Filtering by Subject: Tectonics and Structure

The Role of Continental Heterogeneity on the Evolution of Continental Margin Topography at Subduction Zones

Antoniette Greta Grima, Thorsten W. Becker

Published: 2023-09-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Other Earth Sciences, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

The nature of the overriding plate plays a major role in shaping subduction zone processes. In particular, the highly heterogeneous continental lithosphere modulates intra-plate tectonics and the surface evolution of our planet. However, the role of continental heterogeneity is relatively under-explored for the dynamics of subduction models. We investigate the influence of rheological and density [...]

The structural style of intracontinental rift-inversion orogens

Dylan Alexander Vasey, John Naliboff, Eric S. Cowgill, et al.

Published: 2023-08-23
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Tectonics and Structure

Although many collisional orogens result from subduction of oceanic lithosphere between two continents, some orogens form by strain localization within a continent via inversion of extensional structures inherited during continental rifting. Intracontinental rift-inversion orogens exhibit a wide range of first-order structural styles, but the underlying causes of such variability have not been [...]

Generation of evolving plate boundaries and toroidal flow from visco-plastic damage-rheology mantle convection and continents

Thorsten W. Becker, Lukas Fuchs

Published: 2023-08-17
Subjects: Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Tectonics and Structure

Earth's style of planetary heat transport is characterized by plate tectonics which requires rock strength to be reduced plastically in order to break an otherwise stagnant lithospheric lid, and for rocks to have a memory of past deformation to account for strain localization and the hysteresis implied by geological sutures. Here, we explore $\sim$10$^7$ Rayleigh number, [...]

Timing and Evolution of Structures within the Southeastern Greater Caucasus and Kura Fold-Thrust Belt from Multiproxy Sediment Provenance Records

Adam Matthew Forte, Eric S. Cowgill, Dawn Y. Sumner, et al.

Published: 2023-08-03
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

The west-northwest trending Greater Caucasus (GC) mountains locally represent the main locus of post-Pliocene shortening within the north central Arabia-Eurasia collision. Although recent low-temperature thermochronology constrains the timing of orogen formation, the evolution of major structures remains enigmatic - particularly regarding the internal kinematics within this young orogen and the [...]

Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of shallow-marine, coarse-grained siliciclastic deposits in the southern Utsira High: the Late Jurassic intra-Draupne Formation sandstones in the Johan Sverdrup Field (Norwegian North Sea).

Josep Maria Puig Lopez, Miquel Poyatos-Moré, John Howell

Published: 2023-06-30
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

Thin, condensed coarse-grained shallow-marine successions can be difficult to describe and interpret, especially in the subsurface because they commonly lack finer grained intervals which are typically associated with sequence stratigraphic surfaces. This lack of mudstones and siltstones means that they also typically make excellent reservoir intervals. The Oxfordian to Volgian intra-Draupne [...]

The longest-lived Pacific hotspots reveal a plume tail for the largest oceanic plateau

Jasper G. Konter, Valerie Finlayson, Kevin Konrad, et al.

Published: 2023-06-23
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Volcanic hotspots are thought to initially form by melting in an upwelling mantle plume head followed by melting of the plume tail. Plate motion then generates an age progressive volcanic track originating from a large igneous province that connects to an active hotspot. However, the most voluminous large igneous province, the ~120 Ma Ontong-Java Nui Plateau (OJP-Nui) in the mid-Pacific, appears [...]


Lucas Buffan, Lewis Alan Jones, Mathew Domeier, et al.

Published: 2023-06-23
Subjects: Biodiversity, Climate, Earth Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Geology, Life Sciences, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

1. Global Plate Models (GPMs) aim to reconstruct the tectonic evolution of the Earth by modelling the motion of the plates and continents through time. These models enable palaeobiologists to study the past distribution of extinct organisms. However, different GPMs exist that vary in their partitioning of the Earth’s surface and the modelling of continental motions. Consequently, the preferred [...]

Mesozoic paleogeography, structural configuration and evolution of the central Northern Calcareous Alps (Eastern Alps, Austria): Alternative scenarios and discussion

Oscar Fernandez, Hugo Ortner, Diethard Sanders, et al.

