Preprints

Filtering by Subject: Meteorology

A Systematic Review of Deep Learning Applications in Interpolation and Extrapolation of Precipitation Data

Muhammed Sit, Bekir Zahit Demiray, Ibrahim Demir

Published: 2022-11-17
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Hydrology, Meteorology

With technological enhancements, the volume, velocity, and variety (3Vs) of the raw digital Earth data have increased in recent years. Due to the increased availability of computer resources and the growing popularity of deep learning applications, this data has been a crucial source for data-driven studies that have transformed the fields of climate and earth science. One of the critical data [...]

Characteristics of Dust Storms Generated by Trapped Waves in the Lee of Mountains

Amato Tomas Evan, William Porter, Rachel Clemsha, et al.

Published: 2022-09-29
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Meteorology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

Dust storms are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere, yet the physical processes underlying dust emission and subsequent transport are not always understood, in-part due to the wide variety of meteorological processes that can generate high winds and dust. Here we use in-situ measurements and numerical modeling to demonstrate that vertically trapped atmospheric waves generated by air flowing over [...]

STEEP: a remotely-sensed energy balance model for evapotranspiration estimation in seasonally dry tropical forests

Ulisses A. Bezerra, John Cunha, Fernanda Falente, et al.

Published: 2022-09-27
Subjects: Hydrology, Meteorology

Improvement of evapotranspiration (ET) estimates using remote sensing (RS) products based on multispectral and thermal sensors has been a breakthrough in hydrological research. In large-scale applications, methods that use the approach of RS-based surface energy balance (SEB) models often rely on oversimplifications of the aerodynamic resistances. The use of these SEB models for Seasonally Dry [...]

Meteorological Drivers of Resource Adequacy Failures in Current and High Renewable Western U.S. Power Systems

Srihari Sundar, Michael Craig, Ashley Payne, et al.

Published: 2022-08-31
Subjects: Climate, Meteorology, Power and Energy, Risk Analysis

Power system resource adequacy (RA), or its ability to continually balance supply and demand, underpins human and economic health. How meteorology affects RA, particularly with increasing penetrations of renewables, is poorly understood. We characterize large-scale circulation patterns that drive RA failures at increasing wind and solar penetrations by integrating power system and synoptic [...]

A Technical Overview of the North Carolina ECONet

Sheila M. Saia, Sean P. Heuser, Myleigh D. Neill, et al.

Published: 2022-07-20
Subjects: Agricultural Science, Agriculture, Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Earth Sciences, Environmental Education, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Public Health, Environmental Sciences, Forest Management, Meteorology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Plant Sciences

Regional weather networks–also referred to as mesonets–are imperative for filling in the spatial and temporal data gaps between nationally supported weather stations. The North Carolina Environment and Climate Observing Network (ECONet) fills this regional role; it is a mesoscale network of 44 (as of 2022) automated stations collecting 12 environmental variables every minute across North [...]

Vertically Resolved Convective/Stratiform Echo Type Identification and Convectivity Retrieval for Vertically Pointing Radars

Ulrike Romatschke, Michael Dixon

Published: 2022-01-27
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Meteorology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

Using data from the airborne HIAPER Cloud Radar (HCR), a partitioning algorithm (ECCO-V) that provides vertically resolved convectivity and convective vs stratiform radar echo classification is developed for vertically pointing radars. The algorithm is based on the calculation of reflectivity and radial velocity texture fields that measure the horizontal homogeneity of cloud and precipitation [...]

Evidences of horizontal urban heat advection in London using 6 years of data from a citizen weather station network

Oscar Brousse, Charles Henry Simpson, Nancy Walker, et al.

Published: 2021-12-05
Subjects: Climate, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Meteorology, Physical and Environmental Geography

Recent advances in citizen weather station (CWS) networks, with data accessible via crowd-sourcing, provide relevant climatic information to urban scientists and decision makers. In particular, CWS can provide long-term measurements of urban heat and valuable information on spatio-temporal heterogeneity related to horizontal heat advection. In this study, we make the first compilation of a [...]

Massive-Parallel Trajectory Calculations version 2.2 (MPTRAC-2.2): Lagrangian transport simulations on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs)

Lars Hoffmann, Paul F. Baumeister, Zhongyin Cai, et al.

Published: 2021-11-10
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Computer Sciences, Meteorology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Lagrangian models are fundamental tools to study atmospheric transport processes and for practical applications such as dispersion modeling for anthropogenic and natural emission sources. However, conducting large-scale Lagrangian transport simulations with millions of air parcels or more can become numerically rather costly. In this study, we assessed the potential of exploiting graphics [...]

An open workflow for the study of unseen weather extremes

Timo Kelder, Tim Marjoribanks, Louise Slater, et al.

Published: 2021-09-10
Subjects: Climate, Hydrology, Meteorology, Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing

Ensemble members from weather and climate predictions can be used to generate large samples of simulated weather events, allowing the estimation of extreme (hitherto unseen) events. Here, we provide a protocol and open workflow for applying the ‘UNSEEN’ method for hydro-climatic extremes globally, based on Copernicus Climate Change Services (C3S) seasonal predictions but also considering other [...]

