GANSim-3D for conditional geomodelling: theory and field application

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Authors

Suihong Song, Tapan Mukerji, Jiagen Hou, Dongxiao Zhang, Xinrui Lyu

Abstract

Geomodelling of subsurface reservoirs is important for water resources, hydrocarbon exploitation, and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). Traditional geostatistics-based approaches cannot abstract complex geological patterns and are thus not able to simulate very realistic earth models. We present a Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs)-based 3D reservoir simulation framework, GANSim-3D, which can capture geological patterns and relationships between various conditioning data and earth models and is thus able to directly simulate multiple 3D realistic and conditional earth models of arbitrary sizes from given conditioning data. In GANSim-3D, the generator, designed to only include 3D convolutional layers, takes various 3D conditioning data and 3D random latent cubes (composed of random numbers) as inputs and produces a 3D earth model. Two types of losses, the original GANs loss and condition-based loss, are designed to train the generator progressively from shallow to deep layers to learn the geological patterns and relationships from coarse to fine resolutions. Conditioning data can include 3D sparse well facies data, 3D low-resolution probability maps, and global features like facies proportion, channel width, etc. Once trained on a training dataset where each training sample is a 3D cube of a small fixed size, the generator can be used for geomodelling of 3D reservoirs of large arbitrary sizes by directly extending the sizes of all inputs and the output of the generator proportionally. To illustrate how GANSim-3D is used for field geomodelling and also to verify GANSim-3D, a field karst cave reservoir in Tahe area of China is used as an example. The 3D well facies data and 3D probability map of caves obtained from geophysical interpretation are used as conditioning data. First, we create a training dataset consisting of facies models of 64×64×64 cells with a process-mimicking simulation method to integrate field geological patterns. The training well facies data and the training probability map data are produced from the training facies models. Then, the 3D generator is successfully trained and evaluated in two synthetic cases with various metrics. Next, we apply the pretrained generator for conditional geomodelling of two field cave reservoirs of Tahe area. The first reservoir is 800m×800m×64m and is divided into 64×64×64 cells, while the second is 4200m×3200m×96m and is divided into 336×256×96 cells. We fix the input well facies data and cave probability maps and randomly change the input latent cubes to allow the generator to produce multiple diverse cave reservoir realizations, which prove to be consistent with the geological patterns of real Tahe cave reservoir as well as the input conditioning data. The noise in the input probability map is suppressed by the generator. Once trained, the geomodelling process is quite fast: each realization with 336×256×96 cells takes 0.988 seconds using 1 GPU (V100). This study shows that GANSim-3D is robust for fast 3D conditional geomodelling of field reservoirs of arbitrary sizes.

DOI

https://doi.org/10.31223/X5FK8B

Subjects

Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Computational Engineering, Geology, Hydrology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Theory and Algorithms, Water Resource Management

Keywords

Generative Adversarial Networks, GANs, GANSim, Geomodelling, reservoir, Reservoir Characterization, Karst cave, Tahe oilfield

Dates

Published: 2021-12-22 21:56

License

CC BY Attribution 4.0 International

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