Published: 2023-05-25
Subjects: Other Earth Sciences, Sedimentology, Tectonics and Structure

One of the most remarkable features of the central Northern Calcareous Alps (Eastern Alps, Austria) is the widespread presence of Upper Triassic deep-water carbonates and Permo-Triassic evaporites resting on deep-water Middle Jurassic sediments and their underlying Upper Triassic shallow-water carbonate platform successions. The Triassic deep-water carbonates and accompanying evaporites have been [...]

Emplacement and associated sedimentary record of the Jurassic submarine salt allochthon of the Wurzeralm (Eastern Alps, Austria)

Maditha Kurz, Oscar Fernandez, Lino Eggerth, et al.

Published: 2023-05-16
Subjects: Tectonics and Structure

A fossil salt sheet emplaced in the Jurassic in submarine conditions is described in the Eastern Alps of Austria, providing unique insights into the emplacement of similar submarine structures and their potential control on depositional systems. The salt sheet is a plug-fed extrusion emplaced due to squeezing of a salt diapir under compression. The preserved mylonitic shear fabric in the [...]

Slip-stuck kinematics of fault surfaces in laboratory experiments: implications for heterogeneous slip distributions during earthquake events

Uddalak Biswas, Manaska Mukhopadhyay, Nibir Mandal

Published: 2023-05-05
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geophysics and Seismology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Tectonics and Structure

Combining field observations with analogue laboratory experiments, this study aims to use surface-roughness characteristics as an indicator of the heterogeneous slip partitioning along shear surfaces. We investigated the roughness of shear surfaces in sheared quartzite of the Singhbhum Shear Zone, eastern India, and identified two distinct kinematic domains: slip zone and stuck zone, marked by [...]

In-situ frictional behavior of subducting sediment in the shallow Nankai Trough

Hanaya Okuda, Manami Kitamura, Miki Takahashi, et al.

Published: 2023-04-22
Subjects: Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Sedimentology, Tectonics and Structure

The transition from smectite to illite at around the depth with temperature of ~150 °C has long been hypothesized as one of controlling factors of the updip limit depth of the seismogenic zone of subduction zones. Although illite has a higher friction coefficient than smectite, previous friction experiments have little reported that the smectite-illite transition accompanies the transition from [...]

A key role for diffusion creep in eclogites: Omphacite deformation in the Zermatt-Saas Unit, Italian Alps

David Daniel McNamara, John Wheeler, Mark Pearce, et al.

Published: 2023-04-18
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry, Geology, Mineral Physics, Tectonics and Structure

Eclogites are important components of subduction-collision zones, with the mineral omphacite acting as the supporting framework mineral that accommodates the majority of any accumulated strain. As such it is important to determine which deformation mechanisms operate in omphacite during and after its formation to understand the rheology of deforming subducted crust. Such information is key to [...]

Rifting a crustal mosaic – The influence of basement rheology and lithology on rift physiography in the Great South Basin, New Zealand

Thomas Brian Phillips, Ken McCaffrey

Published: 2023-04-13
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Tectonics and Structure

The make-up of continental crust reflects its past tectonic history, containing a multitude of different lithological units and pre-existing structures that vary in strength with crustal properties typically varying across short distances. These variations exist across a range of scales and exert a great control over multiple aspects of rift physiography, including rift structural style, fault [...]

Consolidated Geothermal Database UK (CGD-UK): A digital open license database for temperature and thermal conductivity in the UK.

Alex Dickinson, Mark Ireland

Published: 2023-04-08
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geophysics and Seismology, Natural Resource Economics, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Tectonics and Structure

Variations in subsurface heat flow within the upper crust control the distribution of geothermal resources. Development of a robust understanding of these variations requires reliable measurements of temperature and thermal conductivity. To date, measurements of temperature and conductivity onshore the UK have been unavailable in an accessible, clearly structured digital format. Here, we rectify [...]

Structure and Morphology of an Active Conjugate Relay Zone, Messina Strait, Southern Italy

Rebecca Dorsey, Sergio Longhitano, Domenico Chiarella

Published: 2023-03-10
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Geology, Geomorphology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Structure

Messina Strait is a narrow fault-bounded marine basin that separates the Calabrian peninsula from Sicily in southern Italy. It sits in a seismically active region where normal fault scarps and raised Quaternary marine terraces record ongoing extension driven by southeastward rollback of the Calabrian subduction zone. A review of published studies and new data shows that normal faults in the [...]


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