Fire-Generated Tornadic Vortices

Neil Lareau, Nicholas J Nauslar, Evan Bentley, et al.

Published: 2021-08-23
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Meteorology

Fire-generated tornadic vortices (FGTVs) linked to pyrocumulonimbi (pyroCb) are a potentially deadly, yet poorly understood and seldom observed wildfire hazard. In this study we use radar and satellite observations to examine three FGTV cases during high impact wildfires during the 2020 fire season in California, USA. We establish that these FGTVs each exhibit tornado-strength anticyclonic [...]

Safety and Belonging in the Field: A Checklist for Educators

Sarah E Greene, Gwen S. Antell, Jake Atterby, et al.

Published: 2021-08-19
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Biogeochemistry, Climate, Cosmochemistry, Earth Sciences, Education, Environmental Education, Environmental Health and Protection, Environmental Indicators and Impact Assessment, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Studies, Fresh Water Studies, Geochemistry, Geographic Information Sciences, Geography, Geology, Geomorphology, Geophysics and Seismology, Glaciology, Higher Education, Human Geography, Hydrology, Life Sciences, Meteorology, Mineral Physics, Natural Resource Economics, Natural Resources and Conservation, Natural Resources Management and Policy, Nature and Society Relations, Oceanography, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Oil, Gas, and Energy, Other Earth Sciences, Other Environmental Sciences, Other Geography, Other Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other Planetary Sciences, Outdoor Education, Paleobiology, Paleontology, Physical and Environmental Geography, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Planetary Biogeochemistry, Planetary Geochemistry, Planetary Geology, Planetary Geomorphology, Planetary Geophysics and Seismology, Planetary Glaciology, Planetary Hydrology, Planetary Mineral Physics, Planetary Sciences, Planetary Sedimentology, Remote Sensing, Sedimentology, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Soil Science, Spatial Science, Speleology, Stratigraphy, Sustainability, Tectonics and Structure, Volcanology, Water Resource Management

Ensuring taught fieldwork is a positive, generative, collective, and valuable experience for all participants requires considerations beyond course content. To guarantee safety and belonging, participants’ identities (backgrounds and protected characteristics) must be considered as a part of fieldwork planning and implementation. Furthermore, getting fieldwork right is an important step in [...]

Evaluating Short-Term Spatio-Temporal Tropospheric Variability in Multi-Temporal SAR Interferograms Using LES Models

Fengming Hu, Ramon Hanssen, Pier Siebesma, et al.

Published: 2021-07-13
Subjects: Aerospace Engineering, Atmospheric Sciences, Computational Engineering, Earth Sciences, Fluid Dynamics, Longitudinal Data Analysis and Time Series, Meteorology, Multivariate Analysis, Signal Processing

Atmospheric delay has a significant impact on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry, inducing spatial phase errors and decorrelation in extreme weather condition. For Low Earth Orbit (LEO) SAR missions, the atmosphere can be considered as being spatio-temporally frozen due to the short integration time. Geosynchronous (GEO) SAR missions, however, have short revisit times and extensive [...]

On the statistical learning analysis of rain gauge data over the Natuna Islands

Sandy Hardian Susanto Herho, Faiz Rohman Fajary, Dasapta Erwin Irawan

Published: 2021-06-08
Subjects: Applied Statistics, Atmospheric Sciences, Longitudinal Data Analysis and Time Series, Meteorology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics, Statistics and Probability

This article presents state-of-the-art statistical learning methods for analyzing rain gauge data over the Natuna Islands. By using shape preserving piecewise cubic interpolation, we managed to interpolate 671 null values from the daily precipitation data. Dominant periodicity analysis of daily precipitation signals using Lomb-Scargle Power Spectral Density shows annual, intraseasonal, and [...]

Why is the Hurricane Season So Sharp?

Wenchang Yang, Tsung-Lin Hsieh, Gabriel Vecchi

Published: 2021-04-09
Subjects: Atmospheric Sciences, Climate, Meteorology, Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Understanding tropical cyclone (TC) climatology is a problem of profound societal significance and deep scientific interest. The annual cycle is the biggest radiatively-forced signal in TC variability, presenting a key test of our understanding and modeling of TC activity. TCs over the North Atlantic (NA) basin, which are usually called hurricanes, have a sharp peak in the annual cycle, with more [...]

Hydro-Meteorological Aspects of the 2021 South Kalimantan Flood: Topography, Tides, and Precipitation

Munawir Bintang Pratama, Rafida Multazima Withono, Ismail Naufal Azkiarizqi

Published: 2021-03-01
Subjects: Earth Sciences, Hydrology, Meteorology

The 2021 South Kalimantan flood was recorded as the most serious ever to have taken place in the province. It occurred due to high-intensity rain during the period 10-19 January, accompanied by a spring tide. This study provides an overview of the disaster, with reference to the hydro-meteorological conditions (topography, tides, and precipitation). The method used was the analysis of the [...]

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