Impact of 8th October 2005 Earthquake Associated with Kashmir Boundary Thrust (KBT), Pakistan

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Authors

Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry, uzma Ashraf , Shahid Hussain, Iftikhar Hussain Baloch, Hamid Dawood

Abstract

An earthquake on Richter scale of 7.6 intensity, originated from part of a fault zone more than 200 km long between Balakot and Reasi region of Jammu. This fault joins Indus Kohistan Seismic Zone (IKSZ). The epicenter was 11 km North - Northeast of Muzaffarabad while the depth was 15 km. The rupture zone along Kashmir Boundary Thrust was about 70 km in length. The area of impact is predominantly high relief with steep slopes, V-shaped valleys, and gorges. As a consequence of this seismic activity, about 70,000 people died while three-quarters of a million people were displaced. Most Govt. buildings including schools collapsed. Framework structures, wooden buildings and some buildings of NGOs built to withstand strong earthquakes in the area generally survived with minor damage. Communication networks collapsed disrupting rescue operations. Unavailability of helicopters in sufficient numbers, the absence of disaster management organization, lack of experience in rescue operations, and absence of locally available heavy machinery like lifts, cranes, bulldozers made the rescue extremely difficult resulting in very heavy losses. The government of Pakistan allocated 5 billion dollars for rehabilitation. However, the major contributor to the rehabilitation effort was Saudi Arabia. Physical changes (drying up of springs, temporary damming of streams, and increase in erosion) and ecosystem services destruction resulted due to this earthquake. Balakot city site located on rupture zone was very poor but situation was excellent since it was and even now is a hub of trade plus tourism for both Northern areas (GB) as well as Azad Jammu and Kashmir.

DOI

https://doi.org/10.31223/X5C90X

Subjects

Life Sciences

Keywords

Balakot, Environmental Impacts, Kashmir Boundary Thrust, Kashmir Boundary Thrust

Dates

Published: 2021-07-29 04:55

Last Updated: 2021-07-29 08:55

License

CC BY Attribution 4.0 International

Additional Metadata

Conflict of interest statement:
Authors have no conflict of interest.

Data Availability (Reason not available):
Not applicable as it is short communication article based on secondary datasets.

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