adam Matthew Forte, Eric S. Cowgill, Dawn Y. Sumner, et al.

Published: 2023-08-03
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

The west-northwest trending Greater Caucasus (GC) mountains locally represent the main locus of post-Pliocene shortening within the north central Arabia-Eurasia collision. Although recent low-temperature thermochronology constrains the timing of orogen formation, the evolution of major structures remains enigmatic - particularly regarding the internal kinematics within this young orogen and the [...]